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The CIF NOLA “river market” represents an important but opaque forward market that serves Gulf exporters and elevators. CIF NOLA bids function similarly to traditional forward contracts; however, like a futures market, firms can offset their forward contractual obligations by offsetting positions in a liquid off-exchange paper market. Analysis shows grain sellers pay a risk premium for fall harvest delivery contracts. However, outside of fall harvest, contract liquidity, coupled with a good institutional balance of long and short market participants, mostly removes the pricing bias commonly found in farmer forward contracting in corn and soybeans.
The effect that cosmic rays and the Alfvén waves generated by them have on the structure of the plasma distribution perpendicular to the galactic disc in a hydrostatic model is examined. It is shown that the plasma distribution exhibits two length scales, essentially because the cosmic rays and Alfvén waves lift the gas up and stretch it out beyond the galactic plane. The predicted gas density far from the galactic plane indicates that models involving hydrostatic equilibrium should be replaced by those allowing for a galactic wind.
A recent paper by Webb et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 80, 2014, pp. 707–743) on multi-symplectic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using Clebsch variables in an Eulerian action principle with constraints is further extended. We relate a class of symplecticity conservation laws to a vorticity conservation law, and provide a corrected form of the Cartan–Poincaré differential form formulation of the system. We also correct some typographical errors (omissions) in Webb et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 80, 2014, pp. 707–743). We show that the vorticity–symplecticity conservation law, that arises as a compatibility condition on the system, expressed in terms of the Clebsch variables is equivalent to taking the curl of the conservation form of the MHD momentum equation. We use the Cartan–Poincaré form to obtain a class of differential forms that represent the system using Cartan’s geometric theory of partial differential equations
Data were extracted from the case records of UK patients admitted with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. White and non-White patients were characterized by age, sex, socioeconomic status, pandemic wave and indicators of pre-morbid health status. Logistic regression examined differences by ethnicity in patient characteristics, care pathway and clinical outcomes; multivariable models controlled for potential confounders. Whites (n = 630) and non-Whites (n = 510) differed by age, socioeconomic status, pandemic wave of admission, pregnancy, recorded obesity, previous and current smoking, and presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After adjustment for a priori confounders non-Whites were less likely to have received pre-admission antibiotics [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28–0·68, P < 0·001) but more likely to receive antiviral drugs as in-patients (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·08–2·18, P = 0·018). However, there were no significant differences by ethnicity in delayed admission, severity at presentation for admission, or likelihood of severe outcome.
A multi-symplectic formulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is developed based on the Clebsch variable variational principle in which the Lagrangian consists of the kinetic minus the potential energy of the MHD fluid modified by constraints using Lagrange multipliers that ensure mass conservation, entropy advection with the flow, the Lin constraint, and Faraday's equation (i.e. the magnetic flux is Lie dragged with the flow). The analysis is also carried out using the magnetic vector potential Ã where α=Ã⋅dx is Lie dragged with the flow, and B=∇×Ã. The multi-symplectic conservation laws give rise to the Eulerian momentum and energy conservation laws. The symplecticity or structural conservation laws for the multi-symplectic system corresponds to the conservation of phase space. It corresponds to taking derivatives of the momentum and energy conservation laws and combining them to produce n(n−1)/2 extra conservation laws, where n is the number of independent variables. Noether's theorem for the multi-symplectic MHD system is derived, including the case of non-Cartesian space coordinates, where the metric plays a role in the equations.
Longitudinal studies reporting the association between cannabis use and developing depression provide mixed results. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which different patterns of use of cannabis are associated with the development of depression using meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Peer-reviewed publications reporting the risk of developing depression in cannabis users were located using searches of EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and ISI Web of Science. Only longitudinal studies that controlled for depression at baseline were included. Data on several study characteristics, including measures of cannabis use, measures of depression and control variables, were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) were extracted by age and length of follow-up.
After screening for 4764 articles, 57 articles were selected for full-text review, of which 14 were included in the quantitative analysis (total number of subjects = 76058). The OR for cannabis users developing depression compared with controls was 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.30]. The OR for heavy cannabis users developing depression was 1.62 (95% CI 1.21–2.16), compared with non-users or light users. Meta-regression revealed no significant differences in effect based on age of subjects and marginal difference in effect based on length of follow-up in the individual studies. There was large heterogeneity in the number and type of control variables in the different studies.
Cannabis use, and particularly heavy cannabis use, may be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive disorders. There is need for further longitudinal exploration of the association between cannabis use and developing depression, particularly taking into account cumulative exposure to cannabis and potentially significant confounding factors.
Molecular dynamics simulations of nickel and carbon have been used to study the phenomena due to ion impact. The nickel and carbon interactions were described using the Lennard-Jones and Stillinger-Weber potentials respectively. The phenomena occurring after the impact of 100 e V to 1 keV ions were studied in the nickel simulations, which were both two and three-dimensional. Supersonic focussed collision sequences (or focusons) were observed, and associated with these focusons were unexpected sonic bow waves, which were a major energy loss mechanism for the focuson. A number of 2D carbon films were grown and the stress in the films as a function of incident ion energy was Measured. With increasing energy the stress changed from tensile to compressive and reached a maximum around 50 eV, in agreement with experiment.
The introduction of organic substituents into sol-gel materials can often result in networks that collapse during drying to afford non-porous xerogels. This can prove useful if non-porous coatings or membranes are the ultimate objectives. Collapse of porosity is also manifested in bridged polysilsesquioxanes with flexible bridging groups. Alkylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes are hybrid xerogels whose organic bridging group is an integral constituent of the network polymer that can be systematically varied to probe the influence of its length on the xerogels' porosity and morphology. Our previous studies have shown that hexylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels prepared from 1, 6-bis(triethoxysilyl)hexane under acidic conditions are nonporous while the pentylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes prepared under the same conditions are porous. We also discovered that the more reactive 1, 6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane monomer could polymerize under acidic conditions to afford porous xerogels. Here, we have extended our study of bis(trimethoxysilyl)alkanes to include the heptylene (C7), octylene (C8), nonylene(C9) and decylene (C10) bridges so as to ascertain at what bridging group length the porosity collapses. The morphology of the resulting xerogels was characterized by nitrogen sorption porosimetry and electron microscopy. Solid state NMR was used to structurally characterize the materials.
The ability to controllably position individual phosphorus dopant atoms in silicon sur-faces is a critical first step in creating nanoscale electronic devices in silicon, for example a phosphorus in silicon quantum computer. While individual P atom placement in Si(001) has been achieved, the ability to routinely position P atoms in Si for large-scale device fabrication requires a more detailed understanding of the physical and chemical processes leading to P atom incorporation. Here we present an atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy study of the interaction of the P precursor molecule phosphine (PH3) with the Si(001) surface. In particular, we present the direct observation of PH3 dissociation and diffusion on Si(001) at room temperature and show that this dissociation is occasionally complete, leaving a P monomer bound to the surface. Such surface bound P monomers are important because they are the most likely entry point for P atoms to incorporate into the substrate surface at elevated temperature.
Aging of silica gels before drying is known to result in significant changes in xerogel morphology, porosity and properties. In this study, the influence of aging gels on the porosity and morphology of alkylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels was examined. Gels of hexylene-, heptylene, octylene, nonylene, and decylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of the respective bis(trimethoxysilyl)alkane monomers under acidic or basic conditions in methanol and in tetrahydrofuran. The gels were aged 3, 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days before drying to afford xerogels. The xerogels were characterized by nitrogen sorption porosimetry. Xerogels prepared in THF were non-porous. Those prepared and aged under basic conditions in methanol or tetrahydrofuran exhibited coarsening of porosity with aging time. With the exception of the hexylene-bridged gels, those prepared and aged in acidic methanol showed little change with aging. The surface area of the hexylene-bridged xerogels nearly tripled with aging times of up to several weeks, then decreased, for the gels aged for more than two weeks, to around 100 meters squared per gram.
We report on a pair of MSP (Mathematics & Science Partnership) START pilot projects designed to identify nanoscience experiments that will fit within the Alabama course of study for use in Alabama K-12 classrooms. As part of the first project we are testing the development, refinement and evaluation of an activity already partly developed. The form of this activity has had input from a focus group of RETs who were tasked to provide input into the activity and how it can be matched to components of the Alabama Course of Study. This activity consists of using sparks generated by abrasion of misch metal by sand paper of different grit size. Different grit sizes produce metal particles of different sizes, resulting in sparks of different size and length. If done in a dry box no sparks are produced and the powder left is not pyrophoric, demonstrating that high surface area, heat and oxygen are all required to produce sparks. SEM characterization of the powder allows the particle sizes to be determined, giving the correlation between size, grit size and spark track length. The activity was tested on groups of middle school science campers at McWane Science Center, and after evaluation, further modified to increase student interest and impact. The activity was then tested on grades 6-8 in a middle school classroom by a graduate student/undergraduate student team.
Special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in a perfect gas of infinite conductivity and constant adiabatic index are analysed. It is shown that the Rankine-Hugoniot equations for such shocks may be reduced to a seventh degree polynomial for the downstream dynamical volume ω, with the polynomial coefficients depending on the upstream state (ω equals the specific volume times the ratio of the energy density of the fluid (omitting electromagnetic terms) to the fluid rest mass energy density). In the non-relativistic limit, the polynomial equation reduces to a relation between the upstream and downstream Alfvénic Mach numbers, previously obtained by Cabannes. The equation for ω classifies in a natural way both shocks in which the electric field may be eliminated by transforming to the de Hoffman–Teller frame, and shocks for which this is not possible. The equation is used to determine the downstream state of relativistic shocks for a given upstream state as specified by the plasma beta, magnetic field obliquity, and flow speed.
It is shown that a plasma in which the background magnetic field varies in a direction perpendicular to its line of action can support ‘Rossby-type’ electrostatic waves at frequencies very much less than the ion gyrofrequency. The intrinsic wave propagation mechanism at work is structurally similar to that in the atmospheric Rossby wave, which comes about from fluid perturbations being in quasi-geostrophic equilibrium (i.e. the Coriolis force nearly balances the pressure gradient) and the latitudinal variation of the vertical component of rotational frequency vector (the β-effect) so that the time rate of change of the vertical component of the fluid vorticity is equal to the northward transport of the planetary vorticity. In a plasma this ‘geostrophic balance’ arises from the near-vanishing of the Lorentz force on the ion motion while the β-effect is provided by the transverse spatial variation of the ambient magnetic field. Unlike the atmosphere, however, such a magnetized plasma is capable of supporting two distinct types of Rossby wave. The interesting dispersive and anisotropic features of these waves are revealed by the properties of their wave operators and described in terms of the geometry of their wavenumber surfaces. Since these surfaces intersect, inhomogeneity or nonlinearity will give rise to strong mode-mode coupling in regions where the phases of both modes nearly match.