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Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome-related diseases in offspring. According to epidemiological studies, father’s transmission of environmental effects in addition to mother’s can influence offspring health. Moreover, maternal prenatal dietary folic acid (FA) may beneficially impact offspring health. The objective is to investigate whether prenatal FA supplementation can overcome the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to POPs on lipid homeostasis and inflammation in three generations of male rat descendants through the paternal lineage. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) were exposed to a POPs mixture (or corn oil) +/− FA supplementation for 9 weeks before and during gestation. F1 and F2 males were mated with untreated females. Plasma and hepatic lipids were measured in F1, F2, and F3 males after 12-h fast. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines was determined by qPCR in epididymal adipose tissue. In F1 males, prenatal POPs exposure increased plasma lipids at 14 weeks old and hepatic lipids at 28 weeks old and prenatal FA supplementation decreased plasma total cholesterol at 14 weeks old. Prenatal POPs exposure decreased plasma triglycerides at 14 weeks old in F2 males. No change was observed in inflammatory markers. Our results show an impact of the paternal lineage on lipid homeostasis in rats up to the F2 male generation. FA supplementation of the F0 diet, regardless of POPs exposure, lowered plasma cholesterol in F1 males but failed to attenuate the deleterious effects of prenatal POPs exposure on plasma and hepatic lipids in F1 males.
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be used to accurately assess carcass composition in sheep (Sehested, 1984; Young et al., 2001) both in research and commercially, as part of a breed selection programme. Two different CT scanning methods have been used: a) the reference scan method where tissue weights are predicted from tissue areas in a small set of cross-sectional scans at ‘anatomical landmarks’, and b) the Cavalieri method where a larger number of scans are taken along the body. It is of interest to examine the accuracy of evaluations made using these two methods and the individual merits of the two methods depending on their application.
A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7–27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29–23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09–29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.
In December 1925 a paper was read before the Society by one of us on the salmon of the Moisie in 1922 and 1923. Since that date scales and measurements of 182 fish taken on June 25, 1923, and of 143 fish caught between June 18 and July 12, 1924, have been received from Mr J. S. Adams, Dorchester, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The scales have been read and measured under the microscope, and the results we now place on record.
TM-QTL is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) known to affect loin muscling in Texel sheep. Previous work suggested that its mode of inheritance is consistent with paternal polar overdominance, but this has yet to be formally demonstrated. This study used purebred Texel sheep segregating for TM-QTL to confirm its presence in the chromosomal region in which it was first reported and to determine its pattern of inheritance. To do so, this study used the first available data from a Texel flock, which included homozygote TM-QTL carriers (TM/TM; n=34) in addition to homozygote non-carriers (+/+; n=40 and, heterozygote TM-QTL-carriers inheriting TM-QTL from their sire (TM/+; n=53) or their dam (+/TM; n=17). Phenotypes included a wide range of loin muscling, carcass composition and tissue distribution traits. The presence of a QTL affecting ultrasound muscle depth on OAR18 was confirmed with a paternal QTL effect ranging from +0.54 to +2.82 mm UMD (s.e. 0.37 to 0.57 mm) across the sires segregating for TM-QTL. Loin muscle width, depth and area, loin muscle volume and dissected M. longissimus lumborum weight were significantly greater for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (+2.9% to +7.9%; P<0.05). There was significant evidence that the effect of TM-QTL on the various loin muscling traits measured was paternally polar overdominant (P<0.05). In contrast, there was an additive effect of TM-QTL on both live weight at 20 weeks and carcass weight; TM/TM animals were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than +/+ (+11.1% and +7.3%, respectively) and +/TM animals (+11.9% and +11.7%, respectively), with TM/+ intermediate. Weights of the leg, saddle and shoulder region (corrected for carcass weight) were similar in the genotypic groups. There was a tendency for lambs inheriting TM-QTL from their sire to be less fat with slightly more muscle than non-carriers. For example, carcass muscle weight measured by live animal CT-scanning was 2.8% higher in TM/TM than +/+ lambs (P<0.05), carcass muscle weight measured by carcass CT-scanning was 1.36% higher in TM/+ than +/+ lambs (P<0.05), and weight of fat trimmed from the carcass cuts was significantly lower for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (−11.2%; P<0.05). No negative effects of TM-QTL on carcass traits were found. Optimal commercial use of TM-QTL within the sheep industry would require some consideration, due to the apparently different mode of action of the two main effects of TM-QTL (on growth and muscling).
The ability to efficiently harvest heat as a source of sustainable energy would make a significant contribution to reducing our current reliance on fossil fuels. Waste heat sources, such as those produced in industrial processes or through geothermal activity, are extensive, often continuous, and at present severely underutilised. Thermoelectrochemical cells offer an alternative design to the traditional semiconductor-based thermoelectric devices and offer thepromise of continuous and cheap operation at moderate temperatures, low maintenance and with no carbon emissions. They utilise two electrodes, held at different temperatures, separated by an electrolyte containing a redox couple. It is the temperature dependence of the electrochemical redox potential that generates the potential difference across the device as a result of the appliedtemperature difference. The magnitude of this redox potential temperature dependence is given by the Seebeck coefficient, Se. Until recently, research into thermoelectrochemical cells had primarily focused on aqueous media, predominantly with the Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple. However, the good thermal and electrochemical stability, non-volatility and non-flammability ofmany ionic liquids make them promising alternative electrolytes for these devices. The use of ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes offers potential advantages that include increased thermoelectrochemical device efficiencies and lifetimes and the ability to utilise low temperature (often “waste”) heat sources in the 100 – 200 °C temperature range. Here we discuss our research into the use of the Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple in protic IL electrolytes, with different amounts of added water, in a thermoelectrochemical device with platinum and single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes.
In the present paper I propose extending my previous observations “On the Structure and Division of the Vegetable Cell.” I have shown that a nucleolus and nucleolo-nucleus (at Professor Rutherford's suggestion I now propose terming this the endonucleolus) are essential, and in most cases evident, parts of every growing vegetable cell, and that the division of the endonucleolus very probably precedes that of the nucleolus, just as division of the latter undoubtedly precedes that of the nucleus, in all the cases investigated.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Environmental factors including diet and the microflora influence disease outcome. Folate and homocysteine have been associated with IBD-mediated colon cancer but their roles remain unclear. We used a model of chemically induced ulcerative colitis (dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)) with or without the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to determine the impact of dietary folic acid (FA) on colonic microflora and the development of colon tumours. Male mice (n 15 per group) were fed a FA-deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) or FA-supplemented (8 mg/kg) diet for 12 weeks. Folate status was dependent on the diet (P< 0·001) and colitis-induced treatment (P= 0·04) such that mice with colitis had lower circulating folate. FA had a minimal effect on tumour initiation, growth and progression, although FA-containing diets tended to be associated with a higher tumour prevalence in DSS-treated mice (7–20 v. 0 %, P= 0·08) and the development of more tumours in the distal colon of AOM-treated mice (13–83 % increase, P= 0·09). Folate deficiency was associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia (P< 0·001) but homocysteine negatively correlated with tumour number (r − 0·58, P= 0·02) and load (r − 0·57, P= 0·02). FA had no effect on the intestinal microflora. The present data indicate that FA intake has no or little effect on IBD or IBD-mediated colon cancer in this model and that hyperhomocysteinaemia is a biomarker of dietary status and malabsorption rather than a cause of IBD-mediated colon cancer.
While SiC devices are an attractive alternative to Si in high power applications, interface trap densities measured in SiC-based MOSFETs are significantly larger than in Si-based ones. Here, we study SiC MOSFETs using both spatial images and spectral analysis of light emission due to electron-hole recombination. The light emission is produced by alternately driving the channel between accumulation and inversion using what is essentially a charge-pumping set-up. Emission is due to interface trap and bulk electron-hole recombination. The spatial imaging studies suggest that recombination occurs at both interface traps and bulk defects. Spectral studies of the emission indicate the presence of a narrow band centered at 425 nm and a broad band extending from approximately 500 to 800nm. The former we suggest is due to bulk recombination and the latter to interface trap recombination. The spectral studies of the 500 to 800 nm band are timed to separate light emitted during the inversion-to-accumulation transition from that emitted during the accumulation-to-inversion transition and visa versa. Comparisons of the emission spectra collected during these specific periods are consistent with a larger Dit in the upper half of the bandgap than the lower half in both 4H and 6H devices.
Highly porous silicon, well passivated via an anodic oxidation process, is a stable and efficient visible light emitter showing a 3% photoluminescence efficiency at room temperature. Luminescence decay times are on the order of 100 μs at room temperature and 10 ms at low temperature. Above room temperature the de-excitation is dominated by non-radiative processes well describe by a tunnelling escape of carriers from confined regions. The “anomalous” luminescence behaviour showing a dramatic increase of the lifetimes upon cooling associated with a decrease of the intensity is explained by the temperature dependence of the effective radiative recombination rates due to a population redistribution among two excited states with very different radiative relaxation rates.
The effect of plasticizer addition on the density, conductivity, glass transition, and free volume behavior of salt containing polyether-urethanes has been examined. The addition of up to 1.5 molal LiC1O4 salt results in an effective crosslinking of the polyether-urethane chains due to the Li+ coordination with the oxygens of the host polymer. This crosslinking decreases inter- and intrachain separation and reduces polymer chain mobility as illustrated by increased density and Tg, decreased free volume, and, at salt concentrations greater than 0.6 molal, decreased conductivity. The addition of approximately 30 wt % tetraglyme plasticizer to the 1 molal LiC1O4/host polymer complex is shown to counter the effective crosslinking resulting in a decreased Tg to a value equal to that of the pure host polymer, increased conductivity, and increased average free volume cavity size to a value equal to that of the pure host polymer. However, the relative number of free volume cavities in the plasticized host polymer/salt complex remains fewer than that of the pure host polymer over the concentration range of plasticizer studied, and in a similar manner the density remains greater than that of the pure host polymer. The room temperature conductivity, free volume, and density behavior in conjunction with the Tg results suggest that the plasticizer addition leads to Li+ coordination with the oxygens of the plasticizer chains as well as increased mobility of the host polymer chains.
This paper reports etching results supporting the identification of the SG1 center as a germanium dangling bond defect at the interface between an oxide and crystalline SiGe. The presence of this defect is significant because, like an analogous center in Si-based systems, it may alter the operation of any microelectronic or micro-optical device which incorporates an interface between SiGe and an overlying oxide. The samples examined are oxygen implanted SiGe layers in which the SG1 center is believed to occur at the interface between oxide precipitates and SiGe. Because of the center's apparent relation to the oxide precipitates distributed through layers of the sample, a depth profile assists in confirming the interfacial nature of the defect. We obtain a depth profile by comparing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of samples etched to decreasing thickness. EPR spectra indicate that the SG1 center decreases with depth in a manner that when correlated to a cross sectional transmission electron micrograph confirms the association with SiO2 and supports its location at the SiGe/SiO2 precipitate interface.
This paper reports etching results supporting the identification of the SG1 center as a germanium dangling bond defect at the interface between an oxide and crystalline SiGe. The presence of this defect is significant because, like an analogous center in Si-based systems, it may alter the operation of any microelectronic or micro-optical device which incorporates an interface between SiGe and an overlying oxide. The samples examined are oxygen implanted SiGe layers in which the SG 1 center is believed to occur at the interface between oxide precipitates and SiGe. Because of the center's apparent relation to the oxide precipitates distributed through layers of the sample, a depth profile assists in confirming the interfacial nature of the defect. We obtain a depth profile by comparing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of samples etched to decreasing thickness. EPR spectra indicate that the SG1 center decreases with depth in a manner that when correlated to a cross sectional transmission electron micrograph confirms the association with Si0 2 and supports its location at the SiGe/SiO2 precipitate interface.
For the past several years hydrogen incorporation in metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices has been of interest because studies have shown that vacuum annealing of oxidized Si substrates desorbs hydrogen, revealing interfacial defects. Today, in applications that require higher power and/or temperature, Si will likely be replaced with a wide-band-gap semiconductor. For MOS devices, SiC is a leading contender because it can be thermally oxidized to form a SiO2 insulating layer similar to Si. However, the SiC/SiO2 structure potentially contains hydrogen sensitive centers similar to those found in Si/SiO2 structures. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we have observed a center 1.8 G wide peak-to-peak at g=2.0026. The center is generated in oxidized SiC that has received a 900° C dry, N2 or O2, post oxidation heat-treatment in which moisture is measured to be less than 1 ppm. Annealing at 900° C in standard Ar containing at least 50 ppm H2O decreases the center's concentration by two orders of magnitude. By comparing results from our study to studies of Si-H and C-H bonds in a-SiC:H  and SiC converted graphite , we suggest that this center is related to carbon dangling bonds created by the effusion of hydrogen during the dry heat-treatment. We will compare the activation energy for the hydrogen depassivation of our center with that found for other C-H and Si-H systems.
SiC is perhaps the most appropriate material to replace Si in power-metal-oxidesemiconductor- field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs), because, unlike the other wide band-gap semiconductors, SiC can be thermally oxidized similarly to Si to form a SiO2 insulating layer. In our studies of oxidized SiC, we have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to identify Cdangling bonds generated by hydrogen release from C-H bonds. While hydrogen's effect on SiCbased MOSFETs is uncertain, studies of Si-based MOSFETs indicate that it is important to minimize hydrogen in MOS structures. To examine the role of hydrogen, we have studied the effects of SiC/SiO2 fabrication on the density of C-related centers, which are made EPR active by a dry heat-treatment. Here we examine the starting and ending procedures of our oxidation routine. The parameter that appears to have the greatest effect on center density is the ending step of our oxidation procedure. For example, samples that were removed from the furnace in flowing O2 produced the smallest concentration of centers after dry heat-treatment. We report on the details of these experiments and use our results to suggest an oxidation procedure that limits center production.