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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depressed adults. CBT interventions are complex, as they include multiple content components and can be delivered in different ways. We compared the effectiveness of different types of therapy, different components and combinations of components and aspects of delivery used in CBT interventions for adult depression. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials in adults with a primary diagnosis of depression, which included a CBT intervention. Outcomes were pooled using a component-level network meta-analysis. Our primary analysis classified interventions according to the type of therapy and delivery mode. We also fitted more advanced models to examine the effectiveness of each content component or combination of components. We included 91 studies and found strong evidence that CBT interventions yielded a larger short-term decrease in depression scores compared to treatment-as-usual, with a standardised difference in mean change of −1.11 (95% credible interval −1.62 to −0.60) for face-to-face CBT, −1.06 (−2.05 to −0.08) for hybrid CBT, and −0.59 (−1.20 to 0.02) for multimedia CBT, whereas wait list control showed a detrimental effect of 0.72 (0.09 to 1.35). We found no evidence of specific effects of any content components or combinations of components. Technology is increasingly used in the context of CBT interventions for depression. Multimedia and hybrid CBT might be as effective as face-to-face CBT, although results need to be interpreted cautiously. The effectiveness of specific combinations of content components and delivery formats remain unclear. Wait list controls should be avoided if possible.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
Protein is the most costly nutrient in fish feed, and while diets offered in the early stages of development typically have high levels of CP, they do not always correspond to the real requirements of the animals. Thus, research that seeks to learn the true nutritional requirements of fish is fundamental to improving commercial fish culture. The present study evaluated the protein requirements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under larviculture. Fish performance, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity and stress response to air exposure were analyzed. Four experimental diets differing in CP level were formulated: 30%, 36%, 42% and 48%. Fish larvae were fed the experimental diets during development and sampled 10, 20 and 30 days after the beginning of the experiment for performance, gene expression and enzymatic activity. At sampling time 30, stress resistance was also evaluated by means of an air exposure test. At sampling time 10, CP levels between 36% and 48% could be used for a better performance. During this period, pepsinogen expression was greater for 30% CP, intermediate for 42% and lower for 36% and 48%. After this initial period, diets of between 30% and 42% CP are recommended for better performance. At sampling time 20, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity were similar for all diets tested. At sampling time 30, the diet of 42% CP induced both greater pepsinogen expression and pepsin activity. Survival after the air exposure test after 30 days of feeding was influenced by CP level in the diet, with the highest survival being for fish fed with 36% CP. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that dietary CP influences digestive enzyme gene expression and activity, and suggest that the best CP levels for Nile tilapia larviculture vary depending on larval stage.
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
Some routine handling procedures can produce stress in farm animals, and an adequate control of these stressors is important to avoid the negative effects on animal health and production. The measurement of biomarkers in saliva can be a suitable tool for the evaluation and control of stress. In this report, lipase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), total esterase (TEA) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the saliva of sheep were evaluated as biomarkers of stress. For this purpose, they were measured after inducing stress by facing a dog (experiment 1) and shearing (experiment 2), and comparing them to other stress salivary biomarkers such as α-amylase (sAA) and cortisol, as well as heart rate (HR). Each analyte was measured at the basal time, and during and just after the end of the stressful stimulus, and at various times for the first hour after the period of stress induction. Values were compared with those obtained from a control group. Lipase was the only analyte that showed significant changes between the stress and the control group in both experiments. Although TEA and ADA increased after stress, no significant differences were seen compared with the control group. Lipase was correlated highly with sAA and HR, in experiment 1; and correlated moderately with cortisol and HR in experiment 2. Lipase showed the greatest percentage increase after the stressful stimuli and less overlap with the control group in the two experiments. From the results of this study it can be concluded that lipase, TEA, BChE and ADA are enzymes present in the saliva of sheep and that they can be measured by using simple and fast colorimetric methods. Further studies should be undertaken with regard to the possible application of lipase as a biomarker of stress in sheep.
This review aimed to critically analyse data pertaining to the clinical presentation and treatment of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx.
A PubMed search was performed using the term ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’. English-language articles on neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx were reviewed in detail.
Results and conclusion
While many historical classifications have been proposed, in contemporary practice these tumours are sub-classified into four subtypes: carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. These tumours exhibit a wide range of biological behaviour, ranging from the extremely aggressive nature of small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which usually have a fatal prognosis, to the less aggressive course of carcinoid tumours. In small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, a combination of irradiation and chemotherapy is indicated, while carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumour management entails conservation surgery.
Globally, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in males. This study examined the effect of sex and age on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Demographic and exposure data were collected on household contacts of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Contacts with tuberculin skin test induration ⩾10 mm at baseline or 12 weeks were considered Mtb infected. The study enrolled 917 household contacts from 160 households; 508 (55.4%) were female, median age was 21.0 years (range 0.30–87.0) and 609 (66.4%) had Mtb infection. The proportion infected increased with age from 63.3% in girls <5 years to 75.4% in women ⩾40 years and from 44.9% in boys <5 years to 73.6% in men ⩾40 years. Multivariable modelling showed the odds of infection increased between age 5 and 14 years among female contacts (OR 1.5 per 5-year age increase; 95% CI 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02) and between ages 0–4 and 15–39 years among male contacts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.83–8.9 and 1.1, 95% CI 0.99–1.3 per 5-year age increase; P = 0.10, 0.07, respectively). The study suggests that the age at which Mtb infection increases most is different in females compared with males. Studies are needed to explore whether these findings are due to differences in host susceptibility, exposure outside the household or other factors.
Current standard-of-care for glioblastoma (GBM) includes surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Most tumors recur within a year from diagnosis and median survival for recurrent GBM (rGBM) is 3-9 months. Unmethylated promoter status for O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is a validated biomarker for temozolomide-resistance, exhibited by most GBM patients. VAL-083 is a DNA-targeting agent with a mechanism-of-action that is independent of MGMT. VAL-083 overcomes temozolomide-resistance in GBM cell-lines, cancer stem cells, and in vivo models. VAL-083 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in brain-tumor tissue. We recently completed a VAL-083 dose-escalation trial in temozolomide- and bevacizumab-refractory rGBM and determined that 40mg/m2/day given intravenously on days 1,2,3 of a 21-day cycle is generally well-tolerated. This dosing regimen was selected for subsequent GBM trials, including an ongoing single-arm, biomarker-driven Phase 2 trial (N=48) in temolozomide-refractory, bevacizumab-naïve rGBM , MGMT-unmethylated (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT02717962). The primary objective of this study is to determine if VAL-083 improves OS compared to a historical control of 7.15 months for MGMT-unmethylated rGBM patients treated with lomustine (EORTC26101). In addition, another single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase 2 study (N=25) of VAL-083 in combination with radiotherapy in newly diagnosed GBM, MGMT-unmethylated is ongoing (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT03050736). This trial aims to determine a dose for further study of VAL-083 in combination with radiotherapy and explore if VAL-083 improves PFS and OS compared to historical results in newly diagnosed GBM. Enrollment and safety data updates will be provided at the meeting. The results of these studies, if successful, may support VAL-083 as part of a new chemotherapeutic treatment paradigm for GBM.
Bacteria firmly attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium during the pre-weaning phase may show a significant impact on nutrient processing, immunity parameters, health and feed efficiency of lambs during post-weaning phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the differences in the ileal epimural microbiota (e.g. total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) of fattening lambs promoted by early feed restriction during the suckling phase trying to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms behind changes in feed efficiency during the fattening period. A total of 24 Merino lambs (average BW 4.81±0.256 kg) were used, 12 of them (ad libitum, ADL) kept permanently in individual pens with their mothers, whereas the other 12 lambs were separated from their dams for 9 h each day to be exposed to milk restriction (RES). After weaning (BW=15 kg) all the animals were penned individually, offered the same complete pelleted diet (35 g/kg BW per day) and slaughtered at a BW of 27 kg. During the fattening period, reduced gain : feed ratio (0.320 v. 0.261, P<0.001) was observed for the RES group. Moreover, increments of Prevotella spp. were detected in the ileal epimural microbiota of RES lambs (P<0.05). There were also higher numbers of infiltrated lymphocytes (T and B cells) in the ileal lamina propria (P<0.05), a higher M-cell labelling intensity in ileal Peyer’s patches domes (P<0.05) and a trend towards a thickening of the submucosa layer when compared with the ADL group (P=0.057). Some other immunological parameters, such as an increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) production (pg IgA/µg total protein) and increments in CD45+ cells were also observed in the ileum of RES group (P<0.05), whereas transforming growth factor β and toll-like receptor gene expression was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, early feed restriction during the suckling phase promoted changes in ileal epimural microbiota and several immunity parameters that could be related to differences in feed efficiency traits during the fattening period of Merino lambs.