To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cal 87 was observed with with XMM-Newton in April of 2003. The source shows a rich emission spectrum, where lines can be identified if they are red-shifted by 700-1200 km s –1. These lines seem to have been emitted in a wind from the system. The eclipse is observed to be shifted in phase by 0.03 ϕorb, where ϕorb is the phase of the optical light curve.
Applying sufficient tensile strain to Ge leads to a direct bandgap group IV semiconductor, which emits in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. However, highly strained-Ge cannot be directly grown on Si because of its large lattice mismatch. In this work, we have developed a process based on Ge micro-bridge strain redistribution intentionally landed to the Si substrate. Traction arms were then partially etched to keep locally strained-Ge micro-blocks. Large tunable uniaxial stresses up to 4.2% strain were demonstrated in Ge, which was bonded on Si. Our approach allows envisioning integrated strained-Ge on Si platform for MIR-integrated optics. Silicon photonics merge optical and electronic components that can be integrated together onto a single microchip.
Cannabis use shows a robust dose-dependent relationship with psychosis risk among the general population. Despite this, it has been difficult to link cannabis use with risk for transitioning to a psychotic disorder among individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. The present study examined UHR transition risk as a function of cannabis use characteristics which vary substantially between individuals including age of first use, cannabis abuse severity and a history of cannabis-induced attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS).
Participants were 190 UHR individuals (76 males) recruited at entry to treatment between 2000 and 2006. They completed a comprehensive baseline assessment including a survey of cannabis use characteristics during the period of heaviest use. Outcome was transition to a psychotic disorder, with mean time to follow-up of 5.0 years (range 2.4–8.7 years).
A history of cannabis abuse was reported in 58% of the sample. Of these, 26% reported a history of cannabis-induced APS. These individuals were 4.90 (95% confidence interval 1.93–12.44) times more likely to transition to a psychotic disorder (p = 0.001). Greater severity of cannabis abuse also predicted transition to psychosis (p = 0.036). However, this effect was mediated by higher abuse severity among individuals with a history of cannabis-induced APS.
Findings suggest that cannabis use poses risk in a subpopulation of UHR individuals who manifest cannabis-induced APS. Whether this reflects underlying genetic vulnerability requires further study. Nevertheless, findings reveal an important early marker of risk with potentially significant prognostic utility for UHR individuals.
The values given below are those published in each annual report of the international latitude work. They were calculated from the observations at five stations, except the last part of 1934 which was made without Kitab, because the observation books from Kitab since November 1934 have arrived too late at the Central Bureau.
We investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized
relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma. Strong magnetic fields generated
in the trailing shock contribute to the electrons transverse deflection and acceleration.
We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in these
turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the bulk Lorentz
factor of the jet, its temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. We have
also investigated accelerated electrons in strong magnetic fields generated by kinetic
shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities. The calculated properties of the emerging
radiation will guide our understanding of the complex time evolution and/or spectral
structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants.
The hydrogen uptake and redistribution in Zircaloy-4 specimens applied to loss of coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiments and in mechanical pre-loaded samples were investigated by means of ex-situ and in-situ neutron imaging. The results of these investigations were compared with results from mechanical tests. Hydrogen absorption may have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of zirconium alloys. A local enrichment of the absorbed hydrogen may result in brittle fracture at these positions in the tensile test. On the other hand, stress fields in the material affect the hydrogen uptake as well as its distribution in the material. In-situ investigations confirmed the existence of an initial oxide layer formed at room temperature by contact with air. This oxide layer suppresses the hydrogen uptake until dissolution in the zirconium matrix.
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs in the shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and for particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The “jitter” radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has properties different from synchrotron radiation calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure of gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. In order to calculate radiation from first principles and go beyond the standard synchrotron model, we have used PIC simulations. We present synthetic spectra to compare with the spectra obtained from Fermi observations.
Strained Silicon On Insulator wafers are today envisioned as a natural and powerfulenhancement to standard SOI and/or bulk-like strained Si layers. For MOSFETs applications, thisnew technology potentially combines enhanced devices scalability allowed by thin films andenhanced electron and hole mobility in strained silicon. This paper is intended to demonstrate byexperimental results how a layer transfer technique such as the Smart Cut™ technology can be usedto obtain good quality tensile Strained Silicon On insulator wafers. Detailed experiments andcharacterizations will be used to characterize these engineered substrates and show that they arecompatible with the applications.
Previously published articles have shown that co-implanted fluorine reduces transient enhanced diffusion of boron. However, it is not yet elucidated whether this effect is due to interaction of fluorine with point-defects or boron atoms. In this work, we have used boron redistribution in a shallow Delta-doped Si structures in order to get some insights into the role of fluorine in the boron diffusion. The structures consisted of 3 boron-doped layers separated by 40nm-thick undoped silicon. The samples were given to Ge preamorphization and F co-implant. SIMS depth profiling was used to analyse boron redistribution after annealing. The results we obtained strongly suggest that fluorine is not interacting with point-defects. The reduction in boron TED is most probably due to boron-fluorine interaction.