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We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
Introduction: With a Canadian aging population, the prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among elderly is increasing and the age criterion of the Canadian CT head rule (CCHR) is challenged by many emergency physicians. We evaluated if increasing the age criterion of the CCHR would maintain its validity. Methods: We conducted an historical cohort study using the medical charts of all patients 65 years old or more who consulted at a Level One Trauma Centre emergency department (ED) for a mTBI between 2010 and 2014. The main outcome measures were clinically important brain injury (CIBI) on Computed Tomography (CT) and the presence of the CCHR criteria. The clinical and radiological data collection was standardized. Univariate analysis was performed to measure the predictive capacities of modified age cut-offs at 70 and 75 years old. Results: Out of the 104 confirmed mTBI in this study, 32 (30,8%) had CIBI on CT scan. Sensitivity and specificity [C.I. 95%] of the CCHR were 100% [89.1 - 100] and 0% [0.0 5.0] for an age criterion of 65 years old and above; 100% [89.1 - 100] and 4,2% [0.9 11.7] for a modified criterion of 70 years old; 100% [89.1 - 100] and 13,9% [6.9 24.1] for 75 years old. Furthermore, for an age criterion of 80 and 85 years old, sensitivity was respectively 90,6% [75.0 98.0] and 75,0% [56.6 88.5]. Conclusion: In our cohort, increasing the age criterion of the CCHR for minor head injury to 75 years old would benefit ED by further reducing CT scans without missing CIBI. A larger prospective study is indicated to confirm the proposed modification.
Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging.
A total of 61 youth (9–17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy.
There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected).
Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical–amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
Prior studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest abnormal functioning of prefrontal and limbic regions. Cumulative childhood and adult trauma exposures are major risk factors for developing adult PTSD, yet their contribution to neural dysfunction in PTSD remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the neural correlates of childhood and adult trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) within a single model.
Medication-free male combat veterans (n = 28, average age 26.6 years) with a wide range of PTSS were recruited from the community between 2010 and 2011. Subjects completed an emotional face-morphing task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical ratings included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). A priori regions were examined through multivariate voxelwise regression in SPM8, using depressive symptoms and IQ as covariates.
In the angry condition, CAPS scores correlated positively with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC; Brodmann area (BA) 10, z = 3.51], hippocampus (z = 3.47), insula (z = 3.62) and, in earlier blocks, the amygdala. CES and CTQ correlated positively with activation in adjacent areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; BA 32, z = 3.70 and BA 24, z = 3.88 respectively). In the happy condition, CAPS, CTQ and CES were not correlated significantly with activation patterns.
dACC activation observed in prior studies of PTSD may be attributable to the cumulative effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure. By contrast, insula, hippocampus and amygdala activation may be specific to PTSS. The specificity of these results to threat stimuli, but not to positive stimuli, is consistent with abnormalities in threat processing associated with PTSS.
La mesure précise des champs de contraintes autour de précipités inclus dans une matrice
cristalline est nécessaire à la compréhension de l’interaction entre les dislocations et
les précipités de matériaux structurellement durcis. Ces interactions contrôlent le
mouvement des dislocations, et donnent donc des informations sur les propriétés mécaniques
des matériaux. Les champs de contraintes autour des précipités de petite taille peuvent
être obtenus à partir d’images de microscopie électronique en transmission en haute
résolution (METHR) en utilisant la méthode des phases géométrique (GPA). Cette méthode est
utilisable de façon générale pour caractériser les contraintes à l’échelle nanométrique
autour des précipités de structure complexe ou inconnue et est appliquée ici dans les cas
de l’alliage d’aluminium 2198. Dans ce matériau, il est montré que les champs de
déformation autour d’un nanoprécipité en forme de disque et d’épaisseur faible peuvent
être modélisés par ceux d’une dislocation dissociée.
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present with highly heterogeneous symptom profiles. We aimed to examine whether individual differences in amygdala activity to emotionally salient stimuli were related to heterogeneity in lifetime levels of depressive and subthreshold manic symptoms among adults with MDD.
We compared age- and gender-matched adults with MDD (n = 26) with healthy controls (HC, n = 28). While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed an implicit emotional faces task: they labeled a color flash superimposed upon initially neutral faces that dynamically morphed into one of four emotions (angry, fearful, sad, happy). Region of interest analyses examined group differences in amygdala activity. For conditions in which adults with MDD displayed abnormal amygdala activity versus HC, within-group analyses examined amygdala activity as a function of scores on a continuous measure of lifetime depression-related and mania-related pathology.
Adults with MDD showed significantly greater right-sided amygdala activity to angry and happy conditions than HC (p < 0.05, corrected). Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater right-amygdala activity to the happy condition in adults with MDD was associated with higher levels of subthreshold manic symptoms experienced across the lifespan (p = 0.002).
Among depressed adults with MDD, lifetime features of subthreshold mania were associated with abnormally elevated amygdala activity to emerging happy faces. These findings are a first step toward identifying biomarkers that reflect individual differences in neural mechanisms in MDD, and challenge conventional mood disorder diagnostic boundaries by suggesting that some adults with MDD are characterized by pathophysiological processes that overlap with bipolar disorder.
Individuals with bipolar disorder demonstrate abnormal social function. Neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder have shown functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion processing, but have not examined face identity processing, a key component of social function. We aimed to elucidate functional abnormalities in neural circuitry supporting face emotion and face identity processing in bipolar disorder.
Twenty-seven individuals with bipolar disorder I currently euthymic and 27 healthy controls participated in an implicit face processing, block-design paradigm. Participants labeled color flashes that were superimposed on dynamically changing background faces comprising morphs either from neutral to prototypical emotion (happy, sad, angry and fearful) or from one identity to another identity depicting a neutral face. Whole-brain and amygdala region-of-interest (ROI) activities were compared between groups.
There was no significant between-group difference looking across both emerging face emotion and identity. During processing of all emerging emotions, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala activity. During facial identity and also happy face processing, euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder showed significantly greater amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical activity compared with controls.
This is the first study to examine neural circuitry supporting face identity and face emotion processing in bipolar disorder. Our findings of abnormally elevated activity in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during face identity and happy face emotion processing suggest functional abnormalities in key regions previously implicated in social processing. This may be of future importance toward examining the abnormal self-related processing, grandiosity and social dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder.
Radioactive releases in the environment around civilian nuclear facilities have significantly decreased over the last few decades, with the exception of tritium. In late 2007, papers published in the UK (RIFE 11 report, study by the HPA’s Advisory Group on Ionising Radiation (AGIR)) raised questions as to the behaviour of tritium in the environment. Given this context, ASN wanted to get a clear analysis of the existing studies into the issue and in early 2008 decided to establish two independent pluralistic working groups. Two main points of the discussions are on the bioaccumulation and the biological effects.
In the end of 2007, ASN launched an internal reflexion on the information of the public on the radioactivity levels in the environment. The aim was to develop a radioactivity environment scale or index, based on existing scales used for air pollution. After the presentation of a demonstration model by ASN in 2008 to HCTISN, a working group (WG) was constituted in the beginning of 2009 by ASN with stakeholders with the approval in March 2009 of the goals to be reached by this index: a communication instrument to qualify the information of the radioactivity levels in the environment, consistent with INES, particularly when sanitary consequences may occur, easy to elaborate from the available measured values of radioactivity and always usable for any location, independently of an incidental or accidental situation.
One aim of personalized medicine is to determine which treatment is to be preferred for an individual patient, given all patient information available. Particularly in mental health, however, there is a lack of a single objective, reliable measure of outcome that is sensitive to crucial individual differences among patients.
We examined the feasibility of quantifying the total clinical value provided by a treatment (measured by both harms and benefits) in a single metric. An expert panel was asked to compare 100 pairs of patients, one from each treatment group, who had participated in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) involving interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and escitalopram, selecting the patient with the preferred outcome considering both benefits and harms.
From these results, an integrated preference score (IPS) was derived, such that the differences between any two patients' IPSs would predict the clinicians' preferences. This IPS was then computed for all patients in the RCT. A second set of 100 pairs was rated by the panel. Their preferences were highly correlated with the IPS differences (r=0.84). Finally, the IPS was used as the outcome measure comparing IPT and escitalopram. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the effect size comparing treatments indicated clinical equivalence of the treatments.
A metric that combines benefits and harms of treatments could increase the value of RCTs by making clearer which treatments are preferable and, ultimately, for whom. Such methods result in more precise estimation of effect sizes, without increasing the required sample size.
The objective of this work is to investigate the addition of misfit elements in both size and mass on the evolution of irradiated microstructure in 316 SS. Alloys were modified by the addition of Pt and Hf to suppress the radiation damage. Pt and Hf were added as a lattice perturbation to catalyze defect recombination within the early stage of cascade formation and defect migration. Irradiations were conducted with 5 MeV Ni-ions at 500 °C to doses up to 50 dpa or with 3.2 MeV protons at 400 °C. Microstructures were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. While no beneficial effect was seen for Pt addition, Hf appears to effectively alter the microstructural response to irradiation.
The most fundamental goal of the synthetic chemist is control of molecular architecture. With respect to small molecules (i.e., those of molecular weight less than a few thousand), this means absolute control of chemical connectivity and stereochemistry – complete specification of molecular structure. But in macromolecular chemistry, controlled architecture has meant something quite different. Because polymerizations are in general statistical processes, conventional polymeric materials are characterized by substantial heterogeneity in chain length, sequence and stereochemistry . Control is exercised in a statistical sense only, and considerable skill is required to control even the average properties of the chain population and the dispersity in those properties.
Seven hundred and thirty-four isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, recovered from the sputum of 238 cystic fibrosis patients in six French hospitals, were characterized by esterase electrophoretic typing, capsular polysaccharide serotyping and phage typing and tested against 14 antibiotics for sensitivity. Thirty-four esterase electrophoretic types were found with a genotypic diversity coefficient of 0·91. Five hundred and forty-eight (78·7%) isolates produced capsular polysaccharide and 350 (50·3%) were type 8. Four hundred and sixty isolates (66·6%) were phage typable and 202 (28·2%) were lysed by group III bacteriophages. No esterase electrophoretic type, capsular type or phage type was specific to cystic fibrosis. Isolates belonged to a wide range of types, similar to strains acquired outside hospitals. Eighty-five patients had three or more consecutive isolates over at least 6 months. The ability of S. aureus to persist for long periods of time has been demonstrated in 73% of them. Methicillin-resistance was encountered among 73 strains (9·8%) which were also multiresistant. Two hundred and eighty-nine (39·9%) strains were sensitive to all antibiotics tested except to penicillin. Pristinamycin and co-trimoxazole were the most effective antibiotics. These results could contribute to the elaboration of a rational approach to the prophylaxis and therapy of respiratory staphylococcal infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.
Background and objective: The ease of endotracheal intubation has been recently shown to affect the incidence of laryngeal injury. There remains controversy as to whether or not a muscle relaxant is routinely required for tracheal intubation. This study examined conditions of intubation in our routine practice, which employs a relaxant-sparing approach. Methods: All adult patients scheduled for surgery with general anaesthesia were prospectively included. A muscle relaxant was used to facilitate intubation when it was required for the surgical procedure and/or otherwise regarded as necessary by the anaesthesiologist. In the remaining patients, a relaxant-free intubation was performed. Intubating conditions were evaluated in all the patients as well as the post-intubation laryngeal symptoms. Results: Between March and July 2003, 612 patients were consecutively included. A muscle relaxant was used in 32% of patients and no relaxant in the remaining patients (68%). Clinically acceptable intubating scores were observed in 98.4% overall with no significant difference between the two groups. Excellent conditions occurred more frequently in the relaxant group as compared to the relaxant-free group, 87% vs. 72%, P = 0.005. Laryngeal symptoms occurred in 184 (33%) patients with no difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Our relaxant-sparing approach did not increase the incidence of poor conditions of intubation nor laryngeal symptoms. However, excellent conditions occurred more frequently in the relaxant group. A more flexible approach to the issue of the need for neuromuscular blockade prior to intubation is proposed.
Recent advances in molecular scatology have allowed the development of reliable and non-invasive methods that can be applied in monitoring of small carnivores, without disturbance of the animals. Here a method is described that can be used to differentiate European mink Mustela lutreola, polecat M. putorius and American mink M. vison based on the analysis of DNA extracted from faeces. It consists of a nested PCR of a region of the mitochondrial D-loop followed by digestion of the resulting 240 bp amplicons with the restriction enzymes RsaI and MspI. The restriction patterns of both enzymes, when used together, are found to detect species-specific sequence variation. Two different haplotypes for European mink (AA, AB), another two for the polecat (AC, AD) and one for American mink (BC) can also be discriminated by this technique. Two new haplotypes for the mitocondrial D-loop of mustelids are described after DNA sequencing.
Besides being an indispensable amino acid for protein synthesis, arginine (Arg) is also involved in a number of other physiological functions. Available data on the quantitative requirement for Arg in different teleosts appear to show much variability. So far, there are very limited data on the maintenance requirements of indispensable amino acids (IAA) in fish. In the present study, we compared N and Arg requirements for maintenance and growth of four finfish species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), turbot (Psetta maxima), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Groups of fish having an initial body weight close to 5–7 g were fed semi-purified diets containing graded levels of N (0 to 8 % DM) and Arg (0 to 3 % DM) over 4 to 6 weeks. For each species, N and Arg requirements for maintenance and for growth were calculated regressing daily N gain against daily N or Arg intakes. N requirement for maintenance was estimated to be 37·8, 127·3, 84·7 and 45·1 mg/kg metabolic body weight per d and 2·3, 2·2, 2·6 and 2·5 g for 1 g N accretion, in rainbow trout, turbot, gilthead seabream and European seabass respectively. The four species studied appear to have very low or no dietary Arg requirements for maintenance. Arg requirement for g N accretion was calculated to be 0·86 g in rainbow trout and between 1·04–1·11 g in the three marine species. Turbot required more N for maintenance than the other three species, possibly explaining its reputedly high overall dietary protein requirement. Data suggest a small but sufficient endogenous Arg synthesis to maintain whole body N balance and differences between freshwater and marine species as regards Arg requirement. It is worth verifying this tendency with other IAA.
One hundred and nine adults were screened in the community using the abridged version of the CIDI (CIDIS). The subjects comprised DSM-III-R current cases (N = 48), lifetime cases (N = 31) and non-cases (N = 30). The interviews with the 109 subjects were conducted by one of two pairs of clinicians and videotaped. Each interviewer–pair included a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist. They rated the community version of the Needs for Care (NFCAS-C) by consensus. The other pair of judges then viewed the video and rated the NFCAS-C independently. The agreement on overall needs was excellent (kappa = 0·75), and very good for four of the seven specific sections (from kappa = 0·61 to 0·81). One section could not be rated because of low prevalence, and agreement was less good for the remaining two sections. Agreement was good on specific interventions (medication, kappa = 0·60; specific psychotherapy, kappa = 0·55), but poor on non-specific interventions. The majority of disagreements were due to differences in clinical judgement rather than to technical errors. A new instruction manual has been produced and should help training as well as stabilizing reliability. In devising reliable and valid instruments based on clinical judgement, a balance must be achieved between enhancing reliability with more precise rules and constraining clinical judgement so tightly that validity is lost.