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Detailed representation of ingesta inflow to and digesta outflow from the rumen is critical for improving the modelling of rumen function and herbage intake of grazing ruminants. The objective of the current work was to extend a mechanistic model of a grazing ruminant, MINDY, to simulate the dynamic links between ingestive and digestive processes as affected by forage and sward features (e.g. sward structure, herbage chemical composition) as well as the internal state of the animal. The work integrates existing aspects of forage ingestion, oral physiology and rumen digestion that influence ingesta characteristics and digesta outflows from the rumen, respectively. The paper describes the structure and function of the new development, assessing the new model in terms of dynamic changes of oral processing of ingesta and rumen dilution rate under different grazing contexts. MINDY reproduces characteristics of ingesta inflow to and digesta outflow from the rumen of grazing ruminants, achieving temporal patterns of occurrence within and between meals, similar to those for grazing animals reported in the literature. The model realistically simulates changes in particle size distribution of the ingestive bolus, bolus weight and rumen dilution rate in response to contrasting grazing management regimes. The new concepts encoded in MINDY capture the underlying biological mechanisms that drive the dynamic link between ingestion and digestion patterns. This development advances in the understanding and modelling of grazing and digestive behaviour patterns of free-ranging ruminants.
In principle, food intake by lactating dairy cows might be limited by rate of eating, capacity to produce saliva, rumen or intestinal capacity, rates of digestion and passage of food residues, or by factors such as chemicals and osmolality in the rumen. It is likely that a combination of these is used by the central nervous system to control intake. In practice, the positive relationship between digestibility and intake of forages means that high-quality material must be offered to cows during lactation if a reduced level of concentrate supplementation is envisaged but undue mobilization of body reserves avoided. Better supplementation is possible, both in terms of more frequent, smaller allocations, and of more appropriate concentrate composition with regard to the composition of the basal forage. Intake of maize silage dry matter is usually greater than for grass silage and a mixture of the two, perhaps offered in free or restricted choice, is likely to become more widely practised. Changes in body reserves are difficult to monitor and this has made it difficult to resolve the question of the magnitude of diet/environment interactions, i.e. is the same breeding and selection programme appropriate for those animals which are intended to be pushed to high yields in intensive systems and those intended to be given principally forages in semi-extensive systems?
The central nervous system is the integrator of most of the actions of the animal and as such plays a vital rôle in the control of voluntary food intake. Much of the work to understand how intake is controlled has been carried out with rats but that which has been done with pigs is included. The first experiments used electrolytic lesions in the designation of the ‘hunger centre’ and the ‘satiety centre’. Recent work has identified the paraventricular nucleus as a sensing site for experimental manipulations. Chemical stimulation of the brain has also been carried out to try to gain understanding of the rôle of neurotransmitters. Noradrenaline (NA) stimulates intake when given into many sites. Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits intake and has been claimed to play a rôle in the selection of macronutrients but 5-HT must now be interpreted in the light of the existence of several different subtypes of 5-HT receptors. Dopamine appears to moderate the hedonic response of eating. Numerous peptides are active in the brain where their rôle as neuromodulators may be quite different from their function in the periphery and at least three types of opioid receptors are implicated with kappa antagonists producing the most potent facilitatory effects. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY produce massive orexigenic effects which readily overcome peripheral satiety factors. The brain cannot control intake in isolation. It receives inputs in the blood stream, such as glucose, as well as via the nervous system, both from the special senses and from visceral organs such as stomach, intestines and liver. Taste and olfaction are important in diet selection and a specific appetite for protein has been demonstrated in the pig.
Birds attempt to compensate for an E : P (energy: protein) imbalance by increasing their intake of protein or energy from selected foods and this is related to changes in the birds’ body composition caused by corticosterone treatment.
Corticosterone injections increase fatness despite increasing nitrogen and energy excretion (Bartov, 1985). More recently corticosterone has been used to modulate macronutrient selection in rats (Devenport et al., 1991; Bligh et al., 1993; Tempel et al., 1993) and chickens (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). The intake of high protein concentrate was decreased by corticosterone treatment in young chickens but not in older chickens (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). The previous results suggest that more information on corticosterone’s effect on diet selection will be obtained by using foods which can offer a wide range of choices to compose a proper diet (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). Therefore, two experiments were conducted to detect changes in protein preference in relation to reduced protein deposition and enhanced fattening induced by corticosterone in male and female growing broiler chickens.
The remit of this paper is to discuss “…provision of appropriate information to write suitable software for the animal production industry” and … how much material has actually flowed from Universities and Research Institutes into useable computer programs and what are seen as being the main stumbling blocks to the rate of flow and effectiveness of take-up?”. Canvassing opinion from several people, including some of those who have contributed at this Meeting, gave many useful ideas but some of them would not wish these ideas to be associated with their names, for a variety of reasons. Therefore, the author is reluctantly unable to thank those who helped by name but is very pleased to do so collectively. The remit has also been broadened slightly to include the feedback from the use of models in the field to the research worker and uses examples of the author's own attempts to model voluntary food intake in ruminants to illustrate some shortcomings.
Locomotion is recognized as an important aspect of behaviour and knowledge of the locomotion of broiler chickens is important for their health and welfare (Lewis and Hurnik, 1989). Würbel (1995) suggested that certain behaviours can give an indication of poor welfare and that preference tests may be used to ‘fine tune’ a housing system.
Measurement of water consumption and urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion of individual grazing ruminants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, prediction and modelling are critical for research to improve N and water use efficiency. The objective of the current work was to use a mechanistic model of a grazing ruminant, MINDY, to represent drinking and urination diurnal patterns, and the resulting pattern of UN excretion. This work is primarily an integration of existing knowledge of basic urination physiology and water dynamics in ruminants. MINDY reproduces observed patterns of urination achieving the correct temporal occurrence, relative volumes and nitrogen (N) concentration of individual urination events for a grazing dairy cow, comparable with those reported in the literature. The model simulates daily water imbibed and UN realistically, as well as ingestion rates for herbages with different protein content and contrasting grazing managements. Results of a cross-validation indicate that the root mean square prediction error and mean absolute error as % of the observed mean, respectively, were 26 and 23% for daily water imbibed, 26 and 27% for urination volume, and 25 and 19% for the frequency of urination. Although further parameterization and validation are needed, for a new development in an exploratory model like MINDY, these numbers are encouraging and reflect that the concepts encoded capture many of the underlying biological mechanisms that drive the diurnal pattern and daily UN excretion, as well as thirst, acceptable.
Anomalous drainage of the right superior caval vein into the left atrium is a rare congenital anomaly that causes cyanosis and occult infection owing to right-to-left shunting. Transcatheter management of this anomaly is unique and rarely reported. We report a 32-year-old man with a history of brain abscess, who was diagnosed with an anomalous right superior caval vein draining to the left atrium; right upper pulmonary vein and right middle pulmonary vein draining into the inferior portion of the right superior caval vein; and a left superior caval vein draining into the right atrium through the coronary sinus without a bridging vein. Pre-procedural planning was guided by three-dimensional printed model. The right superior caval vein was occluded with a 16-mm Amplatzer muscular Ventricular Septal Defect occluder inferior to the azygous vein, but superior to the entries of right upper and middle pulmonary veins. This diverted the right superior caval vein flow to the inferior caval vein system through the azygos vein in a retrograde manner and allowed the right upper pulmonary vein and right middle pulmonary vein flow to drain into the left atrium normally, achieving exclusion of right-to-left shunting and allowing normal drainage of pulmonary veins into the left atrium. At the 6-month follow-up, his saturation improved from 93 to 97% with no symptoms of superior caval vein syndrome.
Inflation of a balloon in the rumen of forage-fed ruminant animals depresses intake. This might be due to the unpleasant over-stimulation of stretch receptors or to mimicking the pleasant after-effects of eating. If the former then cows would be expected to avoid stimuli which they had learned to associate with distension, while if the latter, they should be attracted to such stimuli. The experiment reported here paired small meals of flavoured concentrates with inflation of a balloon in the rumen of dry cows on several occasions and examined their subsequent preferences for the flavour of concentrates.
12 individually-tethered adult Holstein cows, neither pregnant nor lactating, were fed freshly-chopped sugar cane ad libitum with 4 kg/day soya bean meal sprinkled over it. At 1200 h the basal food was removed and 30 min later 6 cows had a balloon inserted into the rumen via a cannula which was filled with 12 litres of water and remained in place for 120 min.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
Original studies published over the last decade regarding time trends in dementia report mixed results. The aims of the present study were to use linked administrative health data for the province of Saskatchewan for the period 2005/2006 to 2012/2013 to: (1) examine simultaneous temporal trends in annual age- and sex-specific dementia incidence and prevalence among individuals aged 45 and older, and (2) stratify the changes in incidence over time by database of identification.
Using a population-based retrospective cohort study design, data were extracted from seven provincial administrative health databases linked by a unique anonymized identification number. Individuals 45 years and older at first identification of dementia between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2013 were included, based on case definition criteria met within any one of four administrative health databases (hospital, physician, prescription drug, and long-term care).
Between 2005/2006 and 2012/2013, the 12-month age-standardized incidence rate of dementia declined significantly by 11.07% and the 12-month age-standardized prevalence increased significantly by 30.54%. The number of incident cases decreased from 3,389 to 3,270 and the number of prevalent cases increased from 8,795 to 13,012. Incidence rate reductions were observed in every database of identification.
We observed a simultaneous trend of decreasing incidence and increasing prevalence of dementia over a relatively short 8-year time period from 2005/2006 to 2012/2013. These trends indicate that the average survival time of dementia is lengthening. Continued observation of these time trends is warranted given the short study period.
With HST and WFPC2, galaxies in the Medium Deep Survey can be reliably classified to magnitudes I814 ≲ 22.0 in the F814W band, at a mean redshift . The main result is the relatively high proportion (~40%) of objects which are in some way irregular or anomalous, and which are of relevance in understanding the origin of the familiar excess population of faint galaxies. These diverse objects include compact galaxies, apparently interacting pairs, galaxies with superluminous starforming regions and diffuse low surface brightness galaxies of various forms. The ‘irregulars’ and ‘peculiar’ galaxies contribute most of the excess counts in the I-band at our limiting magnitude, and may explain the ‘faint blue galaxy’ problem.
Commission 41 is one of the largest specialist components of the IAU. At the General Assembly in 1982 at Patras the number of ordinary members was increased from 79 to 86 as a testimony to the growing interest among astronomers in the history of their subject. At the same time the number of consulting members rose from 32 to 40, which shows that an increasing number of highly competent historians of science is engaged in research in the history of astronomy without being professional astronomers. However, many valuable contributions to the subject come from historians who are not members. In consequence, the principal purpose of Commission 41 is to serve as a link between all historians of astronomy whether they be members or not, by initiating research into particular areas, by disseminating new results, or simply by creating possibilities of personal contacts between scholars from different parts of the world. This is mainly achieved by meetings of various kinds.
We discuss the use of seeing-limited near-IR spectroscopic imaging combined with high resolution millimeter and submillimeter wave observations, as a diagnostic in the study of the nuclear interstellar medium in starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei. As an example, recent near-IR spectroscopic imaging of the starburst galaxy NGC 253 is analyzed. It is shown that the central ~ 100 pc of NGC 253 contains a number of giant star forming complexes, the stellar content of which is at least as large as that of the 30 Dor region in the LMC. We suggest the use of the [FeII]/Brγ ratio as an approximate age indicator for such complexes. The warm component of the nuclear molecular medium in NGC 253 detected in submillimeter CO spectra and in near-IR rovibrational lines of H2 is probably heated by stellar UV radiation or slow shocks in star forming regions, rather than by supernova remnant shocks. There are indications that molecular material is being removed from the nuclear region by the “superwind” observed in optical emission lines.
We investigate, via numerical simulations, the tidal stripping and accretion of globular clusters (GCs). In particular, we focus on creating models that simulate the situation for the GC systems of NGC 1404 and NGC 1399 in the Fornax cluster, which have poor (specific frequency
SN ~ 2) and rich (SN ~ 10) GC systems respectively. We initially assign NGC 1404 in our simulation a typical SN (~ 5) for cluster ellipticals, and find that its GC system can only be reduced through stripping to the presently observed value, if its orbit is highly eccentric (with orbital eccentricity of > 0.5) and if the initial scale length of the GCs system is about twice as large as the effective radius of NGC 1404 itself. These stripped GCs can be said to have formed a ‘tidal stream’ of intra-cluster globular clusters (ICGCs) orbiting the center of Fornax cluster (many of which would be assigned to NGC 1399 in an imaging study). The physical properties of these GCs (e.g., number, radial distribution, and kinematics) depend on the orbit and initial distribution of GCs in NGC 1404. Our simulations also predict a trend for 5N to rise with increasing cluster-centric distance – a trend for which there is some observational support in the Fornax cluster. We demonstrate that since the kinematical properties of ICGCs formed by tidal stripping in the cluster tidal field depend strongly on the orbits of their previous host galaxies, observations of ICGC kinematics provides a new method for probing galaxy dynamics in a cluster.
Our numerical simulations first demonstrate that the pressure of ISM in a major merger becomes so high (> 105 kB K cm-3) that GMCs in the merger can collapse to form globular clusters (GCs) within a few Myr. The star formation efficiency within a GMC in galaxy mergers can rise up from a few percent to ~ 80 percent, depending on the shapes and the temperature of the GMC. This implosive GC formation due to external high pressure of warm/hot ISM can be more efficient in the tidal tails or the central regions of mergers. The developed clusters have King-like profiles with an effective radius of a few pc. The structural, kinematical, and chemical properties of these GC systems can depend on the orbital and chemical properties of major mergers.
We demonstrate that single and binary star clusters can be formed during cloud-cloud collisions triggered by the tidal interaction between the Large and Small Magellanic clouds. We run two different sets of self-consistent numerical simulations which show that compact, bound star clusters can be formed within the centers of two colliding clouds due to strong gaseous shocks, compression, and dissipation, providing the clouds have moderately large relative velocities (10 — 60 km s-1). The impact parameter determines whether the two colliding clouds become a single or a binary cluster. The star formation efficiency in the colliding clouds is dependent upon the initial ratio of the relative velocity of the clouds to the sound speed of the gas. Based on these results, we discuss the observed larger fraction of binary clusters, and star clusters with high ellipticity, in the Magellanic clouds.
Both maternal obesity and disordered mood have adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. We hypothesized that maternal very severe obesity (SO) is associated with increased anxiety and depression (A&D) symptoms during pregnancy, with adverse effects on gestational weight gain (GWG), postpartum mood and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and explored any mediation by circulating glucocorticoids.
We measured A&D symptoms with validated questionnaires at weeks 17 and 28 of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum in 135 lean [body mass index (BMI) ⩽25 kg/m2] and 222 SO (BMI ⩾40 kg/m2) pregnant women. Fasting serum cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay; GWG and PPWR were recorded.
A&D symptoms were higher in the SO group during pregnancy and postpartum despite adjusting for multiple confounders including previous mental health diagnosis (p < 0.05), and were non-linearly correlated with total GWG (anxiety R2 = 0.06, p = 0.037; depression R2 = 0.09, p = 0.001). In the SO group only, increased maternal anxiety (β = 0.33, p = 0.03) and depression (β = 0.19, p = 0.04) symptoms at week 17 of pregnancy were associated with increased PPWR, independent of total GWG and breastfeeding. Anxiety symptoms at week 28 of pregnancy, but not depression, were non-linearly correlated with serum cortisol level at week 36 of pregnancy (R2 = 0.06, p = 0.02). Cortisol did not mediate the link between A&D symptoms and GWG.
Maternal SO was associated with increased A&D symptoms, and with adverse effects on GWG and PPWR independent of circulating glucocorticoids. Strategies to optimize GWG and postpartum weight management in SO women should include assessment and management of maternal mood in early pregnancy.