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Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a primary sensor for autonomous vehicles to recognize surroundings. It detects near-infrared (NIR) light pulses, typically at 905nm, which is emitted and reflected by surrounding objects. Here, the fact of the matter is that conventional black or dark-tone cars with extremely low NIR reflection are hard to be detected by LiDAR and endanger the future highway. In this work, we propose to use platelet-shaped effect pigments with visible absorption and NIR reflectivity. Copper(Ⅱ) oxide and Silicon dioxide multilayer are theoretically investigated with different numbers of layers and thicknesses. The optimized structures appear various dark-tone colors with high NIR-reflectivity over 90%.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Single-crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) grown by various techniques can exhibit hillock defects on the surface when sub-optimal growth conditions are employed. The defects act as nonradiative recombination centers and limit solar cell performance. In this paper, we applied near-field transport imaging to study hillock defects in a GaAs thin film. On the same defects, we also performed near-field cathodoluminescence, standard cathodoluminescence, electron-backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. We found that the luminescence intensity around the hillock area is two orders of magnitude lower than on the area without hillock defects in the millimeter region, and the excess carrier diffusion length is degraded by at least a factor of five with significant local variation. The optical and transport properties are affected over a significantly larger region than the observed topography and crystallographic and chemical compositions associated with the defect.
Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents’ major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents’ depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents’ DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene–environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.
Using a large and nationally representative sample, we examined how adolescents’ 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived parenting quality independently and interactively associated with trajectories of alcohol use from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether/how gender may moderate these associations. The sample for this study included 13,749 adolescents (53.3% female; 56.3% non-Hispanic White, 21.5% Black, 16.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% Asian) followed prospectively from adolescence to young adulthood. Using growth mixture modeling, we identified four distinct trajectories of alcohol use (i.e., persistent heavy alcohol use, developmentally limited alcohol use, late-onset heavy alcohol use, and non/light alcohol use). Results indicated that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with higher risk of membership in the persistent and the late-onset heavy alcohol use trajectories. Parenting quality was associated with lower likelihoods of following the persistent heavy and the developmentally limited alcohol use trajectories but was not associated with risk of membership for the late-onset heavy drinking trajectory. 5-HTTLPR interacted with parenting quality to predict membership in the persistent heavy alcohol use trajectory for males but not for females. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in trajectories of alcohol use across development and gender in the study of Gene Environment interactions in alcohol use.
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31–.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women. (JINS, 2015, 21, 745–756)
Older adults with early forms of neurodegenerative disease are at risk for functional disability, which is often defined by the loss of independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). The current study investigated the influence of mild changes in everyday functional abilities (referred to as functional limitations) on risk for development of incident functional disability. A total of 407 participants, who were considered cognitively normal or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline, were followed longitudinally over an average 4.1 years (range=0.8–9.2 years). Informant-based ratings from the Everyday Cognition (ECog; Farias et al., 2008) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (Lawton & Brody, 1969) scales assessed the degree of functional limitations and incident IADL disability, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models revealed that more severe functional limitations (as measured by the Total ECog score) at baseline were associated with approximately a four-fold increased risk of developing IADL disability a few years later. Among the ECog domains, functional limitations in Everyday Planning, Everyday Memory, and Everyday Visuospatial domains were associated with the greatest risk of incident functional disability. These results remained robust even after controlling for participants’ neuropsychological functioning on tests of executive functions and episodic memory. Current findings indicate that early functional limitations have prognostic value in identifying older adults at risk for developing functional disability. Findings highlight the importance of developing interventions to support everyday abilities related to memory, executive function, and visuospatial skills in an effort to delay loss of independence in IADLs. (JINS, 2015, 21, 688–698)
In this work, we study CdTe thin films used in CdTe/CdS solar cells with a substrate configuration, which allows for better control in forming the junction, and the possibility for using flexible non-transparent substrates. We studied the properties of CdTe films grown at 450° and 550°C, with and without a CuxTe layer, and before and after CdCl2 treatment. We analyzed the structural and electro-optical properties using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), cathodoluminescence (CL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and investigated how the film structure, stress, and defect structure changes with the different growth conditions.
The electrode materials for VRFB should possess higher electric conductivity, corrosion resistance and hydrophilic properties in sulfuric acid. The characteristics of the electrode materials affect the stability and the energy efficiency of VRFB. Carbon materials are the best suited for VRFB applications. In this study, the calcined treatment, acid treatment and ozone treatment were used to modify the surface of carbon papers. The redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ on the modified carbon papers was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface compositions of carbon materials were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The experimental results reveal that three oxidative methods enhance the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+. The calcined treatments and acid treatments also enhanced hydrolysis reaction. The mole ratio of O/C apparently increased, but the binding energy of C1s and O1s were not chemically shifted in the acid treatment. The intensity of binding energy of O1s, between 532 eV and 534 eV, apparently increased in the ozone and calcined treatments. The Ox treated samples were more hydrophilic than the Oz treated samples. In the Ox treated samples, the decrease of Rct value indicates that was contributed from the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ and hydrolysis reaction. It does not completely benefit the energy efficiency of VRFB. The 5 x 5 cm2 modified carbon papers were used as electrode materials in the VRFB. The voltage efficiency, coulomb efficiency and energy efficiency reached 93 %, 90 % and 83 %, respectively, at a current density of 12 mA．cm-2 at 0.8-1.8 V.
The stability of the negative electrode electrolyte affects the efficiency and capacity of energy storage in the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) system. To explore the stability of vanadium electrolytes, the study prepared five types of V(II) electrolytes that were exposed to air in a fixed open area and monitored the charge state of vanadium ions over time by UV/Visible spectrophotometer. This study succeeded in preparing pure V(II) electrolytes. Five characteristics are found in the UV/Visible spectra, respectively, during the oxidation process from V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes and V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes. The experimental results show that the oxidation rate of a solution of 1 M V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes and 1 M V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes under an atmosphere of air is 4.79 and 0.0089 mol/h per square meter. The oxidation rates of 0.05-1 M V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes are approximately 96-538 times than that of V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes.
Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north–south gradient. Vitamin B2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (Ptrend< 0·001). Vitamin B6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (Ptrend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
In the USA, infant formulas contain long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in a ratio of 2:1 and comprise roughly 0·66 g/100 g and 0·33 g/100 g total fatty acids (FA). Higher levels of dietary DHA appear to provide some advantages in visual or cognitive performance. The present study evaluated the effect of physiologically high dietary ARA on growth, clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function when DHA is 1·0 g/100 g total FA. On day 3 of age, formula-reared (FR) piglets were matched for weight and assigned to one of six milk replacer formulas. Diets varied in the ratio of ARA:DHA as follows (g/100 g FA/FA): A1, 0·1/1·0; A2, 0·53/1·0; A3-D3, 0·69/1·0; A4, 1·1/1·0; D2, 0·67/0·62; D1, 0·66/0·33. A seventh group was maternal-reared (MR) and remained with the dam during the study. Blood collection and body weight measurements were performed weekly, and piglets were killed on day 28 of age. No significant differences were found among any of the FR groups for formula intake, growth, clinical chemistry, haematology or immune status measurements. A few differences in clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function parameters between the MR pigs and the FR groups probably reflected a difference in growth rate. We conclude that the dietary ARA level up to 1·0 g/100 g total FA is safe and has no adverse effect on any of the safety outcomes measured, and confirm that DHA has no adverse effect when ARA is at 0·66 g/100 g FA.
Templated growth for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures such as quantum dots and lattice-mismatched structures has been employed in this study. Self assembly of block copolymers (BCP) has been exploited to create a regular array of nanoscale patterns on a substrate to generate the growth template. These patterned templates were used for the selective area growth of pseudomorphic quantum dots, allowing for precise control over the dot size and spatial distribution. Strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched structures grown past the pseudomorphic limit was also studied. Analysis of the grown structures suggests that this approach using block copolymer templating followed by selective growth can be used for defect reduction in lattice-mismatched materials.
We report on recent advances in the development of a luminescence spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and its application to fundamental aspects of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films. Relevant to our discussion is the specifics of the surface electronics. The CIGS shows pronounced stoichiometric deviations at the surface and, consequently, distinct surface electronics that has been shown to be critical in achieving high efficiency. Cathodoluminescence (CL), a luminescence spectrum imaging mode in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), provides a direct correlation between the microstructure of the CIGS and its electronic properties. As such, cathodoluminescence can resolve the emission spectrum between grain boundaries and grain interiors or be used to investigate the influence of local orientation and stoichiometry on the electronic properties of the CIGS at the microscale. Cathodoluminescence is not a surface microscopy, however, and resolving the electronic structure of the CIGS surface remains elusive to all luminescence microscopies. With this motivation, we have developed a luminescence microscopy based on STM, in which tunneling electrons are responsible for the excitation of luminescence (scanning tunneling luminescence or STL). The hot-tunneling-electron excitation is confined to the surface and, consequently, the tunneling luminescence spectrum reveals the electronic states near the surface. The STM is integrated inside the SEM and, therefore, both CL and STL can be measured over the same location and compared. Using this setup, the transition from the grain interior to the surface can be investigated. We have improved the collection of our optics to a level in which tunneling luminescence spectrum imaging can be performed. Here we present a detailed account on our investigation of the surface electronics in CIGS deposited in the regime of selenium deficiency as defined by <Se>/(<Cu> + <In> + < Ga >) = 1.
Purified carbon nanotubes (with removed toxic catalytic particles) have been considered as novel materials for drug delivery and for generating artificial organs more efficiently than traditional tissue engineering materials due to their unique surface features. The surface chemistry of carbon nanotubes has been modified through various functionalization strategies to increase biocompatibility. Importantly, modulating the intrinsic material surface energy of carbon nanotubes (without functionalization, thus, establishing permanent, non degradable chemical, and physical surface properties) can potentially reduce an immune response mediated by macrophages. Herein, we report macrophage responses on different surface energy carbon nanotubes while keeping their nanoscale surface roughness. Specifically, interactions of ultra hydrophobic (bare or unmodified) and hydrophilic carbon nanotubes (due to the formation of oxide layers) with macrophages were investigated. It was observed that macrophage density on both carbon nanotube scaffolds were lower than on traditional materials. In particular, the amount of released cytokine (TNF-α) from macrophages cultured on hydrophilic carbon nanotube scaffolds was much smaller than on hydrophobic carbon nanotube scaffolds. All results clearly supported that tailoring the surface energy of carbon nanotubes mediates a macrophage immune response.