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Residual stress values in a material are governed by the measurements of the atomic spacings in a specific crystallographic plane and the elastic constant for that plane. It has been reported that the value of the elastic constant depends on microstructure, preferred orientation, plastic deformation and morphology , Thus, the theoretical calculation of the elastic constant may deviate from the intrinsic value for a real alloy.
The Yale–Potsdam Stellar Isochrones (YaPSI) cover the low and intermediate stellar mass regime (0.15 to 5.0 M⊙) for a wide range of solar-scaled chemical compositions (metallicity from −0.5 to +0.3; helium mass fraction from 0.25 to 0.37, assigned independently of each other). The tracks are finely spaced in mass, to allow for accurate interpolation. The models feature state-of-the-art input physics relevant to low-mass stars modeling (surface boundary conditions, equation of state), thus updating the faint end of the Yonsei-Yale (YY) isochrones. Utility codes, such as an isochrone interpolator in age, metallicity and helium content, are also provided. The YaPSI isochrones are in good agreement with the empirical mass–luminosity and mass–radius relations available to date, and provide satisfactory fitting of the color-magnitude diagrams of well-studied open clusters.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset.
In total 95 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 63 healthy controls (HC) were assessed on neuropsychological tests at baseline, with 38 FEP and 22 HCs returning for follow-up assessment at 5–11 years. Visuospatial associative memory was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Visuospatial Paired-Associate Learning task, and verbal associative memory was assessed using Verbal Paired Associates subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised.
Visuospatial and verbal associative memory at baseline did not differ significantly between FEP patients and HCs. However, over follow-up, visuospatial associative memory deteriorated significantly for the FEP group, relative to healthy individuals. Conversely, verbal associative memory improved to a similar degree observed in HCs. In the FEP cohort, visuospatial (but not verbal) associative memory ability at baseline was associated with functional outcome at follow-up.
Areas of cognition that develop prior to psychosis onset, such as visuospatial and verbal associative memory, may be preserved early in the illness. Later deterioration in visuospatial memory ability may relate to progressive structural and functional brain abnormalities that occurs following psychosis onset.
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined. CE was calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of US dollars per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Compared to PCF alone, ACF for household contacts resulted in an ICER of $2155 per DALY averted. The addition of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test resulted in an ICER of $3275 per DALY averted within a PCF programme and $3399 per DALY averted when an ACF programme was included. Provider-initiated ACF of household contacts in an urban setting of Lima, Peru can be highly cost-effective, even including costs to seek out contacts and perform an Xpert/MTB RIF test. ACF including Xpert MTB/RIF was not cost-effective if TB cases detected had high rates of default from treatment or poor outcomes.
There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts. The framework addresses the essential characteristics of the program and of teacher. MBPs: are informed by theories and practices that draw from a confluence of contemplative traditions, science, and the major disciplines of medicine, psychology and education; underpinned by a model of human experience which addresses the causes of human distress and the pathways to relieving it; develop a new relationship with experience characterized by present moment focus, decentering and an approach orientation; catalyze the development of qualities such as joy, compassion, wisdom, equanimity and greater attentional, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and engage participants in a sustained intensive training in mindfulness meditation practice, in an experiential inquiry-based learning process and in exercises to develop understanding. The paper's aim is to support clarity, which will in turn support the systematic development of MBP research, and the integrity of the field during the process of implementation in the mainstream.
The enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency by incorporation of down-shifting phosphor materials in optically active and inactive regions of solar modules is presented. Thin film photovoltaic modules suffer from various optical losses, including front glass reflectance, thermalization loss of absorbed high energy photons, window layer absorption, and the loss of photons to scribe regions. There have been various efforts to improve the performance of solar modules by application of down-shifting (DS), down-converting, and up-converting materials systems. Here we show results towards the development of a low-cost phosphor film system tuned to the solar spectrum and specifically designed for CdTe thin film modules.
Whether there are differential effects of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) on the brain is currently debated. Although some studies report that FGAs reduce grey matter more than SGAs, others do not, and research to date is limited by a focus on schizophrenia spectrum disorders. To address this limitation, this study investigated the effects of medication in patients being treated for first-episode schizophrenia or affective psychoses.
Cortical thickness was compared between 52 first-episode psychosis patients separated into diagnostic (i.e. schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and medication (i.e. FGA and SGA) subgroups. Patients in each group were also compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 28). A whole-brain cortical thickness interaction analysis of medication and diagnosis was then performed. Correlations between cortical thickness with antipsychotic dose and psychotic symptoms were examined.
The effects of medication and diagnosis did not interact, suggesting independent effects. Compared with controls, diagnostic differences were found in frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Decreased thickness in FGA-treated versus SGA-treated groups was found in a large frontoparietal region (p < 0.001, corrected). Comparisons with healthy controls revealed decreased cortical thickness in the FGA group whereas the SGA group showed increases in addition to decreases. In FGA-treated patients cortical thinning was associated with higher negative symptoms whereas increased cortical thickness in the SGA-treated group was associated with lower positive symptoms.
Our results suggest that FGA and SGA treatments have divergent effects on cortical thickness during the first episode of psychosis that are independent from changes due to illness.
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show reduced neurocognitive performance across domains but it is unclear which reductions are associated with transition to frank psychosis. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in baseline neurocognitive performance between UHR participants with (UHR-P) and without transition to psychosis (UHR-NP) and a healthy control (HC) group and examine neurocognitive predictors of transition over the medium to long term.
A sample of 325 UHR participants recruited consecutively from the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic in Melbourne and 66 HCs completed a neurocognitive assessment at baseline. The UHR group was followed up between 2.39 and 14.86 (median = 6.45) years later. Cox regression was used to investigate candidate neurocognitive predictors of psychosis onset.
The UHR group performed more poorly than the HC group across a range of neurocognitive domains but only performance on digit symbol coding and picture completion differed between the groups. The risk of transition was only significantly associated with poorer performance on visual reproduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.919, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.876–0.965, p = 0.001] and matrix reasoning (HR 0.938, 95% CI 0.883–0.996, p = 0.037). These remained significant even after controlling for psychopathology at baseline.
This study is the longest follow-up of an UHR sample to date. UHR status was associated with poorer neurocognitive performance compared to HCs on some tasks. Cognition at identification as UHR was not a strong predictor of risk for transition to psychosis. The results suggests the need to include more experimental paradigms that isolate discrete cognitive processes to better understand neurocognition at this early stage of illness.
The Western Isles–North Channel (‘WINCH’) deep seismic reflection profile runs through the North Channel across the extension of the Midland Valley into the Firth of Clyde.
A variety of shallow Carboniferous and younger sedimentary basins dominates the upper crustal structure. The deep structure includes a reflective lower crust, bounded downwards by the Moho, and dipping ‘thrusts’. No margins to the Midland Valley are observed equivalent to the bounding faults on land. Thrusts below both the Highlands and the Southern Uplands have a variety of dip directions indicative of zig-zag crustal shortening of 100 km in the Highlands and 60 km in the Southern Uplands.
The Moho varies only a little in depth, despite the gross crustal deformation in the Caledonides. Isostatic recovery of the Moho on unlocking of collided crustal blocks may explain the formation of some sedimentary basins.
Laser-assisted deposition of GaAs, AlAs and [AIGa]As thin films on Ge(100) substrates from trimethylgallium-trimethylarsenic and trimethylaluminumtrimethylarsenic Lewis acid-base adduct source materials is reported. A parametric study has been performed in which reactive gas pressure, substrate temperature, laser fluence, laser wavelength (248 nm or 193 nm). and orientation of the laser beam with respect to the substrate have been varied. In the case of irradiation parallel to the substrate, stoichiometric films of GaAs and [AIGa]As have been obtained. The data suggest that for irradiation perpendicular to the substrate a competition exists between desorption and photodeposition, which adversely affects film stoichiometry under the conditions studied.
We investigated the induced magnetic behaviour of the Ag of Fe/Ag multilayers with low temperature nuclear orientation. The experiments show induced magnetic moments in all samples. Furthermore, multilayers with 2ML and 4ML of Ag, these moments do not lie in the plane of the multilayer at low external magnetic fields.
Most studies describing high rates of acute respiratory illness in aboriginals have focused on rural or remote communities. Hypothesized causes include socioeconomic deprivation, limited access to healthcare, and a high prevalence of chronic disease. To assess influenza rates in an aboriginal community while accounting for healthcare access, deprivation and chronic disease prevalence, we compared rates of influenza-related outpatient and emergency-department visits in an urban Mohawk reserve (Kahnawá:ke) to rates in neighbouring regions with comparable living conditions and then restricted the analysis to a sub-population with a low chronic disease prevalence, i.e. those aged <20 years. Using medical billing claims from 1996 to 2006 we estimated age-sex standardized rate ratios. The rate in Kahnawá:ke was 58% greater than neighbouring regions and 98% greater in the analysis of those aged <20 years. Despite relatively favourable socioeconomic conditions and healthcare access, rates of influenza-related visits in Kahnawá:ke were elevated, particularly in the younger age groups.
Immunoelectrophoresis of ultrasonically disrupted Haemophilus equigenitalis (contagious equine metritis organism) cells against rabbit and equine antisera disclosed at least 11 precipitating antigens. Two of these, a polysaccharide and a lipopolysaccharide–protein complex, were of high molecular weight and located on the cell surface. The remaining antigens were intracellular and were small- to medium-sized proteins.
The surface antigens were the most significant in relation to the serological response in infected horses. They also reacted with sera from apparently healthy cattle, but the reason for this was not determined. No serological cross-reaction between H. equigenitalis and species of Achromobacter and Moraxella was detected.
The supernatant fluids of batch and continuous cultures of Brucella strains contained up to 100 mg/i of soluble RNA which could be recovered by precipitation with lysozyme. This RNA fraction had many of the properties of ribosomal RNA and was single-stranded, sensitive to ribonuclease, with an approximate sedimentation constant of 5S, a molecular weight of about 35000 daltons and an adenine; guanine; cytosine; uracil content of 17·5 26·5 33; 23 mol% respectively. RNA fractions from lysozyme precipitates evoked high titres of Brucella agglutinins on injection into rabbits and induced acute inflammatory responses in guinea-pig skin. Highly purified RNA fractions prepared by phenol extraction of lysozyme precipitates did not evoke antibodies to Brucella abortus.
The properties of 48 cultures identified as Yersiniaenterocolitica or Y. enterocolitica like organisms, including Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia and Y. kristensenii, were examined. Of these, 39 were isolated from flieces of apparently healthy pigs, five from healthy cattle, one from an aborted bovine fetus, one from an aborted lamb and one from a lamb suffering from acute enteritis.
Most isolates from healthy animals were of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1 or Y. intermedia and belonged to O serogroups not usually associated with disease in man or animals.The isolates from abortion or enteritis cases were of Y. enterocolitica biotypes 3, 4 and 5 and belonged to the pathogenic serogroups 0:5b and 0:2a, 2b, 3. No organisms of serogroup 0:9 were found.