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The article systematically assesses U.S.-Native relations today and their historical foundations in light of a narrow, empirical definition of colonial empire. Examining three core elements of colonial empire—the formal impairment of sovereignty, the intensive practical impairment of sovereignty through practices of governance and administration, and the continuing otherness of the dominated and dominant groups—we compare contemporary U.S.-Native political relations to canonical instances of formal colonial indirect rule empires. Based on this analysis, we argue that the United States today is a paradigmatic case of formal colonial empire in the narrow, traditional sense, one that should be better integrated into the comparative, historical, and sociological study of such formal empires. Furthermore, this prominent contemporary case stands against the idea that the era of formal colonial empire is over.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Mental health policy internationally varies in its support for recovery. The aims of this study were to validate an existing conceptual framework and then characterise by country the distribution, scientific foundations and emphasis in published recovery conceptualisations.
Update and modification of a previously published systematic review and narrative synthesis of recovery conceptualisations published in English.
A total of 7431 studies were identified and 429 full papers reviewed, from which 105 conceptualisations in 115 papers were included and quality assessed using established rating scales. Recovery conceptualisations were identified from 11 individual countries, with 95 (91%) published in English-speaking countries, primarily the USA (47%) and the UK (25%). The scientific foundation was primarily qualitative research (53%), non-systematic literature reviews (24%) and position papers (12%). The conceptual framework was validated with the 18 new papers. Across the different countries, there was a relatively similar distribution of codings for each of five key recovery processes.
Recovery as currently conceptualised in English-language publications is primarily based on qualitative studies and position papers from English-speaking countries. The conceptual framework was valid, but the development of recovery conceptualisations using a broader range of research designs within other cultures and non-majority populations is a research priority.
We report recent results from the photometric follow-up study we are conducting in the context of the SAURON project. We use ground-based MDM V −band and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 μm imaging to characterise our sample of E, S0 and Sa galaxies photometrically. Combined with SAURON integral-field spectroscopic observations, this information allows us to explore and understand the location of these galaxies on the Fundamental Plane relation, providing an important diagnostic tool to study their formation and evolution.
The effects of N-ion implantation on the corrosive-wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V, an alloy used for construction of the femoral component of artificial hip joints in humans, were tested. In corrosive-wear tests designed to simulate pertinent hip-joint parameters, electrochemical corrosion currents were measured for cylindrical samples in saline electrolyte in an arrangement which allowed the samples to be rotated between loaded polyethylene pads simultaneously with the current measurement. To further quantify material removal, Zr markers were ion-implanted into some samples so that, by use of Rutherford backscattering, material removal could be detected by changes in position of the marker relative to the surface. Corrosion currents were greatly reduced by implantation of approximately 20 at. % N, but even implantation of the Zr markers also reduced corrosion currents. The marker experiments confirmed the low rate of material removal for the implanted samples.
The damage produced in α-zirconium at 100 K by displacement cascades with energy up to 20 keV has been investigated by MD simulations. In agreement with modelling of fcc and bcc metals, the defect production efficiency in zirconium is well below the NRT estimate. The number and size of clusters, both vacancy and interstitial, are increased by increasing PKA energy, and clusters containing up to 25 interstitials and 30 vacancies were formed by 20 keV cascades. Most interstitial clusters have dislocation character with perfect Burgers vectors of the form 1/3<1120>, but a few metastable clusters are formed and are persistent over the timescale of MD simulations. Collapse of the 30-vacancy cluster to a faulted loop on the prism plane was found to occur over a period of more than 100 ps
We report the first large-scale outbreak of echovirus 19 infection. It occurred in the north-east of England during the summer and autumn of 1974. The virus was isolated from 268 patients in the region. The infection spread from the urban to more rural areas, reaching a peak in mid-August. Males were affected more often than females in the ratio 1·6:1. Half of the patients were under eight years of age, relatively few were over 35 years. Aseptic meningitis and upper respiratory infections were the commonest presentations, though a wide range of other diseases occurred including gastroenteritis, myalgia, pericarditis, undifferentiated pyrexia, rashes and a syndrome analagous to bacteraemic shock. There was no evidence that the pattern or severity of the disease changed during the outbreak. Infants under the age of six months were more seriously affected than older children and adults. All patients except one made an uneventful recovery. Of the routine tissue culture cells HEp2 and HeLa were by far the most satisfactory for virus isolation.
Twenty-three chronic nonfluent aphasia patients with moderate or
severe word-finding impairments and 11 with profound word-finding
impairments received two novel picture-naming treatments. The intention
treatment initiated picture-naming trials with a complex left-hand
movement and was designed to enhance right frontal participation during
word retrieval. The attention treatment required patients to view visual
stimuli for picture-naming trials in their left hemispace and was designed
to enhance right posterior perisylvian participation during word
retrieval. Because the intention treatment addressed action mechanisms and
nonfluent aphasia reflects difficulty initiating or maintaining action
(i.e., language output), it was hypothesized that intention component of
the treatment would enhance re-acquisition of picture naming more than the
attention component. Patients with moderate and severe word-finding
impairment showed gains with both treatments but greater incremental
improvement from one treatment phase to the next with the intention than
the attention treatment. Thus, the hypothesis that intention component
would be a more active constituent than the attention component was
confirmed for these patients. Patients with profound word-finding
impairment showed some improvement with both treatments but no
differential effects for the intention treatment. Almost all patients who
showed treatment gains on either treatment also demonstrated
generalization from trained to untrained items. (JINS, 2007,
The SAURON integral-field survey reveals that small (~0.1,Re) kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in early-type galaxies are increasingly young toward the center and are typically found in fast-rotating galaxies, while large KDCs (~0.5 Re) have homogeneously old stars and are present in non-rotating galaxies (McDermid et al. 2006). GALEX UV imaging further allows the direct identification of regions of recent star formation (≤0.5 Gyr). In NGC 2974 for example, young stars are identified in the center and an outer ring Jeong et al. 2006). Nuclear and inner ionised-gas rings (Sarzi et al. 2006) then suggest that current star formation is bar-driven. The CO detection rate of SAURON early-type galaxies is ≈40% (Combes et al. in prep.). Synthesis imaging reveals that it is generally contained in a well-ordered central disk, both in galaxies with a (young) central stellar disk (e.g. NGC 4459, NGC 4526) or a (young) KDC (e.g. NGC 3032, NGC 4150) (Young et al. in prep.). CO also traces well the young stellar populations and ionised gas distribution and kinematics, but in KDCs not always the stellar kinematics Emsellem et al. 2004; Sarzi et al. 2006; Kuntschner et al. 2006).
We investigate the well-known correlations between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio M/L and other global observables of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies. We construct two-integral Jeans and three-integral Schwarzschild dynamical models for a sample of 25 E/S0 galaxies with SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics to about one effective (half-light) radius Re. The comparison of the dynamical M/L with the (M/L)pop inferred from the analysis of the stellar population, indicates that dark matter in early-type galaxies contributes ~30% of the total mass inside one Re, in agreement with previous studies, with significant variations from galaxy to galaxy. Our results suggest a variation in M/L at constant (M/L)pop, which seems to be linked to the galaxy dynamics. We speculate that fast rotating galaxies have lower dark matter fractions than the slow rotating and generally more massive ones.
Two patients (G01, J02) with chronic nonfluent aphasia and sentence
production deficits received syntactic mapping treatment to improve
sentence production. The patients had dramatically different outcomes in
that improved syntax production generalized to nontreatment tasks for G01,
but not for JO2. To learn how treatment influenced the neural substrates
for syntax production, both patients underwent pre- and posttreatment
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of sentence generation. G01
showed more robust activity posttreatment than pretreatment in
Broca's area; ventral temporal activity decreased slightly from pre-
to posttreatment. Comparison of J02's pretreatment and posttreatment
images revealed little change, although activity was more diffuse pre-
than posttreatment. Findings suggest that for G01, rehabilitation led to
engagement of an area (Broca's area) used minimally during the
pretreatment scan, whereas for J02, rehabilitation may have led to more
efficient use of areas already involved in sentence generation during the
pretreatment scan. fMRI findings are discussed in the context of
sentence-production outcome and generalization. (JINS, 2006,
We present a direct detection of the growth of large-scale structure, using weak gravitational lensing and photometric redshift data from the COMBO-17 survey. Deep $R$-band imaging of two $0.5\times0.5$ square degree fields is used to provide shear estimates for over 52000 galaxies; these are combined with photometric redshift estimates from our 17 band survey, in order to obtain a 3-D shear field. We discuss how theoretical models for evolving matter power spectra and correlation functions cab be used to find a best fit to this 3-D shear field. We present the detection of the evolution of the power, and measurements of the rate of evolution for $0<z<1$. We discuss future refinements which will improve the accuracy with which the effect can be measured.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
fMRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic
structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical
status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological
information during language generation, and rate of generation. During
fMRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks:
generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant
blends, generation of words given a rhyming word, generation of words
given a semantic category at a fast rate (matched to the rate of
nonsense syllable generation), and generation of words given a semantic
category at a slow rate (matched to the rate of generating of rhyming
words). Components of a left pre-SMA–dorsal caudate
nucleus–ventral anterior thalamic loop were active during word
generation from rhyming or category cues but not during nonsense
syllable generation. Findings indicate that this loop is involved in
retrieving words from pre-existing lexical stores. Relatively diffuse
activity in the right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) also
was found during word-generation tasks but not during nonsense syllable
generation. Given the relative absence of right frontal activity during
the word generation tasks, we suggest that the right basal ganglia
activity serves to suppress right frontal activity, preventing right
frontal structures from interfering with language production. Current
findings establish roles for the left and the right basal ganglia in
word generation. Hypotheses are discussed for future research to help
refine our understanding of basal ganglia functions in language
generation. (JINS, 2003, 9, 1061–1077.)
Visual markers detectable by histochemical staining have been developed
for analysing the time course and tissue specificity of maize
infections by Fusarium moniliforme. Three F. moniliforme
strains, RRC 374, MRC 826 and RRC PAT, were transformed with a
plasmid, pHPG, containing the gusA reporter gene which codes for
β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the hph gene for hygromycin
resistance as the selectable marker. Introduction of plasmid DNA into germinating
conidia yielded 1·2×10−7
transformants per conidium; expression of both gusA and hph
was however, transient. Stable transformants were obtained using protoplasts
recipient, but transformation frequency was reduced. Southern blot and
PCR analyses confirmed incorporation of pHPG into the
genome of all three F. moniliforme strains with gusA
properly inserted in MRC 826 and RRC PAT, but apparently disrupted in RRC
374. The growth pattern for transformed F. moniliforme isolates
and the parental wild types followed a sigmoid curve on minimal
and enriched media. Hygromycin totally inhibited growth for wild type isolates,
but not of transformants. Transformed isolates
maintained the ability to infect the maize plant. Thus, this study is the
first report of F. moniliforme transformed with a visibly
detectable reporter gene to use for analysing this endophyte-host interaction
of world-wide importance to animal and human health.
Total protein content and amounts of albumin, legumin and vicilin have been determined for pea seeds from lines near-isogenic except for genes at the rugosus loci, r and rb (RR/RbRb; rr/RbRb; RR/rbrb; rr/rbrb). Seeds with the wildtype, round-seeded phenotype (RR/RbRb) had less protein on a total seed dry-weight basis than any of the wrinkled-seeded lines and this protein had a lower proportion of albumin. The lines which had recessive alleles at both r and rb loci had the highest proportion of protein and the highest proportion of albumin. The roundseeded peas possessed nearly two-fold more legumin than the double recessive line, with proportions for the two single recessive lines falling in between these extremes. Vicilin levels were similarfor all four near-isogenic lines. SDS-PAGE analysis of the isolated albumin, legumin and vicilin fractions revealed no significant differences between the four lines. Differential scanning calorimetry of protein extracts showed that all the wrinkled-seeded near-isolines possessed legumin fractions with diminished thermal stability relative to that from the roundseeded, wild-type line.
Chemically-induced mutants were also analysed for protein content and composition. These mutants have previously been shown to display great variation in starch and lipid levels. Total protein varied from 20.3% to 37.9%; however, relative proportions of albumin, legumin and vicilin were similar in all mutant lines. SDS-PAGE analysis identified two mutant pea lines which possessed a legumin A-chain of 65 000 Mr as well as the typical 45 000 Mr form. Differential scanning calorimetry of protein extracts indicated that the legumin in all mutants had lower enthalpies of denaturation than the legumin in the round-seeded parent.
The mutant pea lines possess exceptional variation with respect to starch, lipid and protein which raises opportunities for their use in the food and animal feedstuff industries.