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An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
In several lately published studies, the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs12252) of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza is inconsistent. To further understand the association between the SNP of IFITM3 and the risk of influenza, we searched related studies in five databases including PubMed published earlier than 9 November 2017. Ten sets of data from nine studies were included and data were analysed by Revman 5.0 and Stata 12.0 in our updated meta-analysis, which represented 1365 patients and 5425 no-influenza controls from four different ethnicities. Here strong association between rs12252 and influenza was found in all four genetic models. The significant differences in the allelic model (C vs. T: odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.03–1.79), P = 0.03) and homozygote model (CC vs. TT: OR = 10.63, 95% CI (3.39–33.33), P < 0.00001) in the Caucasian subgroup were discovered, which is very novel and striking. Also novel discoveries were found in the allelic model (C vs. T: OR = 1.37, 95% CI (1.08–1.73), P = 0.009), dominant model (CC + CT vs. TT: OR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.08–2.02), P = 0.01) and homozygote model (CC vs. TT: OR = 2.84, 95% CI (1.36–5.92), P = 0.005) when we compared patients with mild influenza with healthy individuals. Our meta-analysis suggests that single-nucleotide T to C polymorphism of IFITM3 associated with increasingly risk of severe and mild influenza in both Asian and Caucasian populations.
Adolescence is a critical time point in the lifecourse. LifeLab is an educational intervention engaging adolescents in understanding Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concepts and the impact of the early life environment on future health, benefitting both their long-term health and that of the next generation. We aimed to assess whether engaging adolescents with DOHaD concepts improves scientific literacy and whether engagement alone improves health behaviours.
Six schools were randomized, three to intervention and three to control. Outcome measures were changed in knowledge, and intended and actual behaviour in relation to diet and lifestyle. A total of 333 students completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires. At 12 months, intervention students showed greater understanding of DOHaD concepts. No sustained changes in behaviours were identified.
Adolescents’ engagement with DOHaD concepts can be improved and maintained over 12 months. Such engagement does not itself translate into behaviour change. The intervention has consequently been revised to include additional components beyond engagement alone.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are island nations that experience specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities associated with small populations, isolation and limited resources. Globally, SIDS exhibit exceptionally high rates of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk and incidence. Despite this, there is a lack of context-specific research within SIDS focused on life course approaches to NCD prevention, particularly the impact of the early-life environment on later disease risk as defined by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework. Given that globalization has contributed to significant nutritional transitions in these populations, the DOHaD paradigm is highly relevant. SIDS in the Pacific region have the highest rates of NCD risk and incidence globally. Transitions from traditional foods grown locally to reliance on importation of Western-style processed foods high in fat and sugar are common. The Cook Islands is one Pacific SIDS that reports this transition, alongside rising overweight/obesity rates, currently 91%/72%, in the adult population. However, research on early-life NCD prevention within this context, as in many low- and middle-income countries, is scarce. Although traditional research emphasizes the need for large sample sizes, this is rarely possible in the smaller SIDS. In these vulnerable, high priority countries, consideration should be given to utilizing ‘small’ sample sizes that encompass a high proportion of the total population. This may enable contextually relevant research, crucial to inform NCD prevention strategies that can contribute to improving health and well-being for these at-risk communities.
Evidence in support of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has reached the level where it can appropriately be used to inform practice. DOHaD informed interventions supporting primary noncommunicable disease risk reduction should target the pre- and periconceptional periods, pregnancy, lactation, childhood and adolescence. Such interventions are dependent on a health workforce (including dietitians, nurses, midwives, doctors, and nutrition teachers), that has a deep understanding of DOHaD concepts. This study assessed development of awareness of DOHaD concepts during undergraduate health professional training programs. Using a cross-sectional design, a standardized questionnaire was completed by Year 1–4 undergraduate students studying nutrition in Japan (n=309) and Year 1–3 nursing students in New Zealand (n=151). On entry to undergraduate study, most students had no awareness of the terms ‘DOHaD’ or ‘First 1000 Days’. While awareness reached 60% by Year 3 in courses that included DOHaD-related teaching, this remains inadequate. More than 95% of Year 1 undergraduates in both countries demonstrated an appreciation of associations between maternal nutrition and fetal health. However, awareness of associations between parental health status and/or nutritional environment and later-life health was low. While levels of awareness increased across program years, overall awareness was less than optimal. These results indicate evidence of some focus on DOHaD-related content in curricula. We argue that DOHaD principles should be one pillar around which health training curricula are built. This study indicates a need for the DOHaD community to engage with faculties in curriculum development.
The Lijiang 2.4m telescope of Yunnan Observatories is located at longitude E100°01′51″, latitude N26°42′32″ and height 3250m above sea level (IAU code O44). Because of low latitude of the site, long-focus system and planetary tracking mode of telescope, high accuracy positioning and spectral classification of the near Earth objects (NEAs) especially in the Southern Hemisphere can be studied with the Lijiang 2.4m telescope. As a set of observational campaigns organized by the GAIA-FUN-SSO, astrometry of several near Earth asteroids including (367943) Duende and (99942) Apophis were made with Lijiang 2.4m telescope during 2013. From December 12, 2015, spectra of three near earth asteroids were also observed with the YFOSC terminal attached to the Lijiang 2.4m telescope. This paper will give the detailed introduction of Lijiaing 2.4m telescope and observational results of near Earth asteroids obtained with it.
A turbulent boundary layer developed over a herringbone patterned riblet surface is investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the cross-stream plane at
. The three velocity components resulting from this experiment reveal a pronounced spanwise periodicity in all single-point velocity statistics. Consistent with previous hot-wire studies over similar-type riblets, we observe a weak time-average secondary flow in the form of
-filling streamwise vortices. The observed differences in the surface and secondary flow characteristics, compared to other heterogeneous-roughness studies, may suggest that different mechanisms are responsible for the flow modifications in this case. Observations of instantaneous velocity fields reveal modified and rearranged turbulence structures. The instantaneous snapshots also suggest that the time-average secondary flow may be an artefact arising from superpositions of much stronger instantaneous turbulent events enhanced by the surface texture. In addition, the observed instantaneous secondary motions seem to have promoted a free-stream-engulfing behaviour in the outer layer, which would indicate an increase turbulent/non-turbulent flow mixing. It is overall demonstrated that the presence of large-scale directionality in transitional surface roughness can cause a modification throughout the entire boundary layer, even when the roughness height is 0.5 % of the layer thickness.
Health before conception, and periconceptional nutritional environments, contribute to conditioning of later-life health and disease. Health behaviors developed during adolescence continue into adulthood. Thus, even when the gap between pregnancy and adolescence is substantial, behaviors developed during adolescence influence later-life non-communicable disease (NCD) vulnerability in offspring. Consequently, adolescence is an important life phase where development of positive health behaviors can contribute to disruption of transgenerational cycles of NCD risk. Schooling is a core activity during adolescence. Modern curricula focus on development of capabilities associated with critical, engaged citizenship, empowering learning that supports action-based engagement in complex issues. Contexts relevant to adolescents and their communities, such as the NCD epidemic, are used to facilitate learning. Thus, engaging the education sector as participants in the work of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease community offers an important strategy to capture the potential of adolescence as a life stage for transgenerational primary prevention of obesity and NCD risk.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The present study investigated the effects of different levels of urea nitrogen (N) fertilizer on nutrient accumulation, in vitro rumen gas production and fermentation characteristics of forage oat straw (FOS) from oats (Avena sativa L. ‘Qinghai 444’) grown in the Tibet region of China. Fertilizer, applied at seeding (day 1), stem elongation (days 52–54) and heading (days 63–67), increased plant height and prolonged the maturity stage of the plant by 4–11 days compared with the non-fertilized control. Oat plants were harvested at maturity at the node 3–4 cm above ground, and then separated into grains and FOS. Both FOS and grain yields increased quadratically with increasing N fertilization, and their theoretical maximums occurred at the N fertilizing rates of 439 and 385 kg/ha, respectively. Increases in N fertilization did not affect the hemicellulose content of FOS, but substantially promoted the accumulation of crude protein, cellulose and lignin, resulting in a decrease in the energy content available for metabolism. A 72-h incubation of FOS with rumen fluids from lactating cows showed that increasing N resulted in FOS that showed a slower fermentation rate, decreased in vitro dry matter disappearance and lower cumulative gas production, but unchanged fermentation gas composition. Nitrogen fertilization increased the final pH in culture fluids and decreased the microbial volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. The molar proportions of acetate and propionate were not affected, but molar propionate proportion decreased linearly with increasing urea fertilization, and consequently, the ratio of lipogenic (e.g., acetate and butyrate)-to-glucogenic acids (propionate) tended to increase. In brief, increasing urea N fertilization promoted the growth of forage oats and increased the biomass yield as well as the crude protein and cellulose content of FOS. Considering the negative effect of increased lignin content on nutrient digestibility and total VFA production, the suggested range of urea N fertilization is 156–363 kg N/ha for forage oats planted in Tibet to retain the nutritive value of FOS in the rumen.
A completely randomized experiment for planting highland barley in 36 field plots of the Lhasa Agricultural Experiment Station was applied to investigate the effect of urea nitrogen (N) fertilization levels of 0 (control), 156, 258, 363, 465 and 570 kg/ha on nutrient accumulation, in vitro rumen gas production and fermentation characteristics of highland barley straw (HBS). Each urea application was divided into three portions of 0.4, 0.3 and 0.3 and sequentially fertilized at seeding (growth stage (GS) 0), stem elongation (GS 32) and heading (GS 49), respectively. The maturity stage lasted 5–13 days longer in response to the urea N fertilization compared with the control. After removing grains, HBS biomass was harvested at maturity. The biomass yields of leaf, stem, straw and grain were increased quadratically with increasing urea N fertilization, and HBS and grain yields peaked at the estimated urea N fertilization levels of 385 and 428 kg/ha, respectively. The increase of urea N fertilization increased the accumulation of crude protein, cellulose and lignin, and decreased the content of ash and hemicellulose in HBS, resulting in a decrease of the energy content available to be metabolized. After incubating HBS for 72 h with rumen fluids from lactating cows, the urea N fertilization decreased in vitro dry matter disappearance and cumulative gas production, and slightly altered fermentation end-gas composition. Urea N fertilization decreased microbial volatile fatty acid production, but did not alter the ratio of lipogenic acetate and butyrate to glucogenic propionate. In a brief, the current urea N fertilization strategy promoted the growth of the highland barley and increased biomass yield, protein and cellulose accumulation of HBS. A urea N fertilization level ⩽385 kg/ha could be sufficient for growth of highland barley in Tibet without a consequent nutritive reduction in ruminal digestion.
Gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves generally are energy dependent, i.e.,
the higher the photon energy, the narrower the pulse. In addition, the peak of the pulse
at lower energies is usually delayed compared with that in higher energy. The phenomenon
even exists in some X-ray flares and following optical flares. However, its origin is
still unclear. Here we calculate the emission in different bands produced from
different-thickness shocked shell due to radiative cooling, with the equal arrival time
volume effect considered. We find the emission profile is energy dependent and that the
light curves show spectral lag, which are consistent with the observations. This can be an
explanation of the energy dependence of light curve and spectral lag in GRB, X-ray flare
and following optical flare.
Carbon-Li4Ti5O12 (C-LTO) and carbon nanotube-Li4Ti5O12 (CNT-LTO) nanocomposite particles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and a following high-temperature calcinations using a mixture of micro-size Li-Ti-O precursors and conducting black and carbon nanotubes, respectively. Two different types of coating layers have been characterized and analyzed on two kinds of Li4Ti5O12 particles surface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Typical HR-TEM images and SAED patterns at nano-scale confirmed and showed that both particles exhibited a well-developed spinel nanocrystal with average sizes around 20-50 nm. The C-LTO particles exhibited the roughly spherical shape with more than 5 nm graphitic coating uniformly on the spherical surfaces; however, the CNT-LTO particles showed uniform square nanocrystal with edge length around 30 nm and a few layers of graphene covering the surface.
Electrochemical studies of galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling capacity testing indicated that both Li4Ti5O12particles showed the superior initial discharge capacity of more than 200 mA·h/g at 0.1C rate, and also the CNT-LTO particles show much improved specific capacity than that of the C-LTO particles during different cycling processing. It has been proposed that, grephene covering layers and the CNT interconnection networks are prove to increase electronic conductivity and improve the kinetics of Li4Ti5O12 toward fast lithium insertion/extraction. The comparative experimental results demonstrated that both nanoscale grephene layer and CNT inter-networks among particles is highly effective in improving the electrochemical properties of the CNT-LTO particles.
We describe the internal cerebral vein (ICV) sign, which is a hypo-opacification of the ICV on computed tomogram angiography (CTA) as a new marker of increased cerebral blood transit-time in ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusions (ICAO).
A retrospective analysis of 153 patients with acute unilateral M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions ± ICAOs was performed. The degree of contrast opacification of the ICV on the ipsilesional side was compared to that of the unaffected side.
Of 153 patients in our study, 135 had M1 MCA occlusions ± intra-cranial ICAO (M1±iICAO) and 18 had isolated extracranial ICAO (eICAO). In the patients with proximal M1±iICAO, 57/65 (87.1%) showed the ICV sign. Of the 8 patients without the ICV sign in this group, 6 had prominent lenticulostriate arteries arising from the non-occluded M1 segment, 1 had a recurrent artery of Huebner, and 1 had filling of distal ICA/M1 segment through prominent Circle of Willis collaterals. For the 70 patients with isolated distal M1±iICAO, 7/70 (10%) showed the ICV sign, with all 7 showing occluded lenticulostriate arteries. Of the patients with eICAO, 8/18 showed the ICV sign, all 8 with the ICV sign had poor Circle of Willis collaterals.
The ICV sign correlates well with presence of proximal M1±iICAO in patients with either occluded lenticulostriate arteries or poor Circle of Willis collaterals. In patients with eICAO, the sign correlates with reduced Circle of Willis collaterals and may be a marker of increased ipsilateral cerebral blood transit time.
Nanoporous TiO2 electrodes were sensitized by different porphyrin derivatives, terahydroxyphenyl porphyrin (THPP) and tera-carboxylphenyl porphyrin (TCPP). Both kinds of sensitized electrodes were characterized by UV-vis, XRD and XPS. The results showed that the interaction between TiO2 and TCPP was stronger than that between TiO2 and THPP. Both kinds of the sensitized electrodes were assembled to photoelectrochemical cells. The photocurrent responses of the photoelectrochemical cell under different incident illumination directions were different significantly. The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield (η) of TCPPsensitized cell was 0.11%, while the conversion efficiency of THPP-sensitized cell was 0.06%.
More than 50% of the global population already lives in urban settlements and urban areas are projected to absorb almost all the global population growth to 2050, amounting to some additional three billion people. Over the next decades the increase in rural population in many developing countries will be overshadowed by population flows to cities. Rural populations globally are expected to peak at a level of 3.5 billion people by around 2020 and decline thereafter, albeit with heterogeneous regional trends. This adds urgency in addressing rural energy access, but our common future will be predominantly urban. Most of urban growth will continue to occur in small-to medium-sized urban centers. Growth in these smaller cities poses serious policy challenges, especially in the developing world. In small cities, data and information to guide policy are largely absent, local resources to tackle development challenges are limited, and governance and institutional capacities are weak, requiring serious efforts in capacity building, novel applications of remote sensing, information, and decision support techniques, and new institutional partnerships. While ‘megacities’ with more than 10 million inhabitants have distinctive challenges, their contribution to global urban growth will remain comparatively small.
Energy-wise, the world is already predominantly urban. This assessment estimates that between 60–80% of final energy use globally is urban, with a central estimate of 75%. Applying national energy (or GHG inventory) reporting formats to the urban scale and to urban administrative boundaries is often referred to as a ‘production’ accounting approach and underlies the above GEA estimate.
A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11–14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort.
The reversible switching between the amorphous and crystalline phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics. We apply different quench rates (-16 K/ps, -5 K/ps, -2 K/ps, and -0.45 K/ps) and different annealing temperatures (500 K, 600 K, 700 K, and 800 K) to amorphize and crystallize GST respectively. Results show that the generated amorphous is strongly dependent on the quench rate. For -16 K/ps and -5 K/ps, generated amorphous samples have different density of crystal seeds, higher in the later. The amorphous structure formed at -2 K/ps contains a single crystalline cluster, while that formed at the quench rate of -0.45 K/ps had sufficient time to completely crystallize the amorphous phase. Annealing the amorphous systems formed at different rates shows that crystallization depends both on the annealing temperature and on the structure of the initial system (i.e., whether or not it contains crystalline clusters or crystal seeds). At 500 K, formation of crystalline clusters occurs readily within a few ps while the rate at which they grow is slow, taking 0.9 ns to complete the crystallization. In contrast, crystalline cluster formation is inhibited at 800 K. In the intermediate temperature range, both crystalline cluster formation and growth occur within a few hundred ps indicating that these temperatures leads to the fastest crystallization. The crystallization of a 63-atom at ∼900 K resulted in a highly relaxed crystal structure showing a clear tendency for separation of Ge and Sb species in layers. This model also indicates a tendency of segregation of vacancies, suggesting that vacancy layering may play a key role in the crystallization process.