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Society is undergoing a shift in gender politics. Science and medicine are part of this conversation, not least as women's representation and pay continue to drop as one progresses through more senior academic and clinical levels. Naming and redressing these inequalities needs to be a priority for us all.
Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is a national study of 1759 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. The study is in its 11th wave of annual data collection, having collected extensive data on topics including birth and early life influences, parental health and well-being, identity, cultural engagement, language use, housing, racism, school engagement and academic achievement, and social and emotional well-being. The current paper reviews a selection of major findings from Footprints in Time relating to the developmental origins of health and disease for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Opportunities for new researchers to conduct further research utilizing the LSIC data set are also presented.
In the diagnosis and treatment of behavioural disorders in multi-cat households, it is often assumed that a dominance hierarchy exists between the cats (e.g. Crowell-Davis, 2002). While such hierarchies are probably commonplace among dogs, what evidence there is to support the existence of social hierarchies in groups of domestic cats has mainly been gathered from reproductively entire animals, such as single sex laboratory colonies, and free-ranging aggregations of ferals. For example, Natoli et al. (2001) used receipt of “submissive” (defensive) behaviour to construct a weakly linear hierarchy in a group of 14 farm cats, but this did not correspond to the hierarchy derived from receipt of affiliative behaviour. We have investigated the alternative hypotheses that apparent dominance hierarchies in multi-cat households may actually be based upon territorial behaviour, or some other undetermined social system.
Repeated epidemiological surveys show no decline in depression although uptake of treatments has grown. Universal depression prevention interventions are effective in schools but untested rigorously in adulthood. Selective prevention programmes have poor uptake. Universal interventions may be more acceptable during routine healthcare contacts for example antenatally. One study within routine postnatal healthcare suggested risk of postnatal depression could be reduced in non-depressed women from 11% to 8% by giving health visitors psychological intervention training. Feasibility and effectiveness in other settings, most notably antenatally, is unknown.
We conducted an external pilot study using a cluster trial design consisting of recruitment and enhanced psychological training of randomly selected clusters of community midwives (CMWs), recruitment of pregnant women of all levels of risk of depression, collection of baseline and outcome data prior to childbirth, allowing time for women ‘at increased risk’ to complete CMW-provided psychological support sessions.
Seventy-nine percent of eligible women approached agreed to take part. Two hundred and ninety-eight women in eight clusters participated and 186 termed ‘at low risk’ for depression, based on an Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of <12 at 12 weeks gestation, provided baseline and outcome data at 34 weeks gestation. All trial protocol procedures were shown to be feasible. Antenatal effect sizes in women ‘at low risk’ were similar to those previously demonstrated postnatally. Qualitative work confirmed the acceptability of the approach to CMWs and intervention group women.
A fully powered trial testing universal prevention of depression in pregnancy is feasible, acceptable and worth undertaking.
Ecological regions aggregate habitats with similar biophysical characteristics within well-defined boundaries, providing spatially consistent platforms for monitoring, managing and forecasting the health of interrelated ecosystems. A major obstacle to the implementation of this approach is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities in region extent. The method presented in this paper encompasses the majority of both contemporary and estimated preclearance forest cover within strict topographical limits. Many of the species here tentatively considered ‘near-endemic’ could be reclassified as strictly endemic according to the derived boundaries. LandScan and census data show population density inside the ecoregion to be higher than in rural lowlands, and lowland settlement to be most probable within 30 km. This definition should help to align landscape scale conservation strategies in the Eastern Arc and promote new research in areas of predicted, but as yet undocumented, biological importance. Similar methods could work well in other regions where mountain extent is poorly resolved. Spatial data accompany the online version of this article.
The length and time scales of an atomistic simulation are often too small for any direct comparison with experimental observations. In order to study the coverage of pits (COPs) found on the Si (100) surface by epitaxial deposition, we first calculate rate of individual steps using molecular dynamics and then define a sequence of Monte-Carlo steps to study the effect of various factors on effective coverage of COPs.
Cramer et al.'s account of comorbidity comes with a substantive philosophical view concerning the nature of psychological disorders. Although the network account is responsive to problems with extant approaches, it faces several practical and conceptual challenges of its own, especially in cases where the individual differences in network structures require the analysis of intra-individual time-series data.
Although Lyme borreliosis is increasingly diagnosed in the United Kingdom, few systematic studies have been performed there. UK data suggest that the commonest complications are neurological, but inadequate information exists about their nature and the incidence of late neuroborreliosis. Local data are necessary because clinical presentations may show geographical variation. This study aimed to provide data on clinical manifestations in an area of South West England and to estimate treatment delay. We reviewed clinical records of 88 patients in the Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital catchment area who had positive Borrelia antibody tests during a 5-year period. Fifty-six (64%) reported tick bites. The commonest presentations were erythema migrans (65%) and arthralgia/myalgia (27%). However, 22 patients (25%) had neurological symptoms other than headache alone. Fourteen had facial palsy, eight had confusion/drowsiness, four had meningism, five had radiculopathy, two had sixth nerve palsies, and two had peripheral neuropathies. No late, progressive or atypical neurological syndromes were found. Neurological manifestations were generally predictable and usually included either (or all) of meningoencephalitis, facial palsy or radiculopathy.
This experiment sought to establish the response to increasing levels of coconut oil (CO) supplementation with a fixed 0·50:0·50 forage:concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and methane (CH4) emissions. Sixteen continental cross beef heifers (mean starting weight 481±36 kg) were assigned randomly to one of four levels of CO; 0 g/day, 125 g/day, 250 g/day or 375 g/day in an incomplete (three periods) multiple (no. =4) Latin-square design experiment (no. =12 per treatment). A linear reduction in CH4 output occurred as the level of CO in the diet increased ( P<0·001) with the greatest reduction at the 375 g/day level (394, 341, 314 and 240 l/day for animals fed 0, 125, 250 and 375 g/day CO, respectively). As the level of CO increased dry-matter (DM) intake (DMI) decreased, however these differences were only statistically significant at the 375 g/day level ( P <0·001). The proportional reduction in CH4 output was greater than the proportional reduction in DMI and hence CH4 l/kg DMI decreased from 39·8 l/kg when no CO was given to 29·7 l/kg when 375 g/day CO was given. The addition of CO to the diet resulted in a significant decline in dry-matter digestibility (DMD) at the 375 g/day level (P<0·05). These data demonstrate that the inclusion of CO at levels from 0·013 to 0·045 of the dietary DM within a 0·50:0·50 silage and concentrate ration reduces CH4 production with no adverse effect on DMI or DMD up to the 250 g/day level (0·027 of dietary DM).
Having concluded our assessment of the monetary value of land under forestry we now turn to consider the prime opportunity cost of such a decision, namely the value of the major land use in Wales: agriculture. This chapter presents models of net agricultural income received by farmers (referred to as the ‘farm-gate’ value) and its social or ‘shadow price’ equivalent which adjusts for the various subsidies and other transfer payments which characterise UK agriculture. As before, a GIS-based approach is used to generate maps of such values for the entire study area. This permits subsequent comparison of total woodland values with those for agriculture (see Chapter 9).
The following section presents the necessary policy background. This establishes the broad and progressively strengthening economic case for the transfer of at least some land out of conventional agriculture and into alternative land uses and overviews the theoretical and methodological basis of our analysis. An overview of developments since our 1990 study period is also presented, showing that there has been a clear worsening of the economic situation for farmers in our study area, which means that our analysis will provide a conservative estimate of the potential for land use change from farming to forestry.
The following two sections outline the GIS-based methodology employed and discuss the data. For modelling purposes, farms in the sample were clustered into distinct groups as explained in the next section, which also reviews definitions of farm-gate and shadow value of production.
This book concerns the application of environmental economic analysis to real-world decision-making. In particular it seeks to demonstrate a number of ways in which geographical information systems (GIS) can be employed to enhance such analyses. We have written it because, in our opinion, GIS techniques can considerably improve the way in which the complexities of the real world can be brought into economic cost-benefit analyses (CBA), so reducing the reliance upon simplifying assumptions for which economists are infamous.
As we are primarily interested in demonstrating the flexibility and applicability of GIS techniques to a diversity of situations, we assume no prior knowledge of such techniques and avoid unnecessary technicalities wherever possible by referring the interested reader to related academic papers throughout. In so doing it is our objective to appeal to students, researchers, academics and, in particular, decision-makers and analysts across a broad spectrum of disciplines including economics (especially environmental, agricultural and resource economics), geography, land use planning and management, environmental science and related policy studies.
The application of GIS to environmental economic analyses is introduced gradually through the use of a diverse land use change case study. This concerns the potential for converting surplus agricultural land to multipurpose woodland in Wales. However, neither the specifics of this case study nor its location need be of particular interest to the reader as the study is designed primarily to demonstrate the flexibility of the underlying approach.
Perhaps the most often quoted definition of an economist is of someone who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing. However, it is an awareness of the distinction between value and price which separates out the true economist from the glorified book-keepers and accountants who so often masquerade under such a title. Recent years have seen a growth of badge-engineering in which so-called new disciplines such as environmental or ecological economics have risen to prominence. However, whilst these are appealing titles, in essence they represent not a radical departure but rather a very welcome return to the basic principles and domain of economics – the analysis of true value.
It is one of these basic principles which underpins this study: namely the assumption that values can be measured by the preferences of individuals. The interaction of preferences with the various services provided by a commodity generates a variety of values. Many economists have studied the nature of these values; however, a useful starting point is the concept of aggregate or total economic value (TEV) (Pearce and Turner, 1990; Turner, 1999; Fromm, 2000).
Figure 1.1 shows how TEV can be broken down into its constituent parts and illustrates these with reference to some of the values generated by the principal commodity under consideration in this study; woodland.
The bulk of economic analyses concentrate upon the instrumental or use values of a commodity.
At the heart of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) theory lie two basic principles (Pearce, 1986; Hanley and Spash, 1993): first that, as far as possible, all the costs and benefits arising from a project should be assessed; and, second, that they should be measured using the common unit of money. While these seem common-sense precepts, in application both principles raise highly complex problems. The issue of complete appraisal is, when taken to the extreme, ultimately insoluble in a world ruled by the laws of thermodynamics where, as noted by commentators such as Price (1987a, 2000) and Young (1992), everything affects everything else. For real-world decision-making, practical rules regarding the limits of appraisal are needed. Such rules are the stuff of numerous project appraisal guidelines, for example the Treasury's ‘Green Book’ (H.M. Treasury, 1991), whereas the research described here focuses on the second principle – of monetary valuation.
In discussing approaches to the monetary evaluation of environmental preferences we can first identify a wider global family of monetary assessment methods (see Figure 2.1). This comprises both the formal ‘valuation’ (or demand curve) methods discussed below and a quite separate group of ad hoc environmental ‘pricing’ techniques (see the review in Bateman, 1999). In theoretical terms valuation and pricing approaches are quite distinct. Whereas the former are based upon individuals' preferences and yield conventional, neoclassical, welfare measures (hence the term ‘valuation methods’), the pricing techniques are much more akin to market-price observations.
This research draws upon a series of interrelated studies designed to provide an improved cost-benefit analysis of a proposed conversion of land use out of conventional agriculture and into woodland. The analysis covers a number of diverse questions and is necessarily complex. Consequently a number of conclusions can be drawn. To simplify this process, we first review the achievements of this research before considering, in the subsequent section, the problems of the study and ongoing work. This is followed by our concluding comments.
Summary of research
As reviewed in the opening chapter of this volume, woodland produces a variety of market-priced and non-market benefits and costs. The first phase of this research was concerned with monetary valuation of one of the principal non-market benefits, woodland recreation. Given the open-access nature of this good, which produces no internal return to the land-owner but is of significant social value, we were forced to rely upon non-market valuation methods. Chapter 2 reviewed these methods, highlighting the theoretical appropriateness of both the contingent valuation (CV) and travel cost (TC) techniques. The chapter also provided a theoretical analysis of the values elicited by these methods.
Chapter 3 opened with an appraisal of UK applications of these methods to the valuation of woodland recreation. This review raised a number of interesting issues; for example, studies failed to identify any significant link between recreational values and tree species.
In this chapter we present various models of timber production for the two species under consideration: Sitka spruce and beech. In the next section we present a brief review of previous studies. These have exclusively been based upon relatively small-scale surveys of tree growth; furthermore, they have also generally been confined to comparatively small areas and often to one topographic region, e.g. upland areas. Our study differs from these previous models in that it employs a GIS to utilise large-scale existing databases covering a very large and diverse study area: the whole of Wales. The subsequent section presents details regarding the various datasets used in this study and discusses how these data were transformed for the purposes of subsequent regression analysis. Subsequently, results from our models of Sitka spruce and beech growth rates are presented, while the following section presents and analyses GIS-created map images of predicted yield class. The final section applies the findings of the previous chapter to produce monetised equivalents of these results.
Literature review and methodological overview
It is clear that tree growth rates depend upon a variety of species, environmental and silvicultural factors. Early work in this field relied on simple rules of thumb based upon relatively little supporting data (Busby, 1974) or analyses of single factors. Reviews across this literature provide a number of clues regarding the specification of a yield class model. An early focus of interest was the impact of elevation upon productivity (Malcolm, 1970; Mayhead, 1973; Blyth, 1974).
The complex real-world interactions between the economy and the environment form both the focus of and main barrier to applied research within the field of environmental economics. However, geographical information systems (GIS) allow economists to tackle such complexity head on by directly incorporating diverse datasets into applied research rather than resorting to simplifying and often unrealistic assumptions. This innovative book applies GIS techniques to spatial cost-benefit analysis of a complex and topical land use change problem - the conversion of agricultural land to multipurpose woodland - looking in detail at issues such as opportunity costs, timber yield, recreation, carbon storage, etc., and embracing cost-cutting themes such as the evaluation of environmental preferences and the spatial transfer of benefit functions.