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The LLW Repository Limited has recognised the potential importance of the processes being considered in the BIOPROTA 14C working group and funded the development a new 14C model that addresses the exchange of gas in a soil-plant-atmosphere system. This model considers two regions in the above-ground atmosphere and utilises concepts from the field of micrometeorology to describe the exchange of air between these regions and losses from the area of interest. The lower layer only experiences molecular diffusion processes in relation to the movement of molecules of CO2, whereas the upper layer experiences some degree of turbulent mixing as a result of winds which flow over the area of interest. The thicknesses of these layers depend upon the canopy density, which will affect the light intensity and thus the rate of photosynthetic uptake of carbon in the canopy profile. Model results demonstrate the impacts of 14C-labelled gas from the soil upon the calculated 14C concentration in plants for a variety of plant species (pasture and garden crops) and subsequent doses to human exposure groups. The technical modelling work described has been funded by the LLW Repository Ltd in support of its 2011 Environmental Safety Case.
To investigate the prevalence, duration, and etiology of bacteremia following dental extractions performed after a single administration of Chlorhexidine mouthwash.
Design and Setting.
A randomized, controlled trial performed in a university hospital.
A series of 106 patients with mental and behavioral disabilities who underwent dental extractions under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to a control group or Chlorhexidine group. The exclusion criteria applied were use of antibiotics in the previous 3 months, use of oral antiseptics, any type of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, and disease that predisposes the patient to infections or bleeding. The Chlorhexidine group had 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash administered for 30 seconds before any dental manipulation. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 seconds, 15 minutes, and 1 hour after the dental extractions. Subculture and further identification of the isolated bacteria were performed by conventional microbiological techniques.
The prevalence of bacteremia after dental extraction in the control and Chlorhexidine groups were 96% and 79%, respectively, at 30 seconds (P = .008), 64% and 30% at 15 minutes (P <.001), and 20% and 2% at 1 hour (P = .005). The most frequently identified bacteria were Streptococcus species in both the control and Chlorhexidine groups (64% and 68%, respectively), particularly viridans group streptococci.
We recommend the routine use of a 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash before dental extractions to reduce the risk of postextraction bacteremia.
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