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Effects of stresses associated with extremely preterm birth may be biologically “recorded” in the genomes of individuals born preterm via changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Genome-wide DNAm profiles were examined in buccal epithelial cells from 45 adults born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; ≤1000 g) in the oldest known cohort of prospectively followed ELBW survivors (Mage = 32.35 years, 17 male), and 47 normal birth weight (NBW; ≥2500 g) control adults (Mage = 32.43 years, 20 male). Sex differences in DNAm profiles were found in both birth weight groups, but they were greatly enhanced in the ELBW group (77,895 loci) versus the NBW group (3,424 loci), suggesting synergistic effects of extreme prenatal adversity and sex on adult DNAm profiles. In men, DNAm profiles differed by birth weight group at 1,354 loci on 694 unique genes. Only two loci on two genes distinguished between ELBW and NBW women. Gene ontology (GO) and network analyses indicated that loci differentiating between ELBW and NBW men were abundant in genes within biological pathways related to neuronal development, synaptic transportation, metabolic regulation, and cellular regulation. Findings suggest increased sensitivity of males to long-term epigenetic effects of extremely preterm birth. Group differences are discussed in relation to particular gene functions.
A subcommittee of the Hawaii Governor's Joint Task Force on Rat Lungworm Disease developed preliminary guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis (NAS) in 2018 (Guidelines, 2018). This paper reviews the main points of those guidelines and provides updates in areas where our understanding of the disease has increased. The diagnosis of NAS is described, including confirmation of infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTi-PCR) to detect parasite DNA in the central nervous system (CNS). The treatment literature is reviewed with recommendations for the use of corticosteroids and the anthelminthic drug albendazole. Long-term sequelae of NAS are discussed and recommendations for future research are proposed.
Temporal and spatial patterns in flowering phenology were assessed for eight tropical African tree species. Specifically, the frequency and seasonality of flowering at seven sites in central Africa were determined using field data, graphical analysis and circular statistics. Additionally, spatial variation in the timing of flowering across species range was investigated using herbarium data, analysing the relative influence of latitude, longitude and timing of the dry season with a Bayesian circular generalized linear model. Annual flowering was found for 20 out of the 25 populations studied. For 21 populations located at the north of the climatic hinge flowering was occurring during the dry season. The analysis of herbarium collections revealed a significant shift in the timing of flowering with latitude for E. suaveolens, and with the timing of the dry season for M. excelsa (and to a lesser extent L. alata), with the coexistence of two flowering peaks near the equator where the distribution of monthly rainfall is bimodal. For the other species, none of latitude, longitude or timing of the dry season had an effect on the timing of flowering. Our study highlights the need to identify the drivers of the flowering phenology of economically important African tree species.
This study examined the link between two biological markers of stress vulnerability at 22–26 years of age and telomere length at 30–35 among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors and normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 g) control participants. Sixteen ELBW and 22 NBW participants provided baseline afternoon salivary cortisol samples and resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry data at 22–26 years. Buccal cells were assayed for telomere length at 30–35 years. Analyses controlled for sex, postnatal steroid exposure, childhood socioeconomic status, time of cortisol sample collection, and body mass index at 22–26 years. Salivary cortisol and frontal asymmetry at age 22–26 independently predicted telomere length at age 30–35, such that relatively higher cortisol and greater relative right frontal asymmetry at rest predicted telomere shortening among NBW controls, but not among ELBW survivors. However, similar associations were not noted in ELBW survivors, suggesting that ELBW survivors may have different mechanisms of stress coping as a result of their early-life exposures. These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of the role of stress in the genesis of cellular senescence at least among those born at NBW, but that these links may differ in those born preterm.
Hierarchization is a deliberate process to create a vertically nested governance architecture where actors and institutions in a lower rank are bound or otherwise compelled to obey, respond to or contribute to higher-order norms and objectives. Drawing on this definition, we review recent research on hierarchization in earth system governance and the political and legal processes that establish, maintain and legitimize it. Here we present three mutually non-exclusive forms of hierarchization – systematization, centralization and prioritization. Each involves different actors and rationales, mechanisms and strategies, while achieving different purposes with varying governance outcomes. We illustrate our argument with empirical examples including the proposed Global Pact for the Environment, the proposal to establish a world environment organization and the Sustainable Development Goals. We conclude with an assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of hierarchization as an approach to some of the challenges inherent in earth system governance, and offer suggestions for future research.
Il est fréquent que des enfants intellectuellement surdoués soient adressés en consultation de pédopsychiatrie pour des problèmes socio-émotionnels et/ou une inadaptation scolaire paradoxale. Ces enfants sont classiquement décrits comme présentant des problèmes d’ordre anxio-dépressif, et comme étant plutôt de grands surdoués ou intellectuellement dysharmoniques. Nous avons testé ces assertions chez 143 enfants surdoués (QI > 130) vus en consultation, en utilisant le profil intellectuel de Wechsler et l’inventaire de comportements pour enfant d’Achenbach. Ces enfants présentaient des problèmes comportementaux significatifs dans tous les domaines explorés, sans prédominance des problèmes anxio-dépressifs. Les plus surdoués (QI > 145) ne présentaient pas plus de problèmes que les autres. Les enfants au profil intellectuel dysharmonique présentaient plus de problèmes agis en général, et plus d’agressivité en particulier. Ces résultats suggèrent que la dysharmonie du développement intellectuel est facteur à prendre en compte pour comprendre les problèmes émotionnels et comportementaux des enfants surdoués.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
The first positive genome-wide association study on gestational length and preterm delivery showed the involvement of an Se metabolism gene. In the present study, we examine the association between maternal intake of Se and Se status with gestational length and preterm delivery in 72 025 women with singleton live births from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A self-reported, semi-quantitative FFQ answered in pregnancy week 22 was used to estimate Se intake during the first half of pregnancy. Associations were analysed with adjusted linear and Cox regressions. Se status was assessed in whole blood collected in gestational week 17 (n 2637). Median dietary Se intake was 53 (interquartile range (IQR) 44–62) µg/d, supplements provided additionally 50 (IQR 30–75) µg/d for supplement users (n 23 409). Maternal dietary Se intake was significantly associated with prolonged gestational length (β per sd = 0·25, 95 % CI, 0·07, 0·43) and decreased risk of preterm delivery (n 3618, hazard ratio per sd = 0·92, 95 % CI, 0·87, 0·98). Neither Se intake from supplements nor maternal blood Se status was associated with gestational length or preterm delivery. Hence, the present study showed that maternal dietary Se intake but not intake of Se-containing supplements, during the first half of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased risk of preterm delivery. Further investigations, preferably in the form of a large randomised controlled trial, are needed to elucidate the impact of Se on pregnancy duration.
The mental health of adult extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (<1000 g) survivors is poorer than their normal birth weight (NBW) peers. An understanding of the modifiable factors that affect this risk could provide targets for intervention. We set out to determine the extent to which a maternal history of mental health problems influenced mental health in ELBW and NBW offspring in adulthood. A total of 85 ELBW and 88 NBW individuals born between 1977 and 1982 in central west Ontario, Canada self-reported on internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (attention-deficit hyperactivity and antisocial) problems using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) scales of the Young Adult Self-Report at ages 22–26 and 30–35. They also reported on their mother’s maternal mental health using the Family History Screen. An interaction was found between birth weight status and maternal history of an anxiety disorder such that ELBW survivors showed a greater increase in internalizing scores than NBW participants at 22–26 (β = 10.27, p = 0.002) and at 30–35 years of age (β = 12.65, p = 0.002). An interaction was also observed between birth weight and maternal history of mood disorder, with higher externalizing scores in ELBW survivors than NBW adults at 22–26 (β = 7.21, p < 0.0001). ELBW adults appear to be more susceptible to the adverse mental health effects of exposure to maternal mood and anxiety disorders than those born at NBW. These links further highlight the importance of detecting and treating mental health problems in the parents of preterm survivors as a means of attempting to reduce the burden of psychopathology in this population.
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors have higher rates of shyness, a risk factor for poorer outcomes across the life span. Due to advances in fetal and neonatal medicine, the first generation of ELBW survivors have survived to adulthood and become parents. However, no studies have investigated the transmission of their stress vulnerability to their offspring. We explored this phenomenon using a population-based cohort of ELBW survivors and normal birth weight (NBW) controls. Using data from three generations, we examined whether the shyness and parenting stress of ELBW and NBW participants (Generation 2) mediated the relation between the parenting style of their parents (Generation 1) and shyness in their offspring (Generation 3), and the extent to which exposure to perinatal adversity (Generation 2) moderated this mediating effect. We found that among ELBW survivors, parenting stress (in Generation 2) mediated the relation between overprotective parenting style in Generation 1 (grandparents) and child shyness in Generation 3. These findings suggest that perinatal adversity and stress may be transmitted to the next generation in humans, as reflected in their perceptions of their children as shy and socially anxious, a personality phenotype that may subsequently place their children at risk of later mental and physical health problems.
The repetitive use of ALS inhibitors for smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) control has selected for herbicide-resistant (R) populations that threaten the sustainability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and demand alternative control measures be developed. A better understanding of seedling recruitment patterns at the field level is required to optimize the timing and efficacy of control measures. Therefore, a population-based threshold model was developed for optimizing germination prediction in multiple acetolactate synthase (ALS)-R and ALS-susceptible (ALS-S) C. difformis biotypes and applied to field-level emergence predictions. Estimated base temperatures (Tb) ranged from 16.5 to 17.6 C with no clear pattern between biotypes; such values are higher than Tb values of other important rice weeds, as well as for rice. Germination rates increased linearly from 16 to 33.7 C. ALS-R seeds germinate faster due to smaller median thermal times to germination (θT(50)) while also displaying lower germination synchronicity across water potentials. Interestingly, ALS-R biotypes were capable of germinating under lower moisture availability, as indicated by their lower (more negative) base water potential values (Ψb(50)) for seed germination; Ψb(50) values ranged from −0.24 to −1.13 MPa. In-field soil germination measurements found thermal times to emergence varied across three water regimes (daily water, flooded, or saturated). Seedling emergence under the daily water treatment was fastest; however, total seedling density was lower than for the other water regimes. In order to optimize springtime C. difformis seedling emergence, soil moisture should be kept around field capacity, as germination is hindered at lower moisture contents. By predicting when most of the seed population germinates, the thermal-time model can address issues regarding the optimal timing for herbicide applications, thereby allowing for improved C. difformis management in rice fields.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
Although shyness is a ubiquitous phenomenon with early developmental origins, little research has examined the influence of prenatal exposures on the developmental trajectory of shyness. Here, we examined trajectories of shyness from childhood to adulthood in three groups (N = 254), with varying degrees of prenatal adversity as indicated by the number of stressful exposures: extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors prenatally exposed to exogenous corticosteroids (ELBW+S, n = 56); ELBW survivors not prenatally exposed to exogenous corticosteroids (ELBW+NS, n = 56); and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 142) controls. Multilevel modeling revealed that the ELBW+S individuals exhibited the highest levels of childhood shyness, which remained stable into adulthood. The ELBW+NS and NBW controls had comparably low levels of childhood shyness; however, the ELBW+NS individuals experienced patterns of increasing shyness, while NBW controls displayed decreases in shyness into adulthood. We speculate that individuals exposed to multiple prenatal stressors (i.e., ELBW+S) may be developmentally programmed to be more sensitive to detecting social threat, with one manifestation being early developing, stable shyness, while increasing shyness among ELBW+NS individuals may reflect a later developing shyness influenced by postnatal context. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the developmental origins and developmental course of human shyness from childhood through adulthood.
We study a restricted form of list colouring, for which every pair of lists that correspond to adjacent vertices may not share more than one colour. The optimal list size such that a proper list colouring is always possible given this restriction, we call separation choosability. We show for bipartite graphs that separation choosability increases with (the logarithm of) the minimum degree. This strengthens results of Molloy and Thron and, partially, of Alon. One attempt to drop the bipartiteness assumption precipitates a natural class of Ramsey-type questions, of independent interest. For example, does every triangle-free graph of minimum degree d contain a bipartite induced subgraph of minimum degree Ω(log d) as d→∞?
be a configuration of
. Each pair of points has a Euclidean distance in the configuration. Given some graph
vertices, we measure the point-pair distances corresponding to the edges of
. In this paper, we study the question of when a generic
dimensions will be uniquely determined (up to an unknowable Euclidean transformation) from a given set of point-pair distances together with knowledge of
. In this setting the distances are given simply as a set of real numbers; they are not labeled with the combinatorial data that describes which point pair gave rise to which distance, nor is data about
given. We show, perhaps surprisingly, that in terms of generic uniqueness, labels have no effect. A generic configuration is determined by an unlabeled set of point-pair distances (together with
) if and only if it is determined by the labeled distances.