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In evaluating the quality of table eggs and the developmental stages of embryonic eggs, spectroscopic techniques provide greater efficiency than traditional, time-consuming and laborious approaches. This review summarises recent developments in the spectroscopic analysis of table eggs, including the determination of the chemical composition (ratios of performance to standard deviation of 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, and protein in egg yolk and moisture and protein in egg albumen, respectively, have been reported). A Haugh unit detection accuracy RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) for quality of 6.29 was obtained by hyperspectral imaging) for table eggs and fertility detection (for white-shell eggs, fertility detection has been realised at a promising rate of 93.5%) and gender determination in hatching eggs. In conclusion, hyperspectral imaging generally outperforms visible or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy when evaluating both consumption eggs and hatching eggs, and near-infrared reflectance Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibit a strong potential for gender determination prior to hatching. Scientists have attained a correct sexing rate above 90% at 3.5 d of egg incubation without removing the inner shell membrane. In the detection of blood-spot eggs or fertile eggs, eggshell colour proved to be a negative factor.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
Previously, we reported a phylogenetic study of 98 Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates from Hainan, China. Here, we update the B. pseudomallei strain library with 52 strains from newly identified cases dating from 2014 to 2017, analysed by multilocus sequence typing. Twenty-two sequence types (STs) were identified from the 52 cases, illustrating high genetic diversity; five of them (ST1480, ST1481, ST1482, ST1483 and ST1484) were novel. ST46, ST50 and ST58 predominated (34.6%) as was the case in the previous study (35.7%). An e-BURST map of the ST profiles of the two collections of isolates showed their genetic foundation to be largely unchanged. Neighbour-joining tree analysis was suggestive of a close phylogenetic relationship between the novel STs from this series and those first reported from Hainan (ST1105, ST1099, ST55 and ST1095). Moreover, the two novel STs (1481 and 1483) showed close similarity to ST58 which originated in Thailand indicating a close relationship between B. pseudomallei strains from both countries. The previously described allele profiles gmhD-36 and lepA-68 were found for the first time in our strain collections. Our study emphasises the importance of monitoring the epidemiological status and evolutionary trends of B. pseudomallei in China.
In view of the broad range of topics covered by Commission 48 and the consequent inevitable overlap with other commissions, it is not feasible to produce a comprehensive self-contained report. The commission therefore restricts its report to a selected list of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, where up-to-date summaries of various topics can be found. Such a list is given below.
The european X-ray observatory (EXOSAT), which was launched in 1983 and which finished operations in April 1986, has brought a rich harvest of results in the period 1984-1987, surveyed here. The EXOSAT payload consisted of three sets of instruments: two low energy imaging telescopes (LE:E<2 KeV), a medium-energy experiment (ME:E=l-50KeV) and a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC:E=2-20KeV). Over most of the energy range covered, EXOSAT was not more sensitive than its predecessor, the american EINSTEIN satellite. But the EINSTEIN satellite is far from having exhausted the treasures of the X-ray sky. And EXOSAT, thanks to its elliptical 90-hour orbit, had the extra advantage of being able to make long, continuous observations of interesting objects, lasting up to 72 hours. Thus, EXOSAT was very well suited for variability studies, and many of its most important findings are in this area. EXOSAT observations sample a vide range of astrophysical sources: X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables and active stars; supernova remnants and the interstellar medium; active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies. Among the highlights, let us mention:
Meta-analyses support the efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia in western cultures. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of CBT and supportive therapy (ST) for patients with schizophrenia in China.
A multicentre randomized controlled, single-blinded, parallel-group trial enrolled a sample of 192 patients with schizophrenia. All patients were offered 15 sessions of either CBT or ST over 24 weeks and followed up for an additional 60 weeks. All measures used were standardized instruments with good reliability and validity. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptoms of schizophrenia. The Schedule for Assessing Insight (SAI) was used to assess patients’ insight and the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) was used to assess their social functioning.
Effect-size analysis showed that patients made rapid improvements in all symptoms, insight and social functioning as measured by the PANSS, SAI and PSP at 12 and 24 weeks and maintained these improvements over the course of the study to 84 weeks. Patients in the CBT group showed significantly greater and more durable improvement in PANSS total score (p = 0.045, between-group d = 0.48), positive symptoms (p = 0.018, between-group d = 0.42) and social functioning (p = 0.037, between-group d = 0.64), with significant differences emerging after completion of therapy.
Both CBT and ST combined with medication had benefits on psychopathology, insight and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. CBT was significantly more effective than ST on overall, positive symptoms and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia in the long term.
Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels within four ICRs (H19-ICR, IGF2-DMR, KvDMR, and NESPAS-ICR) in whole-blood genomic DNA from 128 monozygotic (MZ) and 128 dizygotic (DZ) human twin pairs. Our analyses revealed high individual variation and intra-domain covariation in methylation levels across CpGs and emphasized the interaction between epigenetic variation and the underlying genetic sequence in a parent-of-origin fashion. Here, we extend our analysis to conduct two genome-wide screenings of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying either intra-domain covariation or parent-of-origin-dependent association with methylation status at individual CpG sites located within ICRs. Although genome-wide significance was not surpassed due to sample size limitations, the most significantly associated SNPs found through multiple-trait genome-wide association (MQFAM) included the previously described rs10732516, which is located in the vicinity of the H19-ICR. Similarly, we identified an association between rs965808 and methylation status within the NESPAS-ICR. This SNP is positioned within an intronic region of the overlapping genes GNAS and GNAS-AS1, which are imprinted genes regulated by the NESPAS-ICR. Sixteen other SNPs located in regions apart from the analyzed regions displayed suggestive association with intra-domain methylation. Additionally, we identified 13 SNPs displaying parent-of-origin association with individual methylation sites through family-based association testing. In this exploratory study, we show the value and feasibility of using alternative GWAS approaches in the study of the interaction between epigenetic state and genetic sequence within imprinting regulatory domains. Despite the relatively small sample size, we identified a number of SNPs displaying suggestive association either in a domain-wide or in a parent-of-origin fashion. Nevertheless, these associations will require future experimental validation or replication in larger and independent samples.
X-ray source IGR J17091-3624 was discovered by INTEGRAL observatory on 2003 April (Kuulkers 2003). A outburst was detected with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in late January 2011 (Krimm 2011). IGR J17091-3624 has a similar timing phenomena to microquasar GRS 1915+105(Belloni 2000; Altamirano 2011). We have analyzed the evolution of temporal and spectral characteristic of IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011 outburst. We find that (1) all the QPOs can be divided into two types, QPO-AB and QPO-C, (2) a small outburst tracks clockwise in the HID, (3) the relationship between hardness and disk color temperature forms a V-shape. Those results will give a strong constraint on the disk radiative process.
Lense-Thirring QPO model is a promising model to explain QPO phenomena (Ingram et al. (2009)). In this model the QPO results from Lense-Thirring precession of a optical translucent inner hot flow in a truncated disc geometry. Now we check this model with different types QPO (see (Belloni et al. (2011)) for a recent review) of black hole transient (BHT) GX 339-4 2010 outburst and suggest type C QPOs are mainly coincident with this model prediction while type B QPOs are not.
A modified pin-on-disc wear test technique and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) have been used to characterize the tribological and microstructural properties, respectively, of pure Fe implanted with N and Ar ions at high current densities. CEMS measurements were made before and after wear testing. For the lubricated, mild adhesive wear conditions used here, no evidence was found for iron-nitride dissolution or N atom migration. Disordering of γ'-Fe4N did occur as a result of the wear process. All Nimplanted surfaces were tribologically superior to the Ar-implanted surface and an extremely wear-resistant surface layer about 30–50 nm thick was produced with a dose of 8×1016 N atoms/cm2, at a dose rate of 100 μA/cm2. However, once this layer was worn away the wear rate returned sharply to that of unimplanted pure Fe. A high retained N dose has been observed even for a dose rate of 750 μA/cm2 during which the sample reached 280°C.
We report on the nonlinear optical properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor colloidal quantum dots. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed that the size of CdTe nanocrystal quantum dots, dependent on the growth reaction time, was ∼2-10 nm or near the exciton Bohr radius. The strong blue-shifts of the CdTe, CdSe and CdS nanocrystal absorption spectra and the atomic-like discrete energy states of exciton indicate an exciton quantum confinement. These are completely different optical properties from the bulk crystals. The energy transition for exciton absorption was assigned as h1→e+, h2→e+, h1+→e-, and h2+→e- for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th exciton absorption peaks. Z-scan and I-scan nonlinear spectroscopy revealed that the CdTe nanocrystal quantum dot in toluene (∼8 × 10-5 mol/L) has the negative nonlinearity (self-defocusing) with ∼ -1 × 10-13 m2/W and a high nonlinear figure of merit of ∼200. For the optical power self-limiting experiment, the CdTe nanocrystal was almost opaque above ∼0.8 MW/cm2 at the position of z∼6.9 cm.
Inlet unstart boundary is one of the most important issues of the hypersonic inlet and is also the foundation of the protection control of a scramjet. To solve this problem, the 2D internal steady flow of a 2D mixed internal/external compression hypersonic inlet was numerically simulated at different freestream conditions and backpressures with a RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) solver using a RNG (Renormalisation Group) k-ε turbulence model, and two different inlet unstart phenomena were analysed. The dimensional analysis method was introduced to find the essence variables describing the inlet unstart boundary based on “numerical experimental” data in this paper. The dimensionless pressure ratios of the forebody and isolator were analysed respectively. The results show that the unstart boundary of the 2D mixed hypersonic inlet is determined by M0, α and Re0. Pressure ratio π increases with M0 increasing, and it increases firstly and decreases then with α increasing. Pressure ratio π increases with Re0 increasing. Re0 (Re0 < 2 × 107) has a major effect on π and Re0 (Re0 > 2×107) has little effect on π.