To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the past few years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of forcibly displaced migrants worldwide, of which a substantial proportion is refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers may experience high levels of psychological distress, and show high rates of mental health conditions. It is therefore timely and particularly relevant to assess whether current evidence supports the provision of psychosocial interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions compared with control conditions (treatment as usual/no treatment, waiting list, psychological placebo) aimed at reducing mental health problems in distressed refugees and asylum seekers.
We used Cochrane procedures for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. We searched for published and unpublished RCTs assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in adults and children asylum seekers and refugees with psychological distress. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms at post-intervention were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include: PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up, functioning, quality of life and dropouts due to any reason.
We included 26 studies with 1959 participants. Meta-analysis of RCTs revealed that psychosocial interventions have a clinically significant beneficial effect on PTSD (standardised mean difference [SMD] = −0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.01 to −0.41; I2 = 83%; 95% CI 78–88; 20 studies, 1370 participants; moderate quality evidence), depression (SMD = −1.02; 95% CI −1.52 to −0.51; I2 = 89%; 95% CI 82–93; 12 studies, 844 participants; moderate quality evidence) and anxiety outcomes (SMD = −1.05; 95% CI −1.55 to −0.56; I2 = 87%; 95% CI 79–92; 11 studies, 815 participants; moderate quality evidence). This beneficial effect was maintained at 1 month or longer follow-up, which is extremely important for populations exposed to ongoing post-migration stressors. For the other secondary outcomes, we identified a non-significant trend in favour of psychosocial interventions. Most evidence supported interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapies with a trauma-focused component. Limitations of this review include the limited number of studies collected, with a relatively low total number of participants, and the limited available data for positive outcomes like functioning and quality of life.
Considering the epidemiological relevance of psychological distress and mental health conditions in refugees and asylum seekers, and in view of the existing data on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, these interventions should be routinely made available as part of the health care of distressed refugees and asylum seekers. Evidence-based guidelines and implementation packages should be developed accordingly.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
The heavy reliance on imported soybean meal (SBM) as a protein source makes it necessary for the European pig industry to search for alternatives and to develop pigs that perform efficiently when fed such ingredients. Digestion and metabolism are major physiological processes contributing to variation in feed efficiency. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to assess the effects of replacing SBM with increasing levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in diets for young pigs on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, nitrogen (N) balance, energy metabolism and carbohydrate, protein and fat oxidation. Four diets were fed to 32 pigs (22.7±4.1 kg initial BW) for three weeks. The diets consisted of a control cereal grain-SBM basal diet and three test diets where SBM and wheat were partially replaced with 10%, 20%, and 30% of expeller RSM. Increasing level of RSM in the diets linearly reduced ATTD of organic matter, CP, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber and energy. Utilization of digested nitrogen (DN) for N retention and total N excretion were not affected by RSM inclusion, however, RSM inclusion induced a shift in N excretion from urine to feces. Despite a linear increase in liver to metabolic BW ratio, heat production and utilization of metabolizable energy (ME) for retention were not affected by increasing RSM inclusion. In conclusion, replacing SBM with up to 30% of expeller RSM in nutritionally balanced diets for young pigs reduced the ATTD of most nutrients and energy, but did not affect N and energy retention in the body or efficiency of utilization of DN or ME for retention.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Efforts to develop the next generation of aircraft with ever-increasing levels of performance – higher, farther, faster, cheaper – face great technical challenges. One of these technical challenges is to reduce structural weight of the aircraft. Another is to look to aircraft configurations that have been unrealizable to date. Both of these paths can lead to a rigid flex coupling phenomenon that can result in anything from poor flying qualities to the loss of an aircraft due to flutter. This has led to a need to develop an integrated flight and aeroelastic control capability where structural dynamics are included in the synthesis of flight control laws. Studies have indicated that the application of an integrated flight and aeroelastic control approach to a SensorCraft high-altitude long-endurance vehicle would provide substantial performance improvement(1,2). Better flying qualities and an expanded flight envelope through multi-flutter mode control are two areas of improvement afforded by integrated flight and aeroelastic control. By itself, multi-flutter mode control transforms the flutter barrier from a point of catastrophic structural failure to a benign region of flight. This paper discusses the history and issues associated with the development of such an integrated flight and aeroelastic control system for the X-56A aircraft.
Mounting an antibody response capable of discriminating amongst and appropriately targeting different parasites is crucial in host defence. However, cross-reactive antibodies that recognize (bind to) multiple parasite species are well documented. We aimed to determine if a higher inoculating dose of one species, and thus exposure to larger amounts of antigen over a longer period of time, would fine-tune responses to that species and reduce cross-reactivity. Using the Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (Pcc)–Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) co-infection model in BALB/c mice, in which we previously documented cross-reactive antibodies, we manipulated the inoculating dose of Pcc across 4 orders of magnitude. We investigated antigen-specific and cross-reactive antibody responses against crude and defined recombinant antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and antibody depletion assays. Contrary to our hypothesis that increasing exposure to Pcc would reduce cross-reactivity to Nb, we found evidence for increased avidity of a subpopulation of antibodies that recognized shared antigens. Western blot indicated proteins of apparent monomer molecular mass 28 and 98 kDa in both Nb and Pcc antigen preparations and also an Nb protein of similar size to recombinant Pcc antigen, merozoite surface protein-119. The implications of antibodies binding antigen from such phylogenetically distinct parasites are discussed.
We present a simple construction of spherical wavelets for the unit ball, which we label Radial 3D Needlets. We envisage an experimental framework where data are collected on concentric spheres with the same pixelization at different radial distances from the origin. The unit ball is hence viewed as a tensor product of the unit interval with the unit sphere: a set of eigenfunctions is therefore defined on the corresponding Laplacian operator. Wavelets are then constructed by a smooth convolution of the projectors defined by these eigenfunctions. Localization properties may be rigorously shown to hold in the real and harmonic domain, and an exact reconstruction formula holds; the system allows a very convenient computational implementation.
The course of bipolar disorder progressively worsens in some patients. Although responses to pharmacotherapy appear to diminish with greater chronicity, less is known about whether patients' prior courses of illness are related to responses to psychotherapy.
Embedded in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) was a randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression comparing the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy with collaborative care (a three-session psycho-educational intervention). We assessed whether the number of previous mood episodes, age of illness onset, and illness duration predicted or moderated the likelihood of recovery and time until recovery from a depressive episode in patients in the two treatments.
Independently of treatment condition, participants with one to nine prior depressive episodes were more likely to recover and had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more prior depressive episodes. Participants with fewer than 20 prior manic episodes had faster time to recovery than those with 20 or more episodes. Longer illness duration predicted a longer time to recovery. Participants were more likely to recover in intensive psychotherapy than collaborative care if they had 10–20 prior episodes of depression [number needed to treat (NNT) = 2.0], but equally likely to respond to psychotherapy and collaborative care if they had one to nine (NNT = 32.0) or >20 (NNT = 9.0) depressive episodes.
Number of previous mood episodes and illness duration are associated with the likelihood and speed of recovery among bipolar patients receiving psychosocial treatments for depression.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
Amphiphilic diacetylenes (DAs) can self-assemble into photopolymerizable liposomes that can be used to construct effective pathogen sensors. Here, modified commercial inkjet printers are used to disperse DAs into water, facilitating self-assembly. The liposomes are of similar size, but are significantly less polydisperse than liposomes formed using conventional sonication methods. The process is efficient, readily scalable and tolerant of structural modification. The derivitization of approximately 5% of the DA head groups and the incorporation of fluorophores into the hydrophobic bilayer allows for the preparation of novel multifluorophore PDA sensing systems that can provide enhanced bacterial discrimination in a single experiment by way of a fluorescent fingerprint.
Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetime at tremendous suffering and cost. Cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are treatment options, but their effects have only been limitedly compared in systematic reviews.
Using Cochrane systematic review methodology we compared the benefits and harm of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for major depressive disorder. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, Psychlit, PsycInfo, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2010. Continuous outcome measures were assessed by mean difference and dichotomous outcomes by odds ratio. We conducted trial sequential analysis to control for random errors.
We included seven trials randomizing 741 participants. All trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis of the four trials reporting data at cessation of treatment on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression showed no significant difference between the two interventions [mean difference −1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.35 to 0.32]. Meta-analysis of the five trials reporting data at cessation of treatment on the Beck Depression Inventory showed comparable results (mean difference −1.29, 95% CI −2.73 to 0.14). Trial sequential analysis indicated that more data are needed to definitively settle the question of a differential effect. None of the included trial reported on adverse events.
Randomized trials with low risk of bias and low risk of random errors are needed, although the effects of cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy do not seem to differ significantly regarding depressive symptoms. Future trials should report on adverse events.
Low-frequency fluctuations are observed in a plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet and containing an energetic high-pressure population of trapped electrons. The quasi-coherent fluctuations have frequencies characteristic of drift frequencies of the lower temperature background plasma and have large toroidal and radial extent. They are excited throughout a wide range of plasma conditions determined by the level of neutral gas pressure. However, for a sufficiently high rate of neutral gas fueling, the plasma density profile flattens and the fluctuations disappear.
Boar taint is an off-flavour of pork caused primarily by a microbial breakdown product, skatole and a testicular steroid, androstenone. As skatole is produced in the large intestine from tryptophan, it is possible that some ‘bioactive’ ingredients could modify protein fermentation and, in the process, diminish boar taint. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of inulin-rich chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) on boar taint. In the first of three trials individually penned, entire males and females were given an organic concentrate in which 0·25 of the daily energy intake was replaced with crude chicory roots for 9 or 4 weeks prior to slaughter. In the second trial, entire male pigs were given diets that included, either crude chicory roots, dried chicory roots, or inulin (extracted from chicory roots) for 6 weeks pre-slaughter. In the third trial, intact male pigs were given the dried chicory diet for either 2 or 1 week before slaughter. In all trials the chicory diets were offered on a scale at 0·95 of the Danish recommendation for energy intake, and pig performance was compared with a control group given the organic concentrate at 0·95 of recommended energy intake plus silage ad libitum. In trial 1 an additional control group was offered the organic concentrate at a daily energy intake level of 1·0 of Danish recommendations. The pigs in trials 1, 2, and 3 were slaughtered at an average live weight of 118, 124, and 110 kg, respectively, in order to ensure that they had achieved sexual maturity. Overall, skatole concentrations in blood plasma and backfat at slaughter were reduced to almost zero levels by including crude or dried chicory or inulin in the diet. This occurred irrespective of sex and length of feeding period (1 to 9 weeks). In trial 3 a significant effect on blood plasma concentration was observed after 3 days of feeding a diet containing dried chicory. The only significant reduction in plasma androstenone levels was detected in pigs given the crude chicory for a 9 week duration in trial 1. The production and proportion of lean was generally not affected by the addition of either form of chicory to the diets in trials 1 and 2. Therefore, dried chicory may be the most suitable form for commercial use because it: had no initial adverse effects on food intake, consistently reduced skatole without reducing performance, was easy to handle throughout the entire year and is relatively inexpensive.
This paper presents experimental results of the piezoresistance in p-type tensile strained silicon and compressive strained silicon germanium grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (001) silicon substrates. The piezoresistance decreases in a tensile strained layer and increases in a compressive strained layer when compared to the unstrained material. The results show that one can tune the piezoresistance by tuning the strain in the piezoresistor and thus tailor the performance of the device. The obtained results show an increase in the piezoresistance effect of 35% in compressive strained silicon germanium and a decrease in the piezoresistance effect in tensile strained silicon of 24%. Furthermore, the results show that the piezoresistance of a tensile strained silicon crystal has a smaller temperature dependency compared to that of unstrained silicon. The piezoresistance effect decreases by 7% in tensile strained silicon compared to the piezoresistance effect decrease in silicon of 18% when changing the temperature from 30°C to 80°C.
Background and objective: Previous studies mainly conducted on elective patients recommend doses of 0.9–1.2 mg kg−1 rocuronium to obtain comparable intubation conditions with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg−1 after 60 s during a rapid-sequence induction. We decided to compare the overall intubating conditions of standard doses of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg−1 and succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg−1 during a strict rapid-sequence induction regimen including propofol and alfentanil. Methods: Male and female patients (ASA I–III) older than 17 yr scheduled for emergency abdominal or gynaecological surgery and with increased risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric content were randomized to a rapid-sequence induction with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg−1 or rocuronium 0.6 mg kg−1. Patients with a predicted difficult airway were excluded. A senior anaesthesiologist ‘blinded’ for the randomization performed the intubation 60 s after injection of the neuromuscular blocker. Intubating conditions were evaluated according to an established guideline. Tracheal intubation not completed within 30 s was recorded as failed. Results: 222 patients were randomized. Three patients had their operation cancelled and 10 did not fulfil the inclusion criteria. Clinically acceptable intubation conditions were present in 93.5% and 96.1% of patients in the succinylcholine group (n = 107) and the rocuronium group (n = 102), respectively (P = 0.59). Conclusions: During a rapid-sequence induction with alfentanil and propofol, both rocuronium 0.6 mg kg−1 and succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg−1 provide clinically acceptable intubation conditions in 60 s in patients scheduled for emergency surgery. Under the conditions of this rapid-sequence induction regimen rocuronium may be a substitute for succinylcholine.
The relaxation processes of strained silicon films on silicon-rich relaxed SiGe alloys have been studied. Experimental structures were generated via Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) growth techniques and contain a strained silicon capping layer of approximately 50 nm. The relaxed SiGe alloy compositions range from 0 to 30 atomic% germanium. Samples received two distinct types of silicon implants. A 12 keV Si+ implant at a dose of 1×1015 atoms/cm2 was used to generate an amorphous layer strictly confined within the strained Si cap. An alternate 60 keV Si+ implant at a dose of 1×1015 atoms/cm2 was employed to create a continuous amorphous layer extending from the sample surface to a position 50 nm into the bulk SiGe material. The strain relaxation and regrowth processes are quantified through High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curves and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (XTEM). The role of injected silicon interstitials upon the strain relaxation processes at the Si/SiGe interface after annealing at 600°C is investigated.
A study on perceptions, attitudes and treatment-seeking practices related to
schistosomiasis was conducted among the Wasukuma in the rural Magu district of Tanzania at the
shore of Lake Victoria where Schistosoma haematobium and mansoni infections are endemic. The study applied in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and a questionnaire survey among adults and primary school children. The perceived symptoms and causes were incongruous with the biomedical perspective and a number of respondents found schistosomiasis to be a shameful disease. Lack of diagnostic and curative services at the government health care facilities was common, but there was a willingness from the biomedical health care services to collaborate with the traditional healers. Recommendations to the District Health Management Team were: that collaboration between biomedical and traditional health care providers should be strengthened and that the government facilities’ diagnostic and curative capacity with regard to schistosomiasis should be upgraded. Culturally compatible health education programmes should be developed in collaboration with the local community.
This paper describes the creation of a unique maternal identifier for use in the investigation of perinatal, postneonatal and child outcomes in relation to maternal characteristics. All Midwives’ records of Western Australian (WA) births were routinely linked to registrations of births and deaths for infants born from 1980 to 1992 inclusive, then linked to WA hospital discharge data and to registries of birth defects and cerebral palsy to create a longitudinal health record for each infant. However, since each birth to a woman was recorded as a separate event, there was no way to identify siblings. Probabilistic record linkage, based on information about the mother, was used for this task. Logical inconsistencies within the data were used to test the validity of the linkages between birth records attributed to each mother. Information about the mother from other epidemiological studies and data abstracted from hospital case notes was also used to validate sibships. Linkage of the records of 310,255 births in WA during that period resulted in the formation of 181,133 sibships of one or more children. Pooling the results of all of the validation methods gave an error of 0.9%. Linkage identified 3678 sibships containing multiple births, and 305 sets of maternal twins. Ascertainment of twins and their siblings for an ongoing twin register, the WA Twin Child Health (WATCH) study, was a natural consequence of this process.
Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. 30Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched 28Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850°C and 1100°C. A specially designed ion-implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.