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It is crucial to identify people at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to implement preventive interventions in order to address these pandemics. A simple score exclusively based on dietary components, the Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS) showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. The objective was to assess the association between DDS and the risk of GDM in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3455 women who notified pregnancies between 1999 and 2012. The diagnosis of GDM is self-reported and further confirmed by physicians. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess pre-gestational dietary habits. The development of the DDS was aimed to quantify the association between the adherence to this a priori dietary score and T2DM incidence. The score exclusively included dietary components (nine food groups with reported inverse associations with T2DM incidence and three food groups which reported direct associations with T2DM). Three categories of adherence to the DDS were assessed: low (11–24), intermediate (25–39) and high (40–60). The upper category showed an independent inverse association with the risk of incident GDM compared with the lowest category (multivariate-adjusted OR 0·48; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·99; P for linear trend: 0·01). Several sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of these results. These results reinforce the importance of pre-gestational dietary habits for reducing GDM and provide a brief tool to practically assess the relevant dietary habits in clinical practice.
Some routine handling procedures can produce stress in farm animals, and an adequate control of these stressors is important to avoid the negative effects on animal health and production. The measurement of biomarkers in saliva can be a suitable tool for the evaluation and control of stress. In this report, lipase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), total esterase (TEA) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the saliva of sheep were evaluated as biomarkers of stress. For this purpose, they were measured after inducing stress by facing a dog (experiment 1) and shearing (experiment 2), and comparing them to other stress salivary biomarkers such as α-amylase (sAA) and cortisol, as well as heart rate (HR). Each analyte was measured at the basal time, and during and just after the end of the stressful stimulus, and at various times for the first hour after the period of stress induction. Values were compared with those obtained from a control group. Lipase was the only analyte that showed significant changes between the stress and the control group in both experiments. Although TEA and ADA increased after stress, no significant differences were seen compared with the control group. Lipase was correlated highly with sAA and HR, in experiment 1; and correlated moderately with cortisol and HR in experiment 2. Lipase showed the greatest percentage increase after the stressful stimuli and less overlap with the control group in the two experiments. From the results of this study it can be concluded that lipase, TEA, BChE and ADA are enzymes present in the saliva of sheep and that they can be measured by using simple and fast colorimetric methods. Further studies should be undertaken with regard to the possible application of lipase as a biomarker of stress in sheep.
Bacteria firmly attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium during the pre-weaning phase may show a significant impact on nutrient processing, immunity parameters, health and feed efficiency of lambs during post-weaning phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the differences in the ileal epimural microbiota (e.g. total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) of fattening lambs promoted by early feed restriction during the suckling phase trying to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms behind changes in feed efficiency during the fattening period. A total of 24 Merino lambs (average BW 4.81±0.256 kg) were used, 12 of them (ad libitum, ADL) kept permanently in individual pens with their mothers, whereas the other 12 lambs were separated from their dams for 9 h each day to be exposed to milk restriction (RES). After weaning (BW=15 kg) all the animals were penned individually, offered the same complete pelleted diet (35 g/kg BW per day) and slaughtered at a BW of 27 kg. During the fattening period, reduced gain : feed ratio (0.320 v. 0.261, P<0.001) was observed for the RES group. Moreover, increments of Prevotella spp. were detected in the ileal epimural microbiota of RES lambs (P<0.05). There were also higher numbers of infiltrated lymphocytes (T and B cells) in the ileal lamina propria (P<0.05), a higher M-cell labelling intensity in ileal Peyer’s patches domes (P<0.05) and a trend towards a thickening of the submucosa layer when compared with the ADL group (P=0.057). Some other immunological parameters, such as an increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) production (pg IgA/µg total protein) and increments in CD45+ cells were also observed in the ileum of RES group (P<0.05), whereas transforming growth factor β and toll-like receptor gene expression was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, early feed restriction during the suckling phase promoted changes in ileal epimural microbiota and several immunity parameters that could be related to differences in feed efficiency traits during the fattening period of Merino lambs.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the adherence to empirically derived dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk and of healthy lifestyles with the prevention of GDM defining an overall healthy score. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates started in 1999. We included 3455 pregnant women. During a mean follow-up of 10·3 (sd 3·3) years, we identified 173 incident GDM cases. Two major dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: the Western dietary pattern (WDP) (characterised by a high consumption of meat-based products and processed foods) and the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) (characterised by a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish and non-processed foods). A low-risk score for GDM was defined taking into account important risk factors (age, BMI and unhealthy dietary pattern) for GDM. Positive association was found in the multivariable model between the highest quartile of adherence to WDP and GDM incidence compared with the lowest quartile (OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·43). No association was found between adherence to the MDP and GDM incidence (OR 1·08; 95 % CI 0·68, 1·70 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest). Women who adhered to all three low-risk factors had a 76 % lower risk of GDM (OR 0·24; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·55) compared with women who did not adhere to any factor before pregnancy. In conclusion, our results reinforce the importance of dietary recommendations and other two factors (low BMI and young age at pregnancy) in pre-gravid women.
Early prediction of the final size of any epidemic and in particular for Zika disease outbreaks can be useful for health authorities in order to plan the response to the outbreak. The Richards model is often been used to estimate epidemiological parameters for arboviral diseases based on the reported cumulative cases in single- and multi-wave outbreaks. However, other non-linear models can also fit the data as well. Typically, one follows the so called post selection estimation procedure, i.e., selects the best fitting model out of the set of candidate models and ignores the model uncertainty in both estimation and inference since these procedures are based on a single model. In this paper we focus on the estimation of the final size and the turning point of the epidemic and conduct a real-time prediction for the final size of the outbreak using several non-linear models in which these parameters are estimated via model averaging. The proposed method is applied to Zika outbreak data in four cities from Colombia, during the outbreak ocurred in 2015–2016.
The aim of this paper is the study of the impact that the consideration of different physical properties as magnitude and spectral type of stars has on the geometric relations between Hipparcos2 and UCAC4. In this sense, the pairs of residuals Δα* and Δδ can be considered as functions of (α, δ, r) and for each fixed r, we can fit a vector field on the sphere from which to obtain its components in the VSH basis. The same can be done by grouping the stars considering their magnitudes, spectral types (or mixing them) and then studying the variations in the mentioned geometry. We must not forget that Δα* and Δδ are numerical random variables whose regression on the magnitude m, for example, can be estimated. The results will be computed taking into account r as well as the physical mentioned properties. So, we avoid the assumption that the harmonic coefficients depend only on m.
One of the important challenges that Gaia imposes on the Astrometric Catalogs, is a careful study in everything affected by parallax. A particularly important case is the necessary linkage Gaia - HCRF - ICRF2, which require methods of analysis that are accurate enough so that the provided results are at the same precision level as the work data.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
One of the most popular methods for orbital elements correction, by means of O-C calculus, is based on Brouwer's method , which is very well adapted for integrating short periods of time. We propose a general method to integrate over long intervals of time, when we have good observations, based upon a time-dependent functional relation between the derivatives of all elements with respect to all variations in the initial elements. First, we verify the truth of the unrestricted hypothesis by means of the proposed analytical method and a numerical derivation. In , we have incorporated a correction frame model jointly with this general method and, then, we have constructed the residual function which is minimized by the least squares method. But, as we are going to see later, there are correlations between the parameters frame correction model and the initial elements involved in the adjustment. They are obtained here, as well as an expression for the equinox correction from these frame parameters. Finally, by means of a simply weighted method, with the observations from MPC's magnetic tape, in FK4 system, we obtain an estimation for these frame parameters and an equinox correction which is in great accord with the adopted value (see ).
Control of fire was a hallmark of developing human cognition and an essential technology for the colonisation of cooler latitudes. In Europe, the earliest evidence comes from recent work at the site of Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar in south-eastern Spain. Charred and calcined bone and thermally altered chert were recovered from a deep, 0.8-million-year-old sedimentary deposit. A combination of analyses indicated that these had been heated to 400–600°C, compatible with burning. Inspection of the sediment and hydroxyapatite also suggests combustion and degradation of the bone. The results provide new insight into Early Palaeolithic use of fire and its significance for human evolution.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of dwarf novae are presented. The data were obtained during an international program of multiwavelength observations, held in 1986 February at several observatories, of dwarf novae during the first and subsequent days of outburst. During the campaign numerous dwarf novae were monitored in order to catch them in outburst. Preliminary results and analysis of some objects are reported elsewhere. A total of 30 dwarf novae were observed in the northern and southern hemispheres. Among them 37% were caught in outburst, including 10% on the rise to outburst and 17% in decline. Photometric observations were carried out in the UBVRI system and colour indexes were calculated.
Influenza vaccination has been shown to be the most effective preventive strategy to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups. Despite healthcare personnel (HCP) being considered part of such high-risk groups, their vaccination coverage is low in Europe. In January 2012, we distributed an 18-question survey regarding influenza vaccination to HCP at Gregorio Marañon Paediatric Hospital, in Madrid, Spain. After we documented that only ~30% of HCP were vaccinated an educational programme was implemented in October 2012 before the next influenza season. In January 2013, the same survey delivered again to all HCP documented a significant increase in vaccination rates (from 30% to 40%, P = 0·007) mainly among physicians and for patients' protection. In summary we found that a simple and inexpensive educational programme significantly improved the uptake of influenza vaccination in HCP in our centre. Nevertheless, vaccination rates remained low, and broader and updated campaigns are needed to overcome perception barriers.
The prohibition of commercial mineral resource extraction through the Antarctic Treaty System has removed one significant source of potential damage to Antarctica's geological and geomorphological values. However, given the on-going increase in Antarctic tourism and scientific footprint, some high-quality geological features may be vulnerable to human impact, such as damage due to the construction of logistical facilities, unregulated collection of geological specimens or oversampling for scientific purposes. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty puts in place a framework for the protection of Antarctica's environmental, scientific, historic, wilderness and aesthetic values. However, the Antarctic Protected Area system is still immature and further implementation of existing management tools may be required to protect the diverse range of vulnerabilities, qualities and spatial scales represented in the geology and geomorphology of the continent. At sites where high-quality mineralogical or palaeontological specimens exist in limited quantities, considerations of how best to prevent oversampling and manage access to remaining material may be supported by assessment of cumulative impacts. Examination of the level of Antarctic specimen loans from a selection of national geological collections suggested that existing publically accessible geological collections could be better utilized, which could reduce environmental impact and oversampling at vulnerable Antarctic sites.
The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (−20.6 v. −8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (−55 and +68%, respectively; P<0.001). In lactating sows, there were no differences between dietary treatments for any of the hormones measured. Pre-prandial acyl-ghrelin concentrations were positively correlated with cortisol concentrations during gestation (r=0.81; P=0.001) and lactation (r=0.61; P=0.015). In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 6% crude glycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between glycerin inclusion levels in the diet and the serum concentrations of hormones related to feed intake and energy balance control.
The diet and feeding pattern of scyphomedusa Stomolophus meleagris (Rhizostomeae) was studied, by comparing stomach samples from different developmental stages and environmental zooplankton with the aim to determine diet composition, trophic niche breadth, selectivity and feeding overlap of this edible jellyfish species. Samplings were performed during April and December 2010 and in January 2011, in the coastal lagoon Las Guásimas (27°49′–27°54′N 110°40′–110°35′W), central Gulf of California, which consisted of zooplankton tows and jellyfish collections for stomach content. More than 39 prey items were identified in the gut contents (N = 69), from which eight taxa formed over 90% of the total. Fish eggs were considered main prey (58.6%), copepods (10.8%), veliger larvae of gastropod (13.0%) and bivalve (12.7%) were secondary prey while cirriped and decapod larvae were incidental prey (<3%). However, these proportions varied significantly between small, medium and large size classes of medusa as well as number and type of prey increasing as a function of medusa size. Values of Levin's index confirmed S. meleagris is a specialist predator and Pearre's index showed positive selection of fish eggs, gastropods, bivalves and cirripeds while selectivity was negative for copepods and appendicularians. The relative timing of these changes suggests that ontogenetic processes are closely related with shift in the diet, which indicates increasing predation pressure during development of the medusoid stage of this species, thus emphasizing their ecological importance in coastal ecosystems.
In this work, Na- and K-doped β-Li5AlO4 samples were synthesized, characterized and analyzed thermogravimetrically (dynamically and isothermally), under different CO2 conditions. Additionally, chemisorption/desorption cycles were performed for the best chemical compositions and thermal conditions determined. While the CO2 chemisorption of the Na- and K-doped β-Li5AlO4 samples was improved at high temperatures (450 -700 °C), the opposite effect was observed at lower temperatures as well as in the presence of water vapor.