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This article provides an overview of selected ongoing international efforts that have been inspired by Edward Zigler's vision to improve programs and policies for young children and families in the United States. The efforts presented are in close alignment with three strategies articulated by Edward Zigler: (a) conduct research that will inform policy advocacy; (b) design, implement, and revise quality early childhood development (ECD) programs; and (c) invest in building the next generation of scholars and advocates in child development. The intergenerational legacy left by Edward Zigler has had an impact on young children not only in the United States, but also across the globe. More needs to be done. We need to work together with a full commitment to ensure the optimal development of each child.
Trifludimoxazin, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicide, is being evaluated for possible use as a soil-residual active herbicide treatment in cotton for control of small-seeded annual broadleaf weeds. Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to compare vertical mobility and cotton tolerance of trifludimoxazin to flumioxazin and saflufenacil, which are two currently registered protoporphyrinogen oxidase–inhibiting herbicides for use in cotton, in three West Texas soils. Vertical soil mobility of trifludimoxazin was similar to flumioxazin in Acuff loam and Olton loam soils, but was more mobile than flumioxazin in the Amarillo loamy sand soil. The depth of trifludimoxazin movement after a 2.5-cm irrigation event ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in all soils, which would not allow for crop selectivity based on herbicide placement, because ideal cotton seeding depth is from 0.6 to 2.54 cm deep. Greenhouse studies indicated that PRE treatments were more injurious than the 14 d preplant treatment when summarized across soils for the three herbicides (43% and 14% injury, respectively). No differences in visual cotton response or dry weight was observed after trifludimoxazin preplant as compared with the nontreated control within each of the three West Texas soils and was similar to the flumioxazin preplant across soils. On the basis of these results, a use pattern for trifludimoxazin in cotton may be established with the use of a more than 14-d preplant restriction before cotton planting.
We performed a retrospective analysis of the impact of using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision procedure coding system (ICD-10) or current procedural terminology (CPT) codes to calculate surgical site infection (SSI) rates. Denominators and SSI rates vary depending on the coding method used. The coding method used may influence interhospital performance comparisons.
The role of demographic characteristics, such as sex and race, as risk factors for colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms, has not been established in the nursing home setting. We demonstrate significantly higher prevalence overall in male patients, and sex differences are dependent on organism of interest and body site.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The history of immune suppression, especially CD4 nadir, has been shown to be a strong predictor of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the potential mechanism of this association is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between CD4 nadir and brain atrophy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-nine people with HIV participated in the cross-sectional study (mean age, 56.5 ± 5.8; age range, 41-69; 15 females; 46 African-Americans). High resolution structural MRI images were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. From a comprehensive 7-domain neuropsychological test battery, a global deficit score (GDS) and HAND diagnoses were determined for each participant. The correlation between CD4 nadir (the lowest ever lymphocyte CD4 count) and cortical thickness was investigated using a vertex-wise non-parametric approach with a conservative statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of the 59 participants, 12 met standard Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and two met the criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder (MND). Across all participants, low CD4 nadir was associated with widespread cortical thinning, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. Higher GDS (indicating worse global neurocognitive function) was associated with bilateral frontal cortical thinning, and the association largely persisted in the subset of participants who did not meet HAND criteria. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that the low CD4 nadir may be associated with widespread neural injury in the brain, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. This spatial profile might contribute to the prevalence/phenotypes of HAND in the cART era, such as the frequently observed deficits in the executive domain.
Loneliness affects up to one in every third individual in the western population, and the prevalence is increasing. The literature suggests an increased mortality risk of about 26% when feeling lonely, and an association to some disorders of physical health.
To assess if loneliness increases the risk of mortality, and if so, if health indicators (hypertension, heart disease, tobacco use, alcoholism, diabetes, obesity, and depression) mediate the association.
The design is a community-based prospective cohort study using data from the Swedish Lundby Study. Loneliness is measured in 1997 with a singleton question during interview of a psychiatrist. The outcome is death between 1997 and 2011. Survival analysis is used to estimate the relative risk of mortality. Stratification of potential explanatory covariates examines if any of the health indicators mediate the relationship.
Significant more females, unmarried, unemployed, and childless people feel lonely. Moreover, feeling lonely correlates to being smoker or alcoholic when adjusting for age and gender. The statistical work on the survival analysis is still in progress. However, we expect to find a positive correlation between loneliness and mortality corresponding to previous studies, and perhaps to reveal some of the health indicators to cause the association.
With increasing prevalence, potential health consequences, and a neglected role in the society, loneliness is an important research area.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The consistory was a crucial institution in early modern Reformed churches. This article examines the nominations and elections of elders and deacons in the Dutch Reformed consistories of Kampen and Wemeldinge, shedding light on who was being nominated and elected and how such processes functioned in these churches. In particular, research into the Kampen consistory records demonstrates the importance given to the office of elder despite little theological backing for such a hieararchy; this was true to a lesser extent in Wemeldinge. In addition, the Kampen civil authorities played a significant role in the life of the consistory, most notably through the service of burgomasters as elders. The presence of burgomasters on the consistory is not present in Wemeldinge, indicating a more separate relationship between the church and state. In both Kampen and Wemeldinge, the elections of elders and deacons were unique and responded to the challenges and priorities of the individual contexts and communities.
Low-frequency, high-acuity emergency events can and do occur within health care settings. Having a strong sense of daily situational and operational awareness is the first step in responding to any emergency event. To maintain high reliability, hospital leaders and staff must understand the full impact to the organization as the emergency event evolves. The Medical University of South Carolina health system has implemented the common practice of a daily operations safety briefing, called the Daily Check-In, to communicate any issues that could impact the operational ability of the hospitals within the enterprise, or any other associated resources during a disaster or emergency. Throughout various emergency events, including extreme weather, the Daily Check-In has evolved as a standard process for use during emergencies that is open to all staff and uses highly reliable systems.
We present a theoretical and an empirical challenge to Cushman's claim that rationalization is adaptive because it allows humans to extract more accurate beliefs from our non-rational motivations for behavior. Rationalization sometimes generates more adaptive decisions by making our beliefs about the world less accurate. We suggest that the most important adaptive advantage of rationalization is instead that it increases our predictability (and therefore attractiveness) as potential partners in cooperative social interactions.
We explored identity formation among nine gay men who were born between 1946 and 1964. This group of nine was the largest homogeneous sub-group within a larger sample (N = 18). Although participants share similar demographic characteristics, their individual social, personal and narrative identities diverge to represent distinctive embodied selves. Guided by queer and feminist theories, the qualitative analysis identified dominant and counter-narratives that demonstrate the complexity of sexual identity as it evolves over time. All nine men recall being aware of their gay identity as children; however, like many socially constructed labels, their outward identity was more complex and difficult to understand. The findings demonstrate how participants negotiated their sexual identities through decades of social change. As illustrated within each subset of identity (i.e. social, personal and narrative), some participants found themselves breaking ground for a broader gay rights social movement, while others described their experience of being relegated to silence and invisibility for most of their lives. This research contributes to an ongoing discussion concerning the individuality found among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in later life. As the LGBT population becomes more visible, there will be a growing need to understand the individualism that exists within this coalition and affirm their diversifying sexual and gender identities.
To explore food perceptions among grandparents and understand the influence of these perceptions on food choice for the younger generations in their family.
Qualitative methodology, thematic analysis of the transcripts from fourteen focus groups.
Grandparents in the southern region of the United States.
Participants were fifty-eight Black, Hispanic, and White grandparents, predominantly women (72%), ranging in age from 44–86 years (mean age = 65·4 (sd 9·97) years).
Grandparents’ perceptions related to personal food choice were related to health issues and the media. Grandparents’ perceived influence on their children’s and grandchildren’s food choices was described through the themes of proximity and power (level of influence based on an interaction of geographic proximity to grandchildren and the power given to them by their children and grandchildren to make food decisions), healthy v. unhealthy spoiling, cultural food tradition, and reciprocal exchange of knowledge.
Our results highlight areas for future research including nutrition interventions for older adults as well as factors that may be helpful to consider when engaging grandparents concerning food decisions for younger generations to promote health. Specifically, power should be assessed as part of a holistic approach to addressing dietary influence, the term ‘healthy spoiling’ can be used to reframe notions of traditional spoiling, and the role of cultural food tradition should be adapted differently by race.
The early-life origins of disease hypothesis has been applied to obesity research and modeled through overnutrition, usually with a high-fat diet (HFD). Since the obesity epidemic coincided with societal change in dietary fat consumption, rather than amount, manipulation of fatty acid (FA) profile is an under-investigated area of study. Additionally, the binding of FAs to nuclear receptors may have persistent intergenerational, extranutritive endocrinological effects that interact with the actions of reproductive steroids causing sex-dependent effects. To determine the role of FA type in the effects underlying maternal HFD, we fed wild-type C57BL6/J mating pairs, from preconception through lactation, a HFD with high saturated fat levels from coconut oil or high linoleic acid (LA) levels from vegetable oil. Male and female offspring body weight and food intake were measured weekly for 25 weeks. Assays for glucose metabolism, body composition, and calorimetry were performed at 25 weeks. Plasma metabolic peptides and liver mRNA were measured terminally. Obesity was primarily affected by adult rather than maternal diet in males, yet in females, maternal HFD potentiated the effects of adult HFD. Maternal HFD high in LA impaired glucose disposal in males weaned onto HFD and insulin sensitivity of females. Plasma leptin correlated with adiposity, but insulin and insulin receptor expression in the liver were altered by maternal LA in males. Our results suggest that maternal FA profile is most influential on offspring glucose metabolism and that adult diet is more important than maternal diet for obesity and other parameters of metabolic syndrome.
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) alters hypothalamic programming and disrupts offspring energy homeostasis in rodents. We previously reported that the loss of ERα signaling partially blocks the effects of maternal HFD in female offspring fed a standard chow diet. In a companion study, we determined if the effects of maternal HFD were magnified by an adult obesogenic diet in our transgenic mouse models. Heterozygous ERα knockout (wild-type (WT)/KO) dams were fed a control breeder chow diet (25% fat) or a semipurified HFD (45% fat) 4 weeks prior to mating with heterozygous males (WT/KO or WT/ knockin) to produce WT, ERα KO, or ERα knockin/knockout (KIKO) (no estrogen response element (ERE) binding) female offspring, which were fed HFD for 20 weeks. Maternal HFD potentiated the effects of adult HFD on KIKO and KO body weight due to increased adiposity and decreased activity. Maternal HFD also produced KIKO females that exhibit KO-like insulin intolerance and impaired glucose homeostasis. Maternal HFD increased plasma interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels and G6pc and Pepck liver expression only in WT mice. Insulin and tumor necrosis factor α levels were higher in KO offspring from HFD-fed dams. Arcuate and liver expression of Esr1 was altered in KIKO and WT, respectively. These data suggest that loss of ERE-dependent ERα signaling, and not total ERα signaling, sensitizes females to the deleterious influence of maternal HFD on offspring energy and glucose potentially through the control of peripheral inflammation and hypothalamic and liver gene expression. Future studies will interrogate the tissue-specific mechanisms of maternal HFD programming through ERα signaling.
Translocation and rehabilitation programmes are critical tools for wildlife conservation. These methods achieve greater impact when integrated in a combined strategy for enhancing population or ecosystem restoration. During 2002–2016 we reared 37 orphaned southern sea otter Enhydra lutris nereis pups, using captive sea otters as surrogate mothers, then released them into a degraded coastal estuary. As a keystone species, observed increases in the local sea otter population unsurprisingly brought many ecosystem benefits. The role that surrogate-reared otters played in this success story, however, remained uncertain. To resolve this, we developed an individual-based model of the local population using surveyed individual fates (survival and reproduction) of surrogate-reared and wild-captured otters, and modelled estimates of immigration. Estimates derived from a decade of population monitoring indicated that surrogate-reared and wild sea otters had similar reproductive and survival rates. This was true for males and females, across all ages (1–13 years) and locations evaluated. The model simulations indicated that reconstructed counts of the wild population are best explained by surrogate-reared otters combined with low levels of unassisted immigration. In addition, the model shows that 55% of observed population growth over this period is attributable to surrogate-reared otters and their wild progeny. Together, our results indicate that the integration of surrogacy methods and reintroduction of juvenile sea otters helped establish a biologically successful population and restore a once-impaired ecosystem.
This article summarizes the results of controlled experiments in which flaked-stone points that varied in impact strength by a factor of almost three were shot at media that were increasingly inelastic and therefore likely to break the points. Broken tips were reworked if possible, and used again under the same conditions. Our results show that all damage to low impact-strength materials, especially obsidian, was generally catastrophic, and, consequently, these points could only rarely be reworked. The fact that low-strength stones were commonly used to make small arrowpoints suggests that reworking was not a primary concern for their designers. Furthermore, in those instances when broken tips could be reworked, their performance declined. In addition, reworking broken points also resulted in shapes that are uncommon in many arrowpoint assemblages. Our results suggest that the original design attributes of arrowpoints may have been less affected by reworking, and, consequently, may more accurately suggest temporal and behavioral associations.