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Breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of developing obesity during childhood and adulthood compared to feeding infant milk formula (IMF). Previous studies have shown that an experimental IMF (eIMF; comprising Nuturis®), programmed mouse pups for a lower body weight and fat mass gain in adulthood when challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD), compared to a control IMF (cIMF). Nuturis has a lipid composition and structure more similar to breastmilk. Here, the long-term effects were tested of a similar eIMF, but with an adapted lipid composition, and a cIMF, on body weight, glucose homeostasis, liver and adipose tissue. Nutrient composition was similar for the eIMF and cIMF; the lipid fractions comprised ~50% milkfat. C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed cIMF or eIMF from postnatal (PN) day 16-42 followed by a HFD until PN168. Feeding eIMF versus cIMF in early life resulted in a lower body weight (-9%) and body fat deposition (-14%) in adulthood (PN105). The effect appeared transient, as from PN126 onward, after 12 weeks HFD, eIMF-fed mice caught up on controls and body and fat weights became comparable between groups. Glucose and energy metabolism were similar between groups. At dissection (PN168), eIMF-fed mice showed larger (+27%) epididymal fat depots and a lower (-26%) liver weight without clear morphological aberrations. Our data suggest the size and coating but not the lipid composition of IMF fat globules underlies the programming effect observed. Prolonged exposure to a HFD challenge partly overrules the programming effect of early diet.
First-episode psychosis (FEP) is a major life event and can have an adverse impact on the diagnosed individual and their families. The importance of intervening early and providing optimal treatments is widely acknowledged. In comparison to patient groups, literature is scarce on identifying treatment predictors and moderators of caregiver outcomes. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment characteristics predicting and/or moderating carer outcomes, based on data from a multi-element psychosocial intervention to FEP patients and carers (GET-UP PIANO trial).
Carer demography, type of family relationship, patient contact hours, pre-treatment carer burden, patient perceptions of parental caregiving and expressed emotion (EE) were selected, a priori, as potential predictors/moderators of carer burden and emotional distress at 9 months post treatment. Outcomes were analysed separately in mixed-effects random regression models.
Analyses were performed on 260 carers. Only patient perceptions of early maternal criticism predicted reports of lower carer burden at follow-up. However, multiple imputation analysis failed to confirm this result. For treatment moderators: higher levels of carer burden at baseline yielded greater reductions in carer emotional distress at follow-up in the experimental group compared with treatment as usual (TAU). Higher levels of perceived EE moderated greater reductions in carer reports of tension in experimental group, compared with TAU, at follow-up. In younger caregivers (<51 years old), there were greater reductions in levels of worry during the baseline to follow-up period, within the experimental group compared with TAU.
The study failed to identify significant treatment predictors of FEP carer outcomes. However, our preliminary findings suggest that optimal treatment outcomes for carers at first episode might be moderated by younger carer age, and carers reporting higher baseline levels of burden, and where patients perceive higher levels of negative effect from caregivers.
Non-psychotic affective symptoms are important components of psychotic syndromes. They are frequent and are now thought to influence the emergence of paranoia and hallucinations. Evidence supporting this model of psychosis comes from recent cross-fertilising epidemiological and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies identify plausible targets for intervention but must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, causal inference can be strengthened substantially using modern statistical methods.
Directed Acyclic Graphs were used in a dynamic Bayesian network approach to learn the overall dependence structure of chosen variables. DAG-based inference identifies the most likely directional links between multiple variables, thereby locating them in a putative causal cascade. We used initial and 18-month follow-up data from the 2000 British National Psychiatric Morbidity survey (N = 8580 and N = 2406).
We analysed persecutory ideation, hallucinations, a range of affective symptoms and the effects of cannabis and problematic alcohol use. Worry was central to the links between symptoms, with plausible direct effects on insomnia, depressed mood and generalised anxiety, and recent cannabis use. Worry linked the other affective phenomena with paranoia. Hallucinations were connected only to worry and persecutory ideation. General anxiety, worry, sleep problems, and persecutory ideation were strongly self-predicting. Worry and persecutory ideation were connected over the 18-month interval in an apparent feedback loop.
These results have implications for understanding dynamic processes in psychosis and for targeting psychological interventions. The reciprocal influence of worry and paranoia implies that treating either symptom is likely to ameliorate the other.
New simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the archetypal mode-switching pulsar PSR B0943+10 have been carried out with XMM-Newton and the LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo radio telescopes in November 2014. They allowed us to better constrain the X-ray spectral and variability properties of this pulsar and to detect, for the first time, the X-ray pulsations also during the X-ray-fainter mode. The combined timing and spectral analysis indicates that unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap are present during both radio modes and vary in a correlated way.
The NASA 64-m antenna at Tidbinbilla and the CSIRO 64-m antenna at Parkes have been used to observe the Bok Globule 210-6a (“Valentine's Night”) in the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) transitions of ammonia. The beam sizes of the two telescopes were 55 arcsec and 81 arcsec, respectively.
A spectral line survey for interstellar NH3 is being carried out using the 64-m telescopes at Parkes and Tidbinbilla. Both telescopes are equipped with K-band masers yielding system temperatures below 100 K. The preliminary survey was to be made with the Parkes antenna (beam = 1.5′ arc) with follow-up mapping of the more interesting sources at Tidbinbilla (beam = 0.9′ arc). Sources have in general been H II regions from the H2CO surveys made at Parkes. Approximately 70 sources (out of a target of (∼ 100) have been observed simultaneously in the metastable (1,1), (2,2) and (3,3) transitions. The (1,1) line has been detected in about 70% of the sources surveyed. The other lines which involve higher excitation are detected primarily in the more compact sources, particularly those associated with OH and H2O masers. Examples are given of spectra for different types of source.
Calving is a complex process subject to several cooperating atmospheric, oceanographic and glaciological forcings that vary in space and time, and whose relative effects are challenging to separate. Statistical ‘Systems Analysis’ is commonly used in engineering and economics to extricate complex ‘force–response’ relationships. Here we apply Systems Analysis to the Amery rift system, East Antarctica. We develop a scalable ‘System Model’ driven by a coarsely-sampled dataset characteristic of glaciological observations in remote locations, and validate it using rift lengths observed in 2000–06 and 2012. In this initial demonstration, we forecast a detachment date of ~2019 ± 5 years for the large tabular iceberg colloquially known as the ‘Loose Tooth’, for which relative humidity surprisingly emerges as the best statistical predictor. RACMO2 climate modelling reveals that relative humidity correlates best with surface albedo and snowmelt, both of which are intimately linked to firn compaction and ice shelf temperature and flow. We postulate that relative humidity can therefore serve as a proxy for internal stress, a known key control of ‘Loose Tooth’ calving. Although no physical causality is implied in Systems Analysis, postulates such as this can aid in setting priorities in studies of complex glaciological processes.
The 20 → 3−1 E-type transition of 13CH3OH at 14.78 GHz has been detected towards four continuum sources: Sgr B2, two positions in Sgr A (the peaks of the ' + 20 km/s' and the '40 km/s' clouds), and W33. The NASA Deep Space Network 70-m antenna near Canberra, Australia, which has a 66 arcsec beam at this frequency, was used. A comparison of the 13C and 12C profiles for Sgr B2 indicates a rest frequency of 14,782.27 ± .03 MHz, 0.12 MHz above the laboratory value of Haque et al. (1974). For the Galactic Centre sources, the 12C/13C abundance ratios derived using the simplest assumptions lie in the range 30–40, higher than the 20–25 range derived from H2CO observations. For W33 the apparent value of ∼ 50 is lower than the value of ∼100 derived by Henkel et al. (1983) from H2CO. There may be no discrepancy, however, as W33 contains two velocity components — the higher velocity one at 36 km/s is more prominent in CH3OH and the lower 33 km/s more prominent in H2CO.
The ground-based research activity in the planetary field has increased very rapidly since the Prague meeting in 1967. The space probes into the atmosphere of Venus and the flybys of Mars have not only added directly to our knowledge of these planets but have stimulated further research.
Because of this rapid growth and the large expense which would be required to publish detailed descriptions of the very numerous research projects carried on in the last three years, this report will differ in important respects from the previous ones. Drs Levin, Pettengill, and McElroy have provided summaries of progress made in three important fields of planetary science, and Levin has also kindly contributed a summary of planetary research carried on in the U.S.S.R. since the Prague meeting. On behalf of its members, the President of Commission 16 gratefully acknowledges each of these important contributions.
The Parkes 64-m antenna has been used to map ammonia emission in the (J,K = 1,1) and (J,K = 2,2) transitions toward molecular cloud complex NGC 6334. This complex contains a number of OH and H2O masers, HII regions and IR sources, and is a rich source of molecular line emission.
Distributions of observed and derived quantities are presented with a linear resolution of ∼ 1 pc. Velocity anomalies are present near the two OH masers NGC 6334A and B, and the source of ammonia emission located near the northernmost H2O maser is one of the most intense sources of NH3 emission in the Galaxy.
As part of an extensive southern survey of interstellar NH3 with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope (with a beamwidth of 81 arcsec), the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) transitions have been observed towards the galactic centre molecular cloud G1.6-0.025. The cloud has an overall size of 10 arcmin, and contains several concentrations with differing velocities. It has several features also observed in other galactic centre clouds, e.g. high optical depths and kinetic temperatures above 50 K.
A spectral line survey for interstellar NH3 is being carried out using the 64-m telescopes at Parkes and Tidbinbilla. Both telescopes are equipped with K-band maser receivers yielding system temperatures below 100 K. The preliminary survey is being made with the Parkes antenna (beam = 1.35 arcmin), with follow-up mapping of the more interesting sources at Tidbinbilla (beam = 0.9 arcmin). The selected sources have in general been HII regions from the H2CO surveys made at Parkes. Statistical results from initial observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) lines in the preliminary survey are presented.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
Selon les instructions reçues de la part du Secrétaire Général de l’UAI, l’esprit général du présent “Draft Report” de la Commission 17 “La Lune” ne doit plus représenter, comme par le passé, un résumé des travaux effectués dans la discipline au cours des trois dernières années. Son rôle sera de donner un aperçu général sur les aspects et les tendances des recherches sur la Lune, la contribution présente et future de la Commission 17 du l’UAI dans son développement, ainsi que les coopérations dont elle est l’objet ou devrait l’être dans l’avenir.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (C-GRO) has completed a full-sky survey during which the number of known γ-ray pulsars has more than doubled. COMPTEL has observed the classical pulsars Crab and Vela on several occasions and has derived detailed pulse patterns and spectral parameters in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval. The new C-GROγ-ray pulsars have different properties in terms of energy spectra and light-curve shapes, and, in fact, only the Crab is seen by all four C-GRO instruments. This raises intriguing questions about the particle acceleration processes and beaming taking place in the neutron magnetosphere. We have examined the COMPTEL data to add information on these objects in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval and present evidence for the detection of one of them, PSR B1509-58. We have also undertaken a search for candidate radio pulsars whose ephemerides are well defined. The results of these analyses are presented.
Subject headings: gamma rays: observations — pulsars: general
A recent editorial claimed that the 2014 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline on psychosis and schizophrenia, unlike its equivalent 2013 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guideline, is biased towards psychosocial treatments and against drug treatments. In this paper we underline that the NICE and SIGN guidelines recommend similar interventions, but that the NICE guideline has more rigorous methodology. Our analysis suggests that the authors of the editorial appear to have succumbed to bias themselves.
C band backscatter parameters contain information about the upper snowpack/firn in the dry snow zone. The wide incidence angle diversity of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) gives unprecedented characterisation of backscatter anisotropy, revealing the backscatter response to climatic forcing. The A (isotropic component) and M2 (bi-sinusoidal azimuth anisotropy) parameters are investigated here, in conjunction with data from atmospheric and snowpack models, to identify the backscatter response to surface forcing parameters (wind speed and persistence, precipitation, surface temperature, density and grain size). The long-term mean A parameter is successfully recreated with a regression using these drivers, indicating strong links between the A parameter and precipitation on long timescales. While the ASCAT time series is too short to determine which factors drive observed trends, factors influencing the seasonal and short timescale variability are revealed. On these timescales, A strongly responds to the propagation of surface temperature cycles/anomalies downward through the firn, via direct modulation of the dielectric constant. The influence of precipitation on A is small at shorter timescales. The M2 parameter is controlled by wind speed and persistence, through modification of monodirectionally-aligned surface roughness. This variability indicates that throughout much of coastal Antarctica, a microwave ‘snapshot’ is generally not representative of longer-term conditions.