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To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
This article examines the impact of Nazi persecution on the gender identity of German-Jewish veterans of World War I. National Socialism threatened to erase everything these Jewish men had achieved and sacrificed. It sought to destroy the identity they had constructed as soldiers in the service of the Fatherland, as well as the high status they had earned as Frontkämpfer (front-line fighters) in the Great War, upon which their sense of masculinity identity rested. Although diminished and disempowered by Nazi terror, Jewish veterans were able to orient themselves toward hegemonic ideals of martial masculinity, which elevated military values as the highest expression of manhood, giving them a space to assert themselves and defy the Nazi classification Jew. For the Jewish men who fought in World War I, the Nazi years became a battle to reclaim their status and masculine honor. They believed that the manner in which they handled themselves under the Nazis was a reflection of their character: as men who had been tried and tested in the trenches, their responses to persecution communicated their identity as soldiers, as Jews, and as Germans.
Recent studies suggest that the use of vegetable oils at expense of fish oil in aquaculture feeds might have potential negative effects on fish redox homeostasis and adiposity. Resveratrol (RESV) is a lipid-soluble phytoalexin present in fruits and vegetables with proven in vivo antioxidant function in animals. The present study aims to assess the potential use of RESV in Atlantic salmon feeds. To this end, post-smolt salmons with an initial BW of 148±3 g were fed four experimental diets for 15 weeks. A diet low in fish oil served as a control and was supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg of RESV, respectively. The effect of the experimental diets on animal performance, tissue fatty acid composition, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in antioxidant signalling, lipid peroxidation, and metabolism were studied. Resveratrol significantly reduced feed intake and final BW of the salmon. Feeding RESV did not affect the sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids or total lipids in the fillet. While the content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids was not affected, the percentages of some fatty acids in the liver and fillet were changed by RESV. Furthermore, in liver, the relative expression of glutathione peroxidase 4b, nuclear factor-like 2, and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase remained unchanged across treatment groups. In conclusion, the negative impact of dietary RESV on FI and hence reduction of the BW discourages its inclusion in low fish oil diets for Atlantic salmon.
We present the detection of a neutral helium line in observations of the solar corona obtained during the 1994 eclipse, and show that a coronal excitation process is unlikely to cause such a significant Hel emission that extends out to a distance of 3 solar radii (R⊙) from the center of the sun. Besides the scattered light of a solar prominence, as well as components of geocoronal helium, the observed emission line may come from the neutral helium components in the interplanetary medium. Recombination of ions on interplanetary dust particles may play a role for the formation of the neutral helium.
There is variation regarding the use of surgery and interventional radiological techniques in the management of epistaxis. This review evaluates the effectiveness of surgical artery ligation compared to direct treatments (nasal packing, cautery), and that of embolisation compared to direct treatments and surgery.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised published methodology and custom database search strategy.
Thirty-seven studies were identified relating to surgery, and 34 articles relating to interventional radiology. For patients with refractory epistaxis, endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation had the most favourable adverse effect profile and success rate compared to other forms of surgical artery ligation. Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and embolisation had similar success rates (73–100 per cent and 75–92 per cent, respectively), although embolisation was associated with more serious adverse effects (risk of stroke, 1.1–1.5 per cent). No articles directly compared the two techniques.
Trials comparing endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation to embolisation are required to better evaluate the clinical and economic effects of intervention in epistaxis.
The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology.
Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals. For non-dissolvable packs, the re-bleed rates for Rapid Rhino and Merocel were similar, but were higher with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste packing. Rapid Rhino packs were the most tolerated non-dissolvable packs. Evidence indicates that 96 per cent of re-bleeding occurs within the first 4 hours after nasal pack removal. Limited evidence suggests that dissolvable packs are effective and well tolerated by patients. There was a lack of evidence relating to: the duration of pack use, the economic effects of pack choice and the appropriate care setting for non-dissolvable packs.
Rapid Rhino packs are the best tolerated, with efficacy equivalent to nasal tampons. FloSeal is easy to use, causes less discomfort and may be superior to Merocel in anterior epistaxis cases. There is no strong evidence to support prophylactic antibiotic use.
The initial assessment of epistaxis patients commonly includes: first aid measures, observations, focused history taking, and clinical examinations and investigations. This systematic review aimed to identify evidence that informs how the initial assessment of these patients should be conducted.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy.
Seventeen articles were included. Factors identified were: co-morbidity, intrinsic patient factors, coagulation screening and ice pack use. Hypertension and anticoagulant use were demonstrated to adversely affect outcomes. Coagulation screening is useful in patients on anticoagulant medication. Four studies could not be accessed. Retrospective methodology and insufficient statistical analysis limit several studies.
Sustained ambulatory hypertension, anticoagulant therapy and posterior bleeding may be associated with recurrent epistaxis, and should be recorded. Oral ice pack use may decrease severity and can be considered as first aid. Coagulation studies are appropriate for patients with a history of anticoagulant use or bleeding diatheses.
Annual glacier mass balances are reconstructed for 96% of the Austrian glacier-covered area (451 of 470 km2) between 1969 and 1998. The volume change derived from two complete glacier inventories (1969 and 1998) serves as the boundary condition that is aimed to be reproduced. ERA-40 reanalysis data as well as a gridded precipitation dataset (HISTALP) are used to drive a positive degree-day (PDD) model. The results are verified with four independent long-term mass-balance series. The spatial and vertical distribution of the tuning parameters is altered in order to reproduce the measured mean annual surface mass balances of selected glaciers, and a strong correlation is found between the median elevation of a glacier and the degree-day factor (DDF) at this elevation. This result implies that the lower a glacier’s median elevation is, the less melt occurs at a given elevation and temperature. We attribute this to the fact that lower-altitude glaciers are generally those with more accumulation, which leads to later exposure of bare ice and a longer period of high-albedo snow cover. A further improvement of the model was achieved by making DDF a function of time as well as space. The results indicate that mean DDFs generally increase for a given date over a sequence of consecutive negative mass-balance years, which probably reflects the reduction in albedo related to that. Finally, the major drivers of the observed mass-balance evolution are investigated: summer PDD sums correlate significantly better with the observed mass-balance changes than annual PDD sums or precipitation do. This implies that annual mass balances in the study area are governed by summer temperatures.
In this study we aim to connect glacier extent in 1998 with general climatic conditions, and glacier changes between 1969 and 1998 with climate change in the Austrian Alps. The investigations are based on two complete glacier inventories, a homogenized gridded precipitation dataset and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts re-analysis (ERA-40) data of air temperature at different levels. A relationship between median glacier elevation, minimal elevation, the general elevation of the surrounding mountains and mean climatic values was found. In the Austrian Alps, the existence of glaciers at low elevations can only be maintained with above-average accumulation or strong dynamic ice supply. For debris-free glaciers, we found a limit of ~2080ma.s.l., where mean summer temperatures (June–August) exceed 4°C. Glacier changes from 1969 to 1998 are strongly negative both in relative area and in mean thickness. There is a weak and regionally varying negative trend in precipitation over this period. A spatially consistent sequence of positive temperature anomalies in the early 1980s and after 1990 offers an explanation for the retreat. The study shows that the observed spatial variability of glacier changes is connected more strongly to the topographic differences than to a regionally different climate change signal.
Movies of the solar granulation were made simultaneously at 5575 Å and 1.64 μm using the Vacuum Tower Telescope at NSO/SP. A 128 × 128 HgCdTe array was used in the infrared and an RCA 504 CCD in the visible. From the movies, we determine and compare statistical properties of the granulation and seeing conditions.
Motivated by recent interest in the possibility of a long range gravitation-like force we have considered the effects a deviation from the Newtonian force law would have on the solar normal mode spectrum. Observations of low order and degree modes provide the most interesting limits to possible new physics. The constraint from solar oscillation observations is distinct from other planetary data in that it provides an integral bound on force law deviations on spatial scales between roughly 2×104 km and planetary scales. This limit is −0.02 ≤ δG/G ≤ 0.3 and is presently limited by systematic differences between the low-l observations and uncertainty in the solar model.
The availability of relatively large format IR array detectors is incentive for reexamining the classic question of whether or not there are “dust rings” around the sun – a problem for which there are conflicting observational answers. The 1991 eclipse path included a high altitude observatory and provided a potentially ideal opportunity to study the infrared properties and dust content of the corona. Here we report results from an experiment conducted from Mauna Kea using a HgCdTe array detector sensitive to wavelengths between 1-2.5 μm. Surface brightness measurements in the H-band and polarization data in the J-band were obtained over a field-of-view of ±6 R⊙ while K-band images further extend to 15 R⊙ on the western side of the Sun. J-band polarization data and H and K-band surface brightness data clearly show the inhomogeneous structure in the K corona and the ecliptical flattening of the F corona. We see no evidence of a circumsolar, local dust corona (dust rings) out to 15 R⊙.
Cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of depression. Relationships with other mental disorders need elucidation. This study investigated whether fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of serious non-affective mental disorders. Further, we examined how having an affected brother might impact the relationship.
Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1 109 786 Swedish male conscripts with no history of mental illness, who underwent conscription examinations at age 18 between 1968 and 2005. Cardiovascular fitness was objectively measured at conscription using a bicycle ergometer test. During the follow-up (3–42 years), incident cases of serious non-affective mental disorders (schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders, other psychotic disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders) were identified through the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the influence of cardiovascular fitness at conscription and risk of serious non-affective mental disorders later in life.
Low fitness was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.61], other psychotic disorders (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27–1.56), and neurotic or stress-related and somatoform disorders (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.37–1.54). Relationships persisted in models that included illness in brothers.
Lower fitness in late adolescent males is associated with increased risk of serious non-affective mental disorders in adulthood.
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6–15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.
By mosaicking many CCD frames together, we have constructed a large-scale (~ 1/2°) R-band map of the cD cluster Abell 2029. The map was flat from one edge to the other to about 0.05% of the night sky, which corresponds to vR ~30 mag arcsec2. Using a novel technique involving the pixel distribution function, we measured diffuse light in the cluster out to 450″ (500 h−1 Kpc) along the minor axis of the cluster. In the elliptical region from minor radius 100″ to minor radius 300″, the diffuse light corresponds to roughly 8% of the total cluster light. Data in other optical bands and on other clusters are in the process of being reduced. The applicability of the above technique to measurements of the fluctuations in the extragalactic background light (EBL) is discussed.
To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy.
Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model.
Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001).
The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.
Investigations of the stratigraphy and facies within a 2.69 m long gravity core (PS1423–2) from the southwestern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, indicate a significant change in the character of glaciomarine sedimentation since grounded ice withdrew from the continental shelf. Based on visual description, X-radiography, clast shape, particle-size analysis, physical properties and geochemical data, the core used in this analysis comprises five distinct units, from top to bottom: (i) massive diamicton, (ii) weakly to well-stratified diamicton, (iii) millimetre-scale laminated muds, with little or on coarse-clastic input, (iv) well- to weakly stratified diamicton, (v) massive diamicton. This succession is attributed to the variation in sedimentation associated with the recession of the grounding line of a previously advanced glacier. Grounded ice decoupled from the continental shelf to form an ice shelf, probably initiated by a rise in sea level in response to global climatic changes. Following disintegration of the ice shelf, sedimentation was influenced by marked variations in iceberg production. AMS-derived 14C ages from the upper 46 cm of the core indicate that the succession has been deposited since the end of the most recent glacial maximum (late Pleistocene), a conclusion supported by published data.
A simple and natural explanation for the dynamics and morphology of the Local Group Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies, Draco (Dra) and Ursa Minor (UMi), is that they are weakly unbound stellar systems with no significant dark matter component. A gentle, but persistent, Milky Way (MW) tide has left them in their current kinematic and morphological state (the “parametric tidal excitation”). A new test of a dark matter dominated dS potential follows from a careful observation of the “clumpiness” of the dS stellar surface density.
General arguments for optimized coronagraphy in the search for planets are presented. First, off-axis telescopes provide the best telescopic platforms for use with coronagraphy, and telescope fabrication technology now allows the fabrication of such telescopes with diameters of up to 6.5 m. We show that in certain circumstances a smaller telescope with an off-axis primary has a signal-to-noise advantage compared with larger Cassegrain telescopes. Second, to fully exploit the advantages of the coronagraph for suppressing stray light, it is necessary to use a high Strehl ratio adaptive optics system. This can be best achieved initially with modest aperture telescopes of 3–4 m in diameter. Third, application of simultaneous differential imaging and simultaneous polarimetric techniques are required to reach the photon-limit of coronagraphic imaging. These three developments, if pursued together, will yield significant improvements in the search for planets.