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In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Crystallization is one of the most important separation and product-formation technologies in the chemical industry. Typical advantages of crystallization are the low energy consumption, mild process conditions, and high product purity that can be obtained in a single separation step. The future impact of crystallization is even expected to increase further because many new high-added-value products are often in crystalline form. However, future crystalline products are also subject to increasingly stringent product quality requirements related to, for example, flowability, filterability, bioavailability, stability, and dissolution behavior. Product quality requirements for crystalline products typically vary strongly depending on the field of application.
Studies on neighbourhood characteristics and depression show equivocal results.
This large-scale pooled analysis examines whether urbanisation, socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with the prevalence and severity of depression.
Cross-sectional design including data are from eight Dutch cohort studies (n= 32 487). Prevalence of depression, either DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive disorder or scoring for moderately severe depression on symptom scales, and continuous depression severity scores were analysed. Neighbourhood characteristics were linked using postal codes and included (a) urbanisation grade, (b) socioeconomic characteristics: socioeconomic status, home value, social security beneficiaries and non-Dutch ancestry, (c) physical characteristics: air pollution, traffic noise and availability of green space and water, and (d) social characteristics: social cohesion and safety. Multilevel regression analyses were adjusted for the individual's age, gender, educational level and income. Cohort-specific estimates were pooled using random-effects analysis.
The pooled analysis showed that higher urbanisation grade (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10), lower socioeconomic status (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87–0.95), higher number of social security beneficiaries (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.06–1.19), higher percentage of non-Dutch residents (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14), higher levels of air pollution (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.12), less green space (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) and less social safety (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97) were associated with higher prevalence of depression. All four socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and social safety were also consistently associated with continuous depression severity scores.
This large-scale pooled analysis across eight Dutch cohort studies shows that urbanisation and various socioeconomic, physical and social neighbourhood characteristics are associated with depression, indicating that a wide range of environmental aspects may relate to poor mental health.
Hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) negatively affects cardiopulmonary physiology. Compression-adjusted ventilations (CAVs) may allow providers to deliver ventilation rates more consistently than conventional ventilations (CVs). This study sought to compare ventilation rates between these two methods during simulated cardiac arrest.
That CAV will not result in different rates than CV in simulated CPR with metronome-guided compressions.
Volunteer Basic Life Support (BLS)-trained providers delivered bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilations during simulated CPR with metronome-guided compressions at 100 beats/minute. For the first 4-minute interval, volunteers delivered CV. Volunteers were then instructed on how to perform CAV by delivering one breath, counting 12 compressions, and then delivering a subsequent breath. They then performed CAV for the second 4-minute interval. Ventilation rates were manually recorded. Minute-by-minute ventilation rates were compared between the techniques.
A total of 23 volunteers were enrolled with a median age of 36 years old and with a median of 14 years of experience. Median ventilation rates were consistently higher in the CV group versus the CAV group across all 1-minute segments: 13 vs 9, 12 vs 8, 12 vs 8, and 12 vs 8 for minutes one through four, respectively (P <.01, all). Hyperventilation (>10 breaths per minute) occurred 64% of the time intervals with CV versus one percent with CAV (P <.01). The proportion of time which hyperventilation occurred was also consistently higher in the CV group versus the CAV group across all 1-minute segments: 78% vs 4%, 61% vs 0%, 57% vs 0%, and 61% vs 0% for minutes one through four, respectively (P <.01, all).
In this simulated model of cardiac arrest, CAV had more accurate ventilation rates and fewer episodes of hyperventilation compared with CV.
Nikolla DA, Kramer BJ, Carlson JN. A cross-over trial comparing conventional to compression-adjusted ventilations with metronome-guided compressions. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):220–223
In modern musicological literature the saeta is considered to belong to the domain of cante flamenco. It is a kind of song that is performed in several cities and villages of Andalusia, the most southern province of Spain. The lyrics, a stanza generally made up of five lines, deal with the suffering of Christ or the grief of his mother Mary. The music of the saeta is a rhythmically free flamenco song containing many melismas and ornaments. It is performed without the accompaniment of instruments (a palo seco; literally, “with a dry stick”). The performance of saeta takes place in the religious processions that are held in town during Holy Week, before Easter, and are organized by the local religious brotherhoods, the cofradías. During these processions through the streets of the cities, huge images of Christ and the Virgin Mary, called pasos, are carried. When at specific times such a procession comes to a halt, a singer, who is generally hired for the occasion by one of the local brotherhoods, may take the opportunity to direct him or herself to the image and perform a saeta. The performance gives listeners the impression of a spontaneous and improvised outburst of a musically gifted worshipper, who expresses his grief and feelings of sorrow aroused by the image.
Objectives: Concussions cause diverse symptoms that are often measured through a single symptom severity score. Researchers have postulated distinct dimensions of concussion symptoms, raising the possibility that total scores may not accurately represent their multidimensional nature. This study examined to what degree concussion symptoms, assessed by the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), reflect a unidimensional versus multidimensional construct to inform how the SCAT3 should be scored and advance efforts to identify distinct phenotypes of concussion. Methods: Data were aggregated across two prospective studies of sport-related concussion, yielding 219 high school and college athletes in the acute (<48 hr) post-injury period. Item-level ratings on the SCAT3 checklist were analyzed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. We specified higher-order and bifactor models and compared their fit, interpretability, and external correlates. Results: The best-fitting model was a five-factor bifactor model that included a general factor on which all items loaded and four specific factors reflecting emotional symptoms, torpor, sensory sensitivities, and headache symptoms. The bifactor model demonstrated better discriminant validity than the counterpart higher-order model, in which the factors were highly correlated (r=.55–.91). Conclusions: The SCAT3 contains items that appear unidimensional, suggesting that it is appropriate to quantify concussion symptoms with total scores. However, evidence of multidimensionality was revealed using bifactor modeling. Additional work is needed to clarify the nature of factors identified by this model, explicate their clinical and research utility, and determine to what degree the model applies to other stages of injury recovery and patient subgroups. (JINS, 2018, 24, 793–804)
Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents’ major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents’ depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents’ DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene–environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure by dissipating chemical energy as heat. The combustion of glucose and lipids produces beneficial metabolic effects and renders BAT an attractive target to battle obesity and associated diseases. The majority of adults do not display active BAT on positron emission tomography (PET) without prior cold exposure. Interestingly, a fraction of individuals with BAT positive PET scans exhibits excessive BAT (eBAT) activity, indicating a possible underlying genetic contributor. We aim to identify genetic determinants of BAT activity by studying individuals with eBAT activity using next-generation sequencing. A cellular model will be used to validate variants and perform in-depth pathway analysis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective review of PET scans over a period of 12 months in patients presenting with suspected or diagnosed cancer (n=20,348). The distribution of BAT positive individuals (n=1251) was used to implement a threshold to define eBAT activity. Samples from prospectively recruited individuals with BAT activity above the threshold will undergo whole exome sequencing. Variants associated with eBAT activity will be engineered into an immortalized BAT cell line using CRISPR to validate results and perform in-depth pathway analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to identify genetic variants associated with eBAT. Studying the effects of these variants on thermogenesis followed by in-depth pathway analysis in genetically engineered cellular and mouse models may enable us to find new regulators of BAT activity. These findings may eventually contribute to the development of new drugs targeting obesity and its sequelae. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The contribution of genetic factors to individual BAT activity is currently unknown. Identifying individuals with eBAT on PET scans and studying the underlying genetic determinants may provide the foundation for the discovery of new pathways for BAT activation.
We present first results from pilot observations using a phased array feed (PAF) mounted on the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. The observations presented here cover a frequency range from 1 150 to 1 480 MHz and are used to show the ability of PAFs to suppress standing wave problems by a factor of ~10, which afflict normal feeds. We also compare our results with previous HIPASS observations and with previous H i images of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Drift scan observations of the GAMA G23 field resulted in direct H i detections at z = 0.0043 and z = 0.0055 of HIPASS galaxies J2242-30 and J2309-30. Our new measurements generally agree with archival data in spectral shape and flux density, with small differences being due to differing beam patterns. We also detect signal in the stacked H i data of 1 094 individually undetected galaxies in the GAMA G23 field in the redshift range 0.05 ⩽ z ⩽ 0.075. Finally, we use the low standing wave ripple and wide bandwidth of the PAF to set a 3σ upper limit to any positronium recombination line emission from the Galactic Centre of <0.09 K, corresponding to a recombination rate of <3.0 × 1045 s−1.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
The majority of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are poorly localised, hindering their potential scientific yield as galactic, intergalactic, and cosmological probes. LOFT-e, a digital backend for the U.K.’s e-MERLIN seven-telescope interferometer will provide commensal search and real-time detection of FRBs, taking full advantage of its field of view (FoV), sensitivity, and observation time. Upon burst detection, LOFT-e will store raw data offline, enabling the sub-arcsecond localisation provided by e-MERLIN and expanding the pool of localised FRBs. The high-time resolution backend will additionally introduce pulsar observing capabilities to e-MERLIN.
Multi-decade observing campaigns of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae and M15 have led to an outstanding number of discoveries. Here, we report on the latest results of the long-term observations of the pulsars in these two clusters. For most of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae we have measured, among other things, their higher-order spin period derivatives, which have in turn provided stringent constraints on the physical parameters of the cluster, such as its distance and gravitational potential. For M15, we have studied the relativistic spin precession effect in PSR B2127+11C. We have used full-Stokes observations to model the precession effect, and to constrain the system geometry. We find that the visible beam of the pulsar is swiftly moving away from our line of sight and may very soon become undetectable. On the other hand, we expect to see the opposite emission beam sometime between 2041 and 2053.
PSR B1828–11 is a young pulsar once thought to be undergoing free precession and recently found instead to be switching magnetospheric states in tandem with spin-down changes. Here we show the two extreme states of the mode-changing found for this pulsar and comment briefly on its interpretation.
We present the results from the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) observations of the ground- and excited-state OH masers at high resolutions towards the massive star-forming region G351.417+0.645 in 2012. We obtain the most accurate spatial gradient of magnetic fields at ground state transitions and verify the reliability of magnetic field strengths measured from previous lower resolution observations. In comparison with previous LBA observations in 2001 at 6.0 GHz, we identified several matched Zeeman pairs. We found that the OH maser features have no significant change of magnetic field strengths and directions with small internal proper motions, implying quite stable physical conditions. Additionally, we found that 1665- and 6035-MHz OH maser features reveal the same trend of reversal of magnetic fields. Moreover, we also analyzed the physical conditions at different locations from the coincidence of different OH maser transitions based on current OH maser models.
An evolution of the low-frequency pulse profile of PSR B2217+47 is observed during a six-year observing campaign with the LOFAR telescope at 150 MHz. The evolution is manifested as a new component in the profile trailing the main peak. The leading part of the profile, including a newly-observed weak component, is steady during the campaign. The transient component is not visible in simultaneous observations at 1500 MHz using the Lovell telescope, implying a chromatic effect. A variation in the dispersion measure of the source is detected in the same timespan. Precession of the pulsar and changes in the magnetosphere are investigated to explain the profile evolution. However, the listed properties favour a model based on turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM). This interpretation is confirmed by a strong correlation between the intensity of the transient component and main peak in single pulses. Since PSR B2217+47 is the fourth brightest pulsar visible to LOFAR, we speculate that ISM-induced pulse profile evolution might be relatively common but subtle and that SKA-Low will detect many similar examples. In this scenario, similar studies of pulse profile evolution could be used in parallel with scintillation arcs to characterize the properties of the ISM.
Aberrant reward mechanisms with regard to slim body shapes are discussed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine of cue reactivity toward body shapes in AN via the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related electroencephalography (EEG) component. By including adolescents and adults, aspects of development and chronification could be studied (2 × 2 design).
Thirty-two female AN patients (19 adolescents and 13 adults) and 37 control participants (16 adolescents and 21 adults) were included. Standardized photographic stimuli showing women's bodies in underwear from five body mass index (BMI) categories (extremely underweight to extremely overweight) were presented. During picture evaluation, EEG activity was recorded (10–20 system). The LPP was measured in two time windows characterized by different topographies (450–700 ms: posterior; 1000–1300 ms: central).
Regarding the posterior component, LPP amplitudes were clearly reduced in adult but not in adolescent patients; for both time windows the LPP showed differential patterns over BMI categories for patients and controls. Regarding the central component, a highly significant linear decrease from extremely underweight to extremely overweight body shapes was revealed in patients and no significant modulation in control participants.
Adolescent and adult patients show increased sustained attention toward extremely underweight bodies. In chronically ill patients, this bias appears to be accompanied by generally reduced automatic attention. The LPP findings provide a differentiated picture of aberrant cue reactivity which could be interpreted as motivated attention toward body shapes in AN.