Addition of rare earth oxides affects several properties of barium titanate ceramics such as dielectric constant, Curie temperature and electrical conductivity. Electrical properties depend on the composition, firing conditions and mode of incorporation of rare earth ions into perovskite or perovskite-like lattice.
Incorporation of rare earth ions into the BaTiO3 lattice was studied by quantitative wavelength dispersive spectroscopy in combination with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Broad solubility regions between rare earth titanates and barium titanate were detected, influencing the properties.
In present review, phase equilibria and properties of rare earth (La,Nd,Ce) containing BaTiO3 ceramics are compared with particular emphasis on preparation conditions.