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Sheath blight caused by soil borne necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani [teleomorph-Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk.] is a major disease of rice. The disease is increasing over the year in India and cause up to 69% yield loss under favourable conditions. A total of 67 accessions of Oryza nivara were screened to identify resistance against sheath blight during 2015. Out of these, 16 accessions were found moderately resistant (MR) which were further evaluated during the year 2016 and 2017. After three years of screening, 12 of them were found to have a consistent moderate resistant reaction whereas four of the O. nivara accessions namely, IRGC81941, IRGC102463C, CR100097 and CR100110A have shown moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against sheath blight. A correlation study revealed that different disease variables measured were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated. All the genotypes and genotype × environment interaction had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on all the disease variables. Cluster analysis showed that all the accessions were clustered into four groups which showed resistant, MR, moderately susceptible and susceptible reactions. Among all the O. nivara accessions IRGC81941A showed the maximum potential against sheath blight due to a least relative lesion height of 22.80%. None of the accession had complete resistance to the disease. The identified promising accessions such as IRGC81835, IRGC81941A, CR100008 and CR100111B can be utilized in a sheath blight resistance breeding program.
Dust vortices with a void at the centre are reported in this paper. The role of the spatial variation of the plasma potential in the rotation of dust particles is studied in a parallel plate glow discharge plasma. Probe measurements reveal the existence of a local potential minimum in the region of formation of the dust vortex. The minimum in the potential well attracts positively charged ions, while it repels the negatively charged dust particles. Dust rotation is caused by the interplay of the two oppositely directed ion drag and Coulomb forces. The balance between these two forces is found to play a major role in the radial confinement of the dust particles above the cathode surface. Evolution of the dust vortex is studied by increasing the discharge current from 15 to 20 mA. The local minimum of the potential profile is found to coincide with the location of the dust vortex for both values of discharge currents. Additionally, it is found that the size of the dust vortex as well as the void at the centre increases with the discharge current.
At sixteen years of age, a co-author of this chapter fell madly and all-consumingly in love – or so he thought – with the student sitting in front of him in his biology class. As it turned out, the love was “infatuated love” (Sternberg, 1986), but he did not know that at the time. To him, she was his “true love.” There was a problem, however. The woman – call her “Jane” – had a boyfriend.
The successful provision of middle-ear surgery requires appropriate anaesthesia. This may take the form of local or general anaesthesia; both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Local anaesthesia is simple to administer and does not require the additional personnel required for general anaesthesia. In the low-resource setting, it can provide a very safe and effective means of allowing middle-ear surgery to be successfully completed. However, some middle-ear surgery is too complex to consider performing under local anaesthesia and here general anaesthesia will be required.
This article highlights considerations for performing middle-ear surgery in a safe manner when the available resources may be more limited than those expected in high-income settings. There are situations where local anaesthesia with sedation may prove a useful compromise of the two techniques.
We have explored the thermodynamics of compressed magnetized plasmas in laboratory experiments and we call these studies ‘magnetothermodynamics’. The experiments are carried out in the Swarthmore Spheromak eXperiment device. In this device, a magnetized plasma source is located at one end and at the other end, a closed conducting can is installed. We generate parcels of magnetized plasma and observe their compression against the end wall of the conducting cylinder. The plasma parameters such as plasma density, temperature and magnetic field are measured during compression using HeNe laser interferometry, ion Doppler spectroscopy and a linear
probe array, respectively. To identify the instances of ion heating during compression, a PV diagram is constructed using measured density, temperature and a proxy for the volume of the magnetized plasma. Different equations of state are analysed to evaluate the adiabatic nature of the compressed plasma. A three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic code (NIMROD) is employed to simulate the twisted Taylor states and shows stagnation against the end wall of the closed conducting can. The simulation results are consistent to what we observe in our experiments.
Giant ragweed is one of the most competitive annual broadleaf weeds in corn and soybean crop production systems in the United States and eastern Canada. Management of giant ragweed has become difficult due to the evolution of resistance to glyphosate and/or acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides and giant ragweed’s ability to emerge late in the season, specifically in the eastern Corn Belt. Late-season herbicide application may reduce seed production of weed species; however, information is not available about late-season herbicide applications on giant ragweed seed production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of single or sequential late-season applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate on inflorescence injury and seed production of glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed under greenhouse and field conditions (bare ground study). Single and sequential applications of glufosinate resulted in as much as 59 and 60% injury to giant ragweed inflorescence and as much as 78 and 75% reduction in seed production, respectively, under field and greenhouse conditions. In contrast, single or sequential applications of 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in ≥ 96% inflorescence injury and reduction in seed production in the field as well as in greenhouse studies. The results indicated that 2,4-D or dicamba are effective options for reducing seed production of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed even if applied late in the season. Targeting weed seed production to decrease the soil seedbank will potentially be an effective strategy for an integrated management of GR giant ragweed.
There is growing interest in monitoring soil biological health to complement the traditional evaluation of soil physical and chemical characteristics in agricultural fields. Activity of soil microorganisms mediates many essential soil processes that affect fertility, and, therefore, essential to the successful adoption of precision agriculture. However, there are technical limitations to cost-effective monitoring of spatial and temporal dynamics of soil biological activity across agricultural landscapes. This paper summarizes three consecutive studies on in situ measurement of soil biological activity. The first study reveals spatial heterogeneity of microbial population growth in three agricultural fields using bio-films. In the second study, microbiological activity was analyzed using a substrate-induced respiration technique. This technique was evaluated through a series of soil toxicity experiments that involved a comparison of fresh and autoclaved soil samples. Finally, the aim of the third study was to develop a portable instrumented system to evaluate carbon dioxide concentrations in soil by extracting air stored within the soil pores. This instrument was tested under various conditions to quantify the effects of soil moisture, compaction and presence of glucose (artificially increased microbial respiration). Optimization of the discussed techniques will allow for detailed mapping of these indices of soil biological health and their interactions with the physical and chemical environment at any specific point in time.
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding
the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode
immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir
probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the
probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust
structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a
well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated
instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe
with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes
from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles
tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in
unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir
probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so,
first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in
collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis
on application. The critical issues associated with the current–voltage
characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are
discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in
presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has adverse effects on metabolic health and early life, whereas physical activity is protective against later development of metabolic disease. Relationships between birth weight and physical activity in humans, and effects of IUGR on voluntary activity in rodents, are mixed and few studies have measured physical activity in a free-ranging environment. We hypothesized that induced restriction of placental growth and function (PR) in sheep would decrease spontaneous ambulatory activity (SAA) in free-ranging adolescent and young adult progeny from multi-fetal pregnancies. To test this hypothesis, we used Global Positioning System watches to continuously record SAA between 1800 and 1200 h the following day, twice during a 16-day recording period, in progeny of control (CON, n=5 males, 9 females) and PR pregnancies (n=9 males, 10 females) as adolescents (30 weeks) and as young adults (43 weeks). PR reduced size at birth overall, but not in survivors included in SAA studies. In adolescents, SAA did not differ between treatments and females were more active than males overall and during the day (each P<0.001). In adults, daytime SAA was greater in PR than CON females (P=0.020), with a similar trend in males (P=0.053) and was greater in females than males (P=0.016). Adult SAA was negatively correlated with birth weight in females only. Contrary to our hypothesis, restricted placental function and small size at birth did not reduce progeny SAA. The mechanisms for increased daytime SAA in adult female PR and low birth weight sheep require further investigation.
Aspiration pneumonia is an important cause of death in head and neck cancer patients. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia in head and neck cancer patients.
Hospital death records from 12 years (2000–2012) were reviewed to obtain the number of deaths. Treatment details and cause of death were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia.
The records revealed that aspiration pneumonia was the cause of death in 51 out of 85 patients. Primary tumour site (oropharynx and hypopharynx, odds ratio 3.3; 95 per cent confidence interval 1.17–9.4, p = 0.02) and advanced tumour stage (odds ratio 4.2, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.16–15.61, p = 0.02) had significant negative impacts on aspiration pneumonia related mortality.
Advanced pharyngeal cancer patients are at an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia related death. Investigations for the early detection of this condition are recommended in these high-risk patients.
Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed is one of the most competitive weeds of agronomic crops in the United States. Early emergence and rapid growth rate makes giant ragweed a competitive weed early in the season and reduces crop yields. Therefore, early spring control of giant ragweed using a preplant herbicide is critical. Glufosinate is an alternative POST herbicide for weed control in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Field experiments were conducted at David City, NE, in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of preplant herbicides followed by glufosinate applied alone or in tank mixes for control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Preplant treatments containing 2,4-D, flumioxazin, glufosinate, paraquat, saflufenacil, and sulfentrazone provided 79 to 99% control of giant ragweed 21 d after treatment (DAT), and subsequent application of glufosinate alone or in tank mixes resulted in 90 to 99% control at 21 DAT. Preplant application of S-metolachlor plus metribuzin or chlorimuron, flumioxazin plus thifensulfuron followed by glufosinate resulted in < 40% control of giant ragweed, and soybean yields were < 870 kg ha−1. Although statistically comparable to several other treatments, preplant application of 2,4-D or saflufenacil tank mixes followed by glufosinate resulted in the highest level of control (> 97%) and soybean yield (2,624 to 3,378 kg ha−1). This study confirms that preplant herbicide options are available for control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed, and a follow-up application of glufosinate will provide season-long control in glufosinate-resistant soybean.
CuInS2 (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) with different diameters were prepared and their optical properties were studied. The optical band gap of QDs, as estimated by absorption spectrum, was found to decrease with increase in size. The stokes shift between absorption and photoluminescence peaks was observed to be larger (>100 meV) in all the three samples. This shows that the defect states available in the forbidden gap dominates the recombination mechanism. The variation in the emission peak with QD size, however, indicates that the relaxation dynamics in CIS QDs involves both excitonic level as well as the defect states.
Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite material was prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline with ZnO nano-particles doping. Surface Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherms of Polyaniline (PANi) and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite shows phase transformations of monolayer during compression process. Multiple isotherms indicate that the monolayer of the composite material can retain its configuration during compression-expansion cycles. The structural, topographical and electrical properties of these deposited Langmuir Blodgett films were studied and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Conductive Atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) respectively. For detailed investigations of the LB film properties, Conductive AFM is used to measure the I-V relationship of a surface of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of Polyaniline and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite. The contact size of the AFM cantilever tip can be as small as a few nanometers, so, the local variation of the electrical property, which is unseen in the macroscopic level, can be observed by the I-V curve. A current ranging up to 3 nA and 20 nA have been observed in the case of PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film, respectively. Conductive data images of the ITO substrate, PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film on the ITO substrate obtained with an applied bias voltage of 4V showed that the distribution of current on the whole surface is almost uniform and very less inhomogeneities have been observed in the surface conductance of the PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film.
This study was designed to study the variations in different geometrical and dosimetric parameters.
Materials and methods
In this study, two groups comprises 21 and 28 patients, who were treated with 9·5 Gy × 2 Fx and 7·5 Gy × 3 Fx, respectively, using microselectron high-dose rate (HDR) remote control unit. All patients were analysed using orthogonal radiographs to evaluate variations in different parameters.
Variations in different parameters are more in Group II patients than in Group I patients, which show that the variation in geometrical and dosimetrical parameters increases with increasing HDR number of fractions.
In the reporting of an outcome of multiple fractionation of HDR treatments resultant dosimetric parameters must be evaluated and must be used for clinical interpretation.
We introduce a novel method for producing polystyrene (PS)-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which provides a direct route to composites where carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the major component. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies confirmed that the MWCNTs were functionalized with PS. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that CNTs increase thermal stability of the composite up to a critical loading (∼40 wt%) beyond which high nanotube loadings decrease the polymer degradation temperature, as a consequence of the thermal properties of CNTs and the composite morphology. Even at loadings as high as 80 wt% MWCNTs, the composite is an effective masterbatch material for both solution- and melt-processing. These results show that in situ polymerizations can be flexible and robust techniques for nanocomposite processing, overcoming limitations of conventional processing techniques to produce nanocomposites with very high nanotube loadings, not achieved hitherto.
Improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties that can perform better than SSG 59-3, a sweet Sudan grass released in 1974, has been a challenge. Efforts were made to create variability in SSG 59-3 through mutagenesis using both physical and chemical mutagens. Fifteen such mutants were evaluated for 2 years in different locations in India. Considerable variability was observed for important fodder yield and quality traits. SSG 237 flowered 10 d early than SSG 59-3. SSG 231, SSG 260, SSG 232 and SSG 237 had high protein percentage and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) values compared with SSG 59-3. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), a major anti-nutritional factor, was low in six mutants, the lowest being in SSG 226. This variability can be used in different breeding programmes aimed at improving multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. The lines with improved fodder quality (low HCN, high protein and IVDMD) can be used in the breeding programme for the improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties.
Previous studies have revealed that C20 PUFA are significantly less oxidised to CO2 in whole-body studies compared with SFA, MUFA and C18 PUFA. The present study determined the extent to which three long-chain PUFA, namely 20 : 5n-3 EPA, 22 : 5n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 22 : 6n-3 DHA, were catabolised to CO2 or, conversely, incorporated into tissue lipids. Rats were administered a single oral dose of 2·5 μCi [1-14C]DPA, [1-14C]EPA, [1-14C]DHA or [1-14C]oleic acid (18 : 1n-9; OA), and were placed in a metabolism chamber for 6 h where exhaled 14CO2 was trapped and counted for radioactivity. Rats were euthanised after 24 h and tissues were removed for analysis of radioactivity in tissue lipids. The results showed that DPA and DHA were catabolised to CO2 significantly less compared with EPA and OA (P< 0·05). The phospholipid (PL) fraction was the most labelled for all three n-3 PUFA compared with OA in all tissues, and there was no difference between C20 and C22 n-3 PUFA in the proportion of label in the PL fraction. The DHA and DPA groups showed significantly more label than the EPA group in both skeletal muscle and heart. In the brain and heart tissue, there was significantly less label in the cholesterol fraction from the C22 n-3 PUFA group compared with the C20 n-3 PUFA group. The higher incorporation of DHA and DPA into the heart and skeletal muscle, compared with EPA, suggests that these C22 n-3 PUFA might play an important role in these tissues.