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Background: Carbapenem resistance in gram-negative organisms is an important public health problem. The CDC conducted Sentinel surveillance in 2018–2019 to characterize these organisms from 9 facilities in 9 different states. Methods: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and Acinetobacter spp (CRA) obtained from clinical samples of patients in acute-care or long-term care facilities were submitted to the CDC. Identification was confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed via broth microdilution for 27 antibiotics. All confirmed CRE and CRPA were tested for carbapenemase production (CP) using the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM). The isolates that were mCIM-positive were assessed by real-time PCR for presence of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, and blaIMP. CP-CRE were also assessed for blaOXA-48-like. All confirmed CRA were tested for the same genes as CRPA and blaOXA-23–like, blaOXA-24/40-like, blaOXA-58–like, and blaOXA-235–like genes. Difficult-to-treat resistance (DTR) was defined as resistance to all β-lactams (excluding newer β-lactam combination agents) and quinolones tested. Results: The CDC confirmed 208 CRE, 161 CRPA, and 94 CRA. Table 1 summarizes AST results for a selection of drugs. We identified 112 (53.8%) mCIM-positive CRE and 6 (3.7%) mCIM-positive CRPA. The PCR results are summarized in Table 2. One mCIM-positive and PCR-negative isolate was positive in a metallo-β-lactamase screen. Conclusions: Resistance among CRE and CRPA to newer β-lactam combination agents was detected. Options for treating CRA are limited. Of 112 CP-CRE, 85.7% harbored blaKPC; CP-CRPA were rare (3.7%); and most CRA harbored blaOXA-23-like (55.3%) or blaOXA-24/40-like (30.9%). Whole-genome sequencing is planned to better understand gene variants, sequence types, and additional resistance markers present among the isolates.
The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
To investigate an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and determine interventions to interrupt transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of NDM-producing CRE among patients at a Colorado acute care hospital.
Case patients had NDM-producing CRE isolated from clinical or rectal surveillance cultures (SCs) collected during the period January 1, 2012, through October 20, 2012. Case patients were identified through microbiology records and 6 rounds of SCs in hospital units where they had resided. CRE isolates were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for blaNDM. Medical records were reviewed for epidemiologic links; relatedness of isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Infection control (IC) was assessed through staff interviews and direct observations.
Two patients were initially identified with NDM-producing CRE during July–August 2012. A third case patient, admitted in May, was identified through microbiology records review. SC identified 5 additional case patients. Patients had resided in 11 different units before identification. All isolates were highly related by PFGE. WGS suggested 3 clusters of CRE. Combining WGS with epidemiology identified 4 units as likely transmission sites. NDM-producing CRE positivity in certain patients was not explained by direct epidemiologic overlap, which suggests that undetected colonized patients were involved in transmission.
A 4-month outbreak of NDM-producing CRE occurred at a single hospital, highlighting the risk for spread of these organisms. Combined WGS and epidemiologic data suggested transmission primarily occurred on 4 units. Timely SC, combined with targeted IC measures, were likely responsible for controlling transmission.
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