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We derive the surface and basal radar reflectance and backscatter coefficients of the southern McMurdo Ice Shelf (SMIS) and part of the nearby Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), Antarctica, from radar statistical reconnaissance using a 60-MHZ airborne survey. The surface coefficients are further inverted in terms of snow density and roughness, providing a spatial distribution of the processes contributing to the surface boundary conditions. We disentangle the basal coefficients from surface transmission losses, and we provide the basal coherent content, an indicator of the boundary geometric disorder that is also self-corrected from englacial attenuation. The basal radar properties exhibit sharp gradients along specific iso-depths, suggesting an abrupt modification of the ice composition and geometric structure. We interpret this behavior as locations where the pressure-melting point is reached, outlining fields of freezing and melting ice. Basal steps are observed at both SMIS and RIS, suggesting a common geometric expression of widespread basal processes. This technique offers a simultaneous view of both the surface and basal boundary conditions to help investigate the ice-shelf stability, while its application to airborne data significantly improves coverage of the difficult-to-observe ice–ocean boundary. It also provides constraints on thermohaline circulation in ice shelves cavities, which are analogs for ice-covered ocean worlds.
Experimental measurements of the force and torque on freely settling fibres are compared with predictions of the slender-body theory of Khayat & Cox (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 209, 1989, pp. 435–462). Although the flow is viscous dominated at the scale of the fibre diameter, fluid inertia is important on the scale of the fibre length, leading to inertial torques which tend to rotate symmetric fibres toward horizontal orientations. Experimentally, the torque on symmetric fibres is inferred from the measured rate of rotation of the fibres using a quasi-steady torque balance. It is shown theoretically that fibres with an asymmetric radius or mass density distribution undergo a supercritical pitch-fork bifurcation from vertical to oblique settling with increasing Archimedes number, increasing Reynolds number or decreasing asymmetry. This transition is observed in experiments with asymmetric mass density and we find good agreement with the predicted symmetry breaking transition. In these experiments, the steady orientation of the oblique settling fibres provides a means to measure the inertial torque in the absence of transient effects since it is balanced by the known gravitational torque.
Identifying options for the sustainable intensification of cropping systems in southern Africa under prevailing high climate risk is needed. With this in mind, we tested an intercropping system that combined the staple crop maize with lablab, a local but underutilised legume. Grain and biomass productivity was determined for four variants (i) sole maize (sole-maize), (ii) sole lablab (sole-lablab), (iii) maize/lablab with both crops sown simultaneously (intercropped-SP) and (iv) maize/lablab with lablab sown 28 days after the maize crop (intercropped-DP). Soil water and weather data were monitored and evaluated. The trial was conducted for two seasons (2015/2016 and 2016/2017) at two sites in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Univen (847 mm rainfall, 29.2 °C maximum and 18.9 °C minimum temperature average for the cropping season over the years 2008–2017) and Syferkuil (491 mm rainfall, with 27.0 °C maximum and 14.8 °C minimum temperature). Analysis revealed three key results: The treatment with intercropped-SP had significantly lower maize yields (2320 kg ha−1) compared with maize in intercropped-DP (2865 kg ha−1) or sole-maize (2623 kg ha−1). As expected, maize yields in the El Niño affected in season 2015/2016 were on average 1688 kg ha−1 lower than in 2016/2017. Maize yields were significantly lower (957 kg ha−1) at Univen, the warmer site with higher rainfall, than at Syferkuil. In 2015/2016, maximum temperature at Univen exceeded 40 °C around anthesis. Furthermore, soil water was close to the estimated permanent wilting point (PWP) for most of the cropping season, which indicates possible water limitations. In Syferkuil, the soil water was maintained well above PWP. Lablab yields were low, around 500 ha−1, but stable as they were not affected by treatment across season and site. Overall, the study demonstrated that intercropped-DP appears to use available soil water more efficiently than sole maize. Intercropped-DP could therefore be considered as an option for sustainable intensification under high climate risk and resource-limited conditions for smallholders in southern Africa.
Excessive mobilization of body reserves during the transition from pregnancy to lactation imposes a risk for metabolic diseases on dairy cows. We aimed to establish an experimental model for high v. normal mobilization and herein characterized performance, metabolic and endocrine changes from 7 weeks antepartum (a.p.) to 12 weeks postpartum (p.p.). Fifteen weeks a.p., 38 pregnant multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to two groups that were fed differently to reach either high or normal body condition scores (HBCS: 7.2 NEL MJ/kg dry matter (DM); NBCS: 6.8 NEL MJ/kg DM) at dry-off. Allocation was also based on differences in body condition score (BCS) in the previous and the ongoing lactation that was further promoted by feeding to reach the targeted BCS and back fat thickness (BFT) at dry-off (HBCS: >3.75 and >1.4 cm; NBCS: <3.5 and <1.2 cm). Thereafter, both groups were fed identical diets. Blood samples were drawn weekly from 7 weeks a.p. to 12 weeks p.p. to assess the serum concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The HBCS cows had greater BCS, BFT and BW than the NBCS cows throughout the study and lost more than twice as much BFT during the first 7 weeks p.p. compared with NCBS. Milk yield and composition were not different between groups, except that lactose concentrations were greater in NBSC than in HBCS. Feed intake was also greater in NBCS, and NBCS also reached a positive energy balance earlier than HBCS. The greater reduction in body mass in HBCS was accompanied by greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum after calving than in NBCS, indicating increased lipomobilization and ketogenesis. The mean concentrations of insulin across all time-points were greater in HBCS than in NBCS. In both groups, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were lower p.p than in a.p. Greater free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations and a lower free 3-3′-5-triiodothyronine (fT3)/fT4 ratio were observed in HBCS than in NBCS a.p., whereas p.p. fT3/fT4 ratio followed a reverse pattern. The variables indicative for oxidative status had characteristic time courses; group differences were limited to greater plasma ferric reducing ability values in NBSC. The results demonstrate that the combination of pre-selection according to BCS and differential feeding before dry-off to promote the difference was successful in obtaining cows that differ in the intensity of mobilizing body reserves. The HBCS cows were metabolically challenged due to intense mobilization of body fat, associated with reduced early lactation dry matter intake and compromised antioxidative capacity.
Tail lesions caused by tail biting are a widespread welfare issue in pig husbandry. Determining their prevalence currently involves labour intensive, subjective scoring methods. Increased societal interest in tail lesions requires fast, reliable and cheap systems for assessing tail status. In the present study, we aimed to test the reliability of neural networks for assessing tail pictures from carcasses against trained human observers. Three trained observers scored tail lesions from automatically recorded pictures of 13 124 pigs. Nearly all pigs had been tail docked. Tail lesions were classified using a 4-point score (0=no lesion, to 3=severe lesion). In addition, total tail loss was recorded. Agreement between observers was tested prior and during the assessment in a total of seven inter-observer tests with 80 pictures each. We calculated agreement between observer pairs as exact agreement (%) and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK; value 1=optimal agreement). Out of the 13 124 scored pictures, we used 80% for training and 20% for validating our neural networks. As the position of the tail in the pictures varied (high, low, left, right), we first trained a part detection network to find the tail in the picture and select a rectangular part of the picture which includes the tail. We then trained a classification network to categorise tail lesion severity using pictures scored by human observers whereby the classification network only analysed the selected picture parts. Median exact agreement between the three observers was 80% for tail lesions and 94% for tail loss. Median PABAK for tail lesions and loss were 0.75 and 0.87, respectively. The agreement between classification by the neural network and human observers was 74% for tail lesions and 95% for tail loss. In other words, the agreement between the networks and human observers were very similar to the agreement between human observers. The main reason for disagreement between observers and thereby higher variation in network training material were picture quality issues. Therefore, we expect even better results for neural network application to tail lesions if training is based on high quality pictures. Very reliable and repeatable tail lesion assessment from pictures would allow automated tail classification of all pigs slaughtered, which is something that some animal welfare labels would like to do.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any ‘gold standard’. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.
Intercalated and unmodified TiS2 nanomaterials were synthesized and characterized by UV-Visible-NIR spectroscopy, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and X-Ray Photoelectron and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicated that CoS and Cu2S appeared to be intercalated between sheets of partially or fully oxidized TiS2, which could be solution processed on conductive oxide substrates. The materials were then applied toward water oxidation and evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and impedance measurements. While unmodified TiS2 was not observed to perform well as an electrocatalyst with overpotentials >3 V in 1 M NaOH electrolyte, CoS intercalation was found to lower the overpotential by ∼1.8–1.44 V at 10 mA/cm2. Conversely, Cu2S intercalation resulted in only a modest increase in performance (>2.3 V overpotential). Impedance measurements indicated that intercalation increased the series resistance in the as-prepared samples but decreased the series resistance in oxidized samples.
In this paper, we present preliminary results of soft X-ray diffuse background observations. We observed two particular regions of the sky in the 0.3–1.5 keV range. The detection system consisted of three independent, 1 cm diameter, cooled solid state detectors. Nearly overlapping fields of view subtended a solid angle of approximately 1/4 sr. Except for the field of view, the whole set was similar to that described in Schnopper et al. (1982) (hereafter referred to as paper 1). This system was flown on board a three-axis stalibized rocket. The flight took place at White Sands Missile Range on 1981 May 4 at 0755 UT.
The Society of Precision Agriculture Australia Inc. (SPAA) is recognised as a leading, grower driven farming group in Australia. As an organisation it provides programs and services to its members and wider industry to promote the development and adoption of Precision Agriculture (PA) technologies as a means of enhancing the profitability and sustainability of agricultural production systems. This is achieved through publishing Australia’s only PA-dedicated magazine, delivering field days, seminars and conducting on-farm PA demonstrations and experiments. SPAA provides farmers with an independent source of advice on new concepts and equipment. The grains industry was the springboard for initial adoption, with winegrapes, horticulture and the sugar industry the focus sectors for further expansion. The purpose of this paper is to share the SPAA experience with a view to assisting the development of similar organisations in other countries
Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few metres distance from the thruster exit. However, fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions (e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls) and charge exchange collisions. Within this work a model for secondary electrons emitted from the vessel wall is included. In order to account for limits of the model due to its limited domain size, a correction of the simulated angular ion energy distribution by the potential boundary is presented to represent the conditions at the location of the experimental measurement in
distance. In addition, a post-processing procedure is suggested to include charge exchange collisions in the plume region not covered by the original PIC simulation domain for the simulation of ion angular distributions measured at
Previous studies hypothesized that neurodevelopmental risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cortical folding has been shown to be a reliable indicator for normal and altered neurodevelopment, but in OCD it has barely been investigated up to now. The present study investigates whether alterations in gyrification are detectable in OCD and, if so, how these are associated with clinical characteristics.
We compared the local Gyrification Index (lGI) between 75 OCD patients and 75 matched healthy subjects across the whole brain. In addition, for those regions exhibiting an altered lGI in patients we explored a potential relationship to symptom severity, age of onset, and influence of medication.
OCD patients had a significantly decreased lGI in right parietal, precentral but also insula, temporal, pars triangularis and rostral middle frontal regions compared to healthy subjects. A positive association with age of onset was found but no association with symptom severity. There was no effect of co-morbidity or medication.
The reduced gyrification found in OCD confirms previous findings in other psychiatric disorders and suggests that alterations may already occur during early stages of brain development. Our findings support the idea that altered cortical folding might represent a trait characteristic of the disorder although longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the trajectory of this morphological measure in OCD.
We show that alloying with rare earth metals (REMs) can dramatically improve the machineability of a range of titanium alloys, even though the REM is not incorporated in the alloy matrix. The mechanism for this is that under cutting, shear bands are formed within which the nano-precipitates of REM are shear mixed. This lowers the melting point such that the mechanism of deformation changes from dislocation mechanism to localised amorphisation and shear softening. The material then fractures along the thin, amorphous shear-band. Outside the shear band, the REM remains as precipitates. The new alloys have similar mechanical properties and biocompatibility to conventional materials.
The incidence of childhood respiratory infections in Greenland is among the highest globally. We performed a population-based study of 352 Greenlandic children aged 0–6 years aiming to describe rates and risk factors for carriage of four key bacteria associated with respiratory infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility and inter-bacterial associations. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae grouped by serotypes included (VT) or not included (NVT) in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. S. pneumoniae was detected from age 2 weeks with a peak carriage rate of 60% in 2-year-olds. Young age and having siblings attending a daycare institution were associated with pneumococcal carriage. Overall co-colonization with ⩾2 of the studied bacteria was 52%. NTHi showed a positive association with NVT pneumococci and M. catarrhalis, respectively, M. catarrhalis was positively associated with S. pneumoniae, particular VT pneumococci, whereas S. aureus were negatively associated with NTHi and M. catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage was present unusually early in life and with frequent co-colonization. Domestic crowding increased odds of carriage. Due to important bacterial associations we suggest future surveillance of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's impact on carriage in Greenland to also include other pathogens.
In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure–function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS).
Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS.
Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS.
Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure–function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.
The NASA Ames Research Center's Vulcan photometer is being used in a search for close–in giant extrasolar planets. With our current data reduction system we achieve 0.2–0.8% hour–to–hour relative photometric precision on ∽ 6000 stars brighter than 13th magnitude. Three Galactic-plane fields have so far yielded hundreds of variable stars, including ∽ 50 eclipsing or interacting binaries per field. Several candidate detections have been followed up with radial velocity observations. High-resolution spectroscopy revealed many of the strongest candidates to be grazing eclipsing binaries.
Research on close binary systems has continued at a high level during the past triennium, although the rate of growth is noticeably slower – probably reflecting the cutbacks in funds to which many of us are subject. There have also been changes of emphasis within the field, which are commented on in the pages that follow. These reflect both changing opportunities for observation and the natural development of the subject. In many areas, the time is ripe for a more critical look at ideas that previously seemed adequate.