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This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis present in Scottish beef and dairy cattle at different ages, to try to ascertain if cattle could play a role in the spread of zoonotic assemblages of Giardia. A total of 388 fecal samples (128 beef and 253 dairy, seven of unknown breed) were collected from 19 farms in Scotland. Samples were sub-divided by host age, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 7–24 and ⩾25 weeks. DNA was extracted and tested by PCR to detect G. duodenalis DNA. Of the 388 samples, 126 tested positive, giving an overall prevalence of 32.5%, with positive samples being observed in all age groups tested. The prevalence in dairy cattle was 44.7% (113/235), which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the prevalence in beef cattle 10.1% (13/128). Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of assemblage E (77.2%, sequence types E-S1–E-S5), assemblage B (18.2%) and assemblage A (sub-assemblages AI-AII) (4.6%). These data demonstrate that G. duodenalis is found routinely in both dairy and beef cattle throughout Scotland; the presence of assemblages A and B also indicates that cattle may play a role in the spread of potentially zoonotic assemblages of Giardia.
The objective was to assess the effects of inclusion rate and chop length of lucerne silage, when fed in a total mixed ration (TMR), on milk yield, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and digestion in dairy cows. Diets were formulated to contain a 50 : 50 ratio of forage : concentrate (DM basis) and to be isonitrogenous (170 g/kg CP). The forage portion of the offered diets was comprised of maize and lucerne silage in proportions (DM basis) of either 25 : 75 (high Lucerne (HL)) or 75 : 25 (low lucerne (LL)). Lucerne was harvested and conserved as silage at either a long (L) or short (S) chop length. These variables were combined in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to give four treatments (HLL, HLS, LLL, LLS) which were fed in a Latin square design study to Holstein dairy cows in two separate experiments. In total, 16 and 8 multiparous, mid-lactation cows were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. To ensure sufficient silage for both experiments, different cuts of lucerne silage (taken from the same sward) were used for each experiment: first cut for experiment 1 (which was of poorer quality) and second cut for experiment 2. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition where measured in both experiments, and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance were assessed using four cows in experiment 2. In experiment 1, cows fed LL had increased DMI (+3.2 kg/day), compared with those fed HL. In contrast, there was no difference in DMI due to lucerne silage inclusion rate in experiment 2. A reduction in milk yield was observed with the HL treatment in both experiment 1 and 2 (−3.0 and −2.9 kg/day, respectively). The HL diet had reduced digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) (−3% and −4%, respectively), and also reduced the efficiency of intake N conversion into milk N (−4%). The S chop length increased total tract digestibility of DM and OM (both +4%), regardless of inclusion rate. Inclusion of lucerne silage at 25% of forage DM increased milk yield relative to 75% inclusion, but a S chop length partially mitigated adverse effects of HL on DMI and milk yield in experiment 1 and on DM digestibility in experiment 2.
Severe feather-pecking (SFP) persists as a highly prevalent and detrimental behavioural problem in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) worldwide. The present experiment investigated the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, a consequence of SFP, in groups of free-range, ISA Brown laying hens. Single feathers were placed on the floor of the home pens. Feathers were sourced from seven different birds. A total of 50 birds in six pens with extensive plumage damage were compared with birds in six control pens with little plumage damage at 41 to 43 weeks of age (n=12 pens, 600 hens). Birds in pens with extensive plumage damage ingested more feathers (F=8.1, DF=1, 8, P=0.02), and also showed shorter latencies to peck at (χ2=54.5, DF=1, P<0.001), and ingest feathers (χ2=55.6, DF=1, P<0.001). Birds ingested feathers from a bird in the free-range facility, in which the testing took place, more quickly than from a bird housed in a separate cage facility (χ2 = 39.0, DF=6, P<0.001). A second experiment investigated the predictive relationship between feather-eating and plumage damage. Feathers were presented to 16 pens of 50 pullets prior to the development of plumage damage, at 15 weeks of age, and then to the same hens after plumage damage had become prominent, at 40 weeks of age. Birds had a higher probability of ingesting feathers (F=142.0, DF=1, 231, P<0.001), pecked feathers more times (F=11.24, DF=1, 239, P<0.001), and also pecked (χ2 = 127.3, DF=1, P<0.001) and ingested (χ2=189.3, DF=1, P<0.001) the feathers more quickly at 40 than 15 weeks of age. There was a trend for an interaction, where birds pecked feathers from the rump more times than feathers from the back at 40 weeks of age (F=3.46, DF=1, 237, P=0.06). However, a lack of variability in plumage damage between pens in this experiment precluded investigation of the predictive relationship. The results from the present study confirm the association between feather-eating and plumage damage, and suggest that birds may prefer feathers from particular body areas and from particular hens. Future experiments should focus on elucidating whether feather-eating may act as a predictor of SFP.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
Pendeo-epitaxy of individual GaN and AlxGa12−xN films and single- and multi-layer heterostructures of these materials have been achieved on a columnar GaN seed layer using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. These structures have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The RMS roughness value of the grown side wall plane (110) of these structures was 0.099 nm.
Structural transformations in Ni/Si-based contacts to GaN occurring under heat treatment have been studied using transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Transition from non-ohmic to ohmic behavior correlates with reaction between Ni and Si, and decomposition of the initially formed interfacial Ni:Ga:N layer. Transport of dopant atoms from metallization into GaN testifies in favour of the SPR process of ohmic contact formation
Pendeo-epitaxy is a type of selective growth of thin films from the sidewalls of etched forms. The resulting films are suspended from the sidewalls and do not interface with the substrate. This process route has advantages over conventional lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques. In this research, pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN films has been achieved on elongated GaN seed columns. The seed columns were etched from GaN grown on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Silicon nitride mask layers atop the GaN seed columns forced growth from the sidewalls. Pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN was investigated using several growth temperatures. Higher growth temperatures resulted in improved coalescence due to greater lateral to vertical growth ratios.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn–SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved DDGS. Results demonstrate that the negative effects of heat damage of SBM or DDGS may be ameliorated if the reduced concentration and digestibility of amino acids in heat-damaged SBM or DDGS is taken into account in diet formulation. Further research is needed to improve the prediction of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in heat-processed ingredients used in practical diet formulations.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
This paper presents the results of research into the marketing of the actuarial profession including a SWOT analysis, public awareness and image of the profession amongst target groups (general public, undergraduates, journalists, company directors, pension scheme trustees and insurance intermediaries), and the desire to allocate more resources to the profession's public awareness and image. The paper also contains an analysis of the national press coverage achieved by the profession and reports on developments in North America where a task force on strengthening the actuarial profession has been set up.
The magnetic hysteresis was studied for YBa2Cu3O7 films of different epitaxial orientations on single-crystal SrTiO3 and KTaO3 substrates. Deposition by coevaporation of Y, BaF2, and Cu was followed by annealing in flowing, wet oxygen at 800-850°C. The critical current density Jc deduced from magnetic hysteresis loops was compared with four-terminal transport-current results. Thermally activated magnetic flux flow was manifest in the audio-frequency data. Jc fits a scaling law similar to one used for describing Nb3Sn and other A15 materials.
Anisotropie electrical resistivity is studied in epitaxial superlattice films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ/PrBa2Cu3O7-ε grown in situ by laser ablation on SrTiO3 surfaces aligned slightly away from the  direction. Layer thicknesses of each compound range from two to eight atomic cells. Electrical resistivity of these superlattice films always shows a peak at some cryogenic temperature that decreases with increasing PrBa2Cu3O7-ε layer thickness. Clear evidence is seen of vortex pinning or of supercurrent blocking by the step edges or by twin boundaries. The ratio of electrical resistivities for current directions parallel and perpendicular to these boundaries shows a large step-like change just above the superconductive critical temperature. The possibility is discussed that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition explains this anisotropy change.
Atomic Force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy was used to study Al/Si/Cu films sputter deposited at 2 and 45 mTorr. AFM and SEM analysis shows the films to consist of columnar structures commonly seen in PVD deposited thin films, while the TEM analysis showed the films be polycrystalline. Comparing the columnar structures seen in the AFM and SEM study to the grains found in the TEM study, we conclude that the columns consist of single grains. Thus for these films AFM or SEM analysis can be used to determine the grain size. Finally, an AFM scan of a Al/Si/Cu deposited via was performed. The AFM image clearly shows the high resolution of the AFM, while it also illustrates the problems caused by the finite size of the AFM tip.