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Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
Basic processing steps utilized in the fabrication of planar silicon devices include (a) substrate preparation, (b) epitaxial deposition, (c) thermal gvowth of silicon dioxide over the entire silicon wafer surface, (d) device pattern formation by photoetching techniques, and (e) diffusion of n-type or p-type elements through the holes to produce localized regions of desired conductivity, A detailed study of the various diffraction phenomena associated with such structures is presented. X-ray topographs of planar transistors show distinct contrast features such as excess diffraction intensity along the silicon oxide/silicon boundary and/or excess diffraction intensity inside the device area. The diffraction phenomena are discussed in terms of reversible elastic deformations, frozen-in lattice deformations, strain fields and imperfections generated by the various processing steps. A technique is presented to measure the sign of the elastic deformations. The phenomenon of stressjumping across semiconductors interfaces is described, and finally the implications of stress-strain relations on junction performance are stated.
Helical dislocations and vacancy aggregates have been reported in lithiumdoped germanium and in diffused silicon. In the present study, defects related to an excess vacancy concentration are examined in as-grown silicon. X-ray topography, etch techniques, and Hall effect are used in determining the conditions of formation of these imperfections. Two distinct types of defects are observed: (1) helical dislocations and (2) dislocation loops. The helical dislocations are identified in the X-ray topographs and correlated to their etch figures. The diameters of the helices in various crystals range from less than 10 to 100 μ. The largest concentration of helices are observed in the initial growth, but prismatic loops or helical segments are also present in the low dislocation density regions of some crystals. The dislocation loop image consists of a pair of opposed arcs. The lengths of images vary from 30 to 400 μ, and the axis of the loop is usually parallel to <110> linage contrast changes with changes in sample orientation, but conclusive Burgers vector determinations are incomplete.
The formation of these defects is shown to be directly related to the heat treatment during crystal growth. The total acquisition of vacancies during growth is quite high and is attributed to the “orbital” growth process. In the “orbital” method, the seed check rotates 8-9 rpm about the center of the crucible as the growing crystal rotates 50-60 rpm. A linear relationship exists at room temperature between the vacancy concentration and the antimony impurity concentration. Impurity concentrations were determined independently by chemical and mass spectrograph techniques. A defect complex involving V− and Sb+ in thermal equilibrium is employed to explain this effect.
The preparation of semiconductor materials by epitaxial deposition has rapidly gained prominence in recent years. GaAs(1-x)Px alloys of variable composition, deposited on GaAs substrates, have been prepared in an open-tube reactor using H2, AsCl3, and PCl3 with GaAs source material, The deposits ranged in composition from GaAs to GaAs0.5P0.5 and were 10-30 microns thick.
X-ray diffraction topography was employed to evaluate the structural perfection of the monocrystalline GaAs substrates and the perfection of the deposited Ga(As, P) films. A scanning-reflection technique was developed to study the concentration, type, and spatial distribution of imperfections over large areas (∼8 cm2) to depths of 25 microns. Some areas of investigation included (1) the poly cry stallinity of some deposits, (2) the effect of substrate perfection on the film quality, (3) the depth of mechanically induced damage, and (4) the structural perfection of magnesium-diffused GaAs and Ga(As, P).
Evidence exists of an increasing prevalence of chronic conditions within developed and developing nations, notably for priority population groups. The need for the collection of geospatial data to monitor the health impact of rapid social-environmental and economic changes occurring in these countries is being increasingly recognized. Rigorous accuracy assessment of such geospatial data is required to enable error estimation, and ultimately, data utility for exploring population health. This research outlines findings from a field-based evaluation exercise of the SOMAARTH DDESS geospatial-health platform. Participatory-based mixed methods have been employed within Palwal-India to capture villager perspectives on built infrastructure across 51 villages. This study, conducted in 2013, included an assessment of data element position and attribute accuracy undertaken in six villages, documenting mapping errors and land parcel changes. Descriptive analyses of 5.1% (n = 455) of land parcels highlighted some discrepancies in position (6.4%) and attribute (4.2%) accuracy, and land parcel changes (17.4%). Furthermore, the evaluation led to a refinement of the existing geospatial health platform incorporating ground-truthed reflections from the participatory field exercise. The evaluation of geospatial data accuracies contributes to understandings on global public health surveillance systems, outlining the need to systematically consider assessment of environmental features in relation to lifestyle-related diseases.
Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents’ major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents’ depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents’ DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene–environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
During May 2015, an increase in Salmonella Agona cases was reported from western Sydney, Australia. We examine the public health actions used to investigate and control this increase. A descriptive case-series investigation was conducted. Six outbreak cases were identified; all had consumed cooked tuna sushi rolls purchased within a western Sydney shopping complex. Onset of illness for outbreak cases occurred between 7 April and 24 May 2015. Salmonella was isolated from food samples collected from the implicated premise and a prohibition order issued. No further cases were identified following this action. Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis was performed on isolates recovered during this investigation, with additional S. Agona isolates from sporadic-clinical cases and routine food sampling in New South Wales, January to July 2015. Clinical isolates of outbreak cases were indistinguishable from food isolates collected from the implicated sushi outlet. Five additional clinical isolates not originally considered to be linked to the outbreak were genomically similar to outbreak isolates, indicating the point-source contamination may have started before routine surveillance identified an increase. This investigation demonstrated the value of genomics-guided public health action, where near real-time WGS enhanced the resolution of the epidemiological investigation.
Fifteen confirmed cases and 15 possible cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 phage type 21/28 were linked to direct contact with lambs at a ‘Lambing Live’ event in the North West of England between 29 March and 21 April 2014. Twenty-one (70%) of the cases were female, 23 (77%) were children aged <16 years, of whom 14 (46%) were in the 0–5 years age group. Five children developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles on 14 human cases were indistinguishable, and 6/10 animal isolates had a MLVA profile identical to the outbreak profile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that all isolates, both human and animal, fell within a 5-single nucleotide polymorphism cluster indicating the isolates belonged to the same point source. On inspection of the premises, extensive and uncontrolled physical contact between visitors and animals was occuring within the animal pens and during bottle-feeding. Public areas were visibly contaminated with animal faeces. Information to visitors, and the infection control awareness demonstrated by staff, was inadequate. Managing the risk to visitors of STEC O157 infection at animal petting events and open farms requires implementation of stringent control measures by the operator, as outlined in the industry code of practice. Enforcement action is sometimes required to prevent high-risk activities taking place at both permanent and temporary attractions.
In this paper we describe a new observing system which is currently nearing completation at the Mount Wilson Observatory. This system has been designed to obtain daily measurements of solar photospheric and subphotospheric rotational velocities from the frequency splitting of non-radial solar p-mode oscillations of moderate to high degree (i.e. l > 150). The completed system will combine a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera with a high-speed floating point array processor, a 32-bit minicomputer, and a large-capacity disc storage system. We are integrating these components into the spectrograph of the 60-foot solar tower telescope at Mount Wilson in order to provide a facility which will be dedicated to the acquisition of oscillation data.
Little is known about the relative extent of crime against people with
severe mental illness (SMI).
To assess the prevalence and impact of crime among people with SMI
compared with the general population.
A total of 361 psychiatric patients were interviewed using the national
crime survey questionnaire, and findings compared with those from 3138
general population controls participating in the contemporaneous national
Past-year crime was experienced by 40% of patients v.
14% of controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8); and
violent assaults by 19% of patients v. 3% of controls
(adjusted OR = 5.3, 95% CI 3.1–8.8). Women with SMI had four-, ten- and
four-fold increases in the odds of experiencing domestic, community and
sexual violence, respectively. Victims with SMI were more likely to
report psychosocial morbidity following violence than victims from the
People with SMI are at greatly increased risk of crime and associated
morbidity. Violence prevention policies should be particularly focused on
people with SMI.
Praseodymium doped CaFe2As2 (122 structure) and CaFeAs2 (112 structure) are characterized by modulated Low Magnetic Field Microwave Absorption (LFMA) spectroscopy. In both (Pr,Ca)122 and (Pr,Ca)112 structures, a strong hysteretic LFMA is found, with a TcH of ∼30 K and ∼26 K, respectively. However, in (Pr,Ca)122, measurements also show an unusual Narrow Peak (NP) LFMA signal appearing at higher temperatures, above the lower TcH superconducting state until a TcNP of 49 K. We associate this NP LFMA with interfacial superconductivity, which has been found previously by highly anisotropic magnetization measurements. Furthermore, the absence of NP in (Pr,Ca)112 correlates with the absence of an interfacial phase. These results give useful information about the microwave signature of interfacial superconductivity present in the (Pr,Ca)122 system, and may form a roadmap towards a stabilized high temperature superconducting phase in pnictides.
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population.
Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey.
Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001).
Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.