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Are legislators responsive to the priorities of the public? Research demonstrates a strong correspondence between the issues about which the public cares and the issues addressed by politicians, but conclusive evidence about who leads whom in setting the political agenda has yet to be uncovered. We answer this question with fine-grained temporal analyses of Twitter messages by legislators and the public during the 113th US Congress. After employing an unsupervised method that classifies tweets sent by legislators and citizens into topics, we use vector autoregression models to explore whose priorities more strongly predict the relationship between citizens and politicians. We find that legislators are more likely to follow, than to lead, discussion of public issues, results that hold even after controlling for the agenda-setting effects of the media. We also find, however, that legislators are more likely to be responsive to their supporters than to the general public.
A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20–45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2–3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12–25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5–13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).
A comprehensive review by Hibbing et al. establishes close links between physiological and psychological responses and ideological preferences. However, existing research cannot resolve the “chicken-and-egg problem” in political neuroscience: Which is cause and which is effect? We consider the possibility, which they reject, that general ideological postures, if consistently adopted, could shape psychological and physiological functioning.
Commercialized hunting and trade of wildlife are the largest threats to mammal populations and human livelihoods in the Congo Basin. It is widely recognized that the lives of humans and wildlife in this region are inextricably intertwined. However, few studies have attempted to integrate both human and wildlife dimensions using ethnographic data to better contextualize the trade and its ecological impacts. This paper outlines a methodological approach that combines ethnographic research, ecological line transects and market surveys in the Dzanga Sangha Reserve (Central African Republic). Results from each research component are reported separately in order to provide examples of how each would answer specific questions about the status of wildlife populations and the scale of hunting within a protected area. The integrated analysis of ethnographic, market and ecological datasets clarifies synergistic impacts operating in the region and provides a more nuanced understanding of changes in both the forest and the market based on information gleaned from hunting practices and hunter interviews. This research demonstrates the potential pitfalls of using a singular approach to make recommendations on complex human-environment issues. Such cross-disciplinary mixed-methods approaches will further understandings of dynamic wildlife populations and forge more informed environmental policy recommendations.
In a setting where potable water is contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we performed two case control studies. The first case control study consisted of 17 cases of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD) and 33 control (the patients who were admitted to the ward where the case was admitted immediately before and after the case) subjects. Cases had a higher mortality rate 65% vs 12% (P < 0.004); were more likely to have received assisted ventilation (P < 0.00001); to have nasogastric tubes (P < 0.0004) and to be receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapy (P < 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, sterile water was used to flush nasogastric tubes and to dilute nasogastric feeds. Only 3 cases of nosocomial LD occurred during the next year compared with 12 the previous year (P < 0.0001). Nine cases subsequently occurred and formed the basis for the second case-control study. Eighteen control subjects were those patients admitted to the same unit where the case developed LD, immediately before and after the case. The mortality rate for the cases was 89% vs 6% for controls (P < 0.00003). The only other significant difference was that cases were more likely to be receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapy 89% vs 39% ( < 0.01). We hypothesized that microaspiration of contaminated potable water by immunocompromised patients was a risk factor for nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. From 17 March 1989 onwards such patients were given only sterile potable water. Only two cases of nosocomial LD occurred from June 1989 to September 1990 and both occurred on units where the sterile water policy was not in effect. We conclude that aspiration of contaminated potable water is a possible route for acquisition of nosocomial LD in our hospital and that provision of sterile potable water to high risk patients (those who are receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs; organ transplant recipients or hospitalized in an intensive care unit) should be mandatory.
CIS based chalcopyrite absorber materials are usually substituted in the cation and anion lattice to yield mixed pentanary crystals with the general composition Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 to achieve an optimised adaptation of the semiconductor bandgap to the terrestrial solar spectrum. Real-time investigations during the annealing of stacked elemental layers (SEL) of sputtered metals Cu and In and evaporated chalcogens S and Se with varying ratios were performed by angle-dispersive time-resolved XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements. After qualitative phase analysis the measured powder diagrams were quantitatively analysed by the Rietveld method, the phases formed determined and their reaction kinetics obtained. Ternary indium and copper sulfoselenides form by the sulfoselenisation of the intermetallic alloy yielding different educts for the chalcopyrite formation with varying sulfur content. For S/(S+Se) ≥ 0.5 the formation of the chalcopyrite CuIn(S,Se)2 is similar to the crystallisation path of CuInS2. With increasing amount of selenium (S/(S+Se) = 0.25) different ternary sulfoselenides contribute to the semiconductor formation. For small amounts of sulfur, i.e. S/(S+Se) ≤ 0.1, the chalcopyrite crystallisation proceeds comparable to the one observed for sulfur-free Cu-In-Se precursors. The formation of CuIn(S,Se)2 is accelerated and proceeds mainly after the peritectic decomposition of Cu(S,Se) to Cu2(S,Se). The sulfur content determines the crystallisation temperature of the semiconductor because Cu(S,Se) decomposes at higher temperatures with increasing sulfur. Upon heating S ↔ Se exchange reactions take place in the Cu-S-Se and Cu-In-S-Se system.
Under certain conditions, application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant (GR) cotton can lead to fruit shedding and yield reductions. Field studies were conducted at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station using GR cotton, cv. ‘DeltaPine 5690RR’, to determine if application method and timing affect cotton fruit retention. Glyphosate at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 was precisely postdirected (PD), postdirected with 25% foliage coverage (PDFC), or applied over the top (OT) at the 8- or 18-leaf stage after an initial topical application of 1.12 kg ha−1 glyphosate at the four-leaf stage. In one of the years of this study, 8 PD, 18 PDFC, and 18 OT reduced yield. In 1999 and 2000, 8 PDFC and 8 OT applications of glyphosate caused yield loss, mainly due to lower mean boll weight. Glyphosate applied topically at the eight-leaf stage also affected the Position 1 boll retention throughout the plant in both years. Glyphosate contact with leaves and stems should be avoided when applying glyphosate after the four-leaf stage to prevent possible yield loss.
For over 150 years, Heinrich von Kleist (1777-1811) has been one of the most widely read and performed German authors. His status in the literary canon is firmly established, but he has always been one of Germany's most contentiously discussed authors. Today's critical debate on his unique prose narratives and dramas is as heated as ever. Many critics regard Kleist as a lone presager of the aesthetics and philosophies of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century modernism. Yet there can be no question that he responds in his works and letters to the philosophical, aesthetic, and political debates of his time. During the last thirty years, the scholarship on Kleist's work and life has departed from the existentialist wave of the 1950s and early 1960s and opened up new avenues for comingto terms with his unusual talent. The present volume brings together the most important and innovative of these newer scholarly approaches: the essays include critically informed, up-to-date interpretations of Kleist's most-discussed stories and dramas. Other contributions analyze Kleist's literary means and styles and their theoretical underpinnings. They include articles on Kleist's narrative and theatrical technique, poetic and aesthetic theory, philosophical and political thought, and insights from new biographical research.
Contributors: Jeffrey L. Sammons, Jost Hermand, Anthony Stephens, Bianca Theisen, Hinrich C. Seeba, Bernhard Greiner, Helmut J. Schneider, Tim Mehigan, Susanne Zantop, Hilda M. Brown, and Seán Allan.
Bernd Fischer is Professor of German andHead of the Department of German at Ohio State University.
In this paper we report on what “sustainable agriculture” means to farmers who seek to develop more sustainable farming systems. Group interviews were conducted with two groups of sustainable farmers in Kansas to learn how they developed their respective approaches, the kinds of parameters they have used to evaluate success and progress, and what other evaluation tools would be helpful to them. For the farmers we interviewed, the central meaning of sustainable agriculture is its holistic approach to assets management. It also means an alternative perspective on what constitutes success in farming. While economic considerations are important, they are balanced by other considerations such as environmental quality, quality of life, and the contributions the farmers can make to their communities. Sustainable agriculture also means an approach to agriculture that entails “thinking risks” as much as financial risks. Lastly, sustainable agriculture means whole farm planning; the farmers we interviewed were more interested in applying whole-farm planning principles based on their local knowledge, than in evaluation tools based on the expert knowledge of researchers and other scientists. The implications of what sustainable agriculture means to these farmers for research and educational programs are discussed.
A technology for the direct molding and release of silica micro-optical components in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) molds is developed. The objectives of this work are to bypass some of the usual steps in deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) and to determine the suitability of GR650 resin (methylpolysilsequioxane) for molding thick, high aspect ratio structures. The process is initiated by DXRL exposure of PMMA, followed by spin-on glass application, a cure at 85°C to set the shape of the resin, followed by demolding. The cure is below the glass transition temperature of PMMA and the demolding process allows re-use of the mold. There is no need for electroforming in the replication process. PMMA molds with thickness of 250, 350 and 500 um were fabricated by DXRL and standard resist development. A novel metal sacrificial layer technique is used in the release process with initial yield of about 50%. Microoptical elements that were fabricated include lenses, prisms, grating structures and transmission test structures. These components are cured above 400°C after release, to convert the organosilicon polymer to a silica-like material. Weight loss from the high temperature cure was in the range of 15 to 25%, while linear dimensions of the components decreased by about 1%. Composition of the molded, cured structures was measured by XPS depth profiles.