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This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
Meteorological and even human-made disasters are increasing every year in frequency and magnitude. The passage of a disaster affects a society without distinction, but groups with social vulnerability (low socioeconomic status, chronic medical, or psychological conditions, limited access to resources) face the most significant impact. As a result, psychological and behavioral symptoms (eg, depression and anxiety) can ensue, making the immediate response of mental health services crucial. Secondary data from a database of a temporary healthcare unit were analyzed. A total of 54 records were reviewed to collect information; univariate and bivariate analyses were done. The purpose of this article is to present our experience regarding the incorporation of a mental health services model, with its respective benefits and challenges, into a temporary healthcare unit, after Hurricane Maria in 2017.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
Establishing neurobiological markers of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is essential to aid in diagnosis and treatment development. Fear processing deficits are central to PTSD, and their neural signatures may be used as such markers.
Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of seven Pavlovian fear conditioning fMRI studies comparing 156 patients with PTSD and 148 trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHC) using seed-based d-mapping, to contrast neural correlates of experimental phases, namely conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall.
Patients with PTSD, as compared to TEHCs, exhibited increased activation in the anterior hippocampus (extending to the amygdala) and medial prefrontal cortex during conditioning; in the anterior hippocampus-amygdala regions during extinction learning; and in the anterior hippocampus-amygdala and medial prefrontal areas during extinction recall. Yet, patients with PTSD have shown an overall decreased activation in the thalamus during all phases in this meta-analysis.
Findings from this metanalysis suggest that PTSD is characterized by increased activation in areas related to salience and threat, and lower activation in the thalamus, a key relay hub between subcortical areas. If replicated, these fear network alterations may serve as objective diagnostic markers for PTSD, and potential targets for novel treatment development, including pharmacological and brain stimulation interventions. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether these observed network alteration in PTSD are the cause or the consequence of PTSD.
The microstructure homogeneity and variability in mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel components fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) have been investigated. The crack free, 99.9% dense samples were made starting from SS316L alloy powder, and the melt pool morphology was analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Extremely fast cooling rates after laser melting/solidification process, accompanied by slow diffusion of alloying elements, produced characteristic microstructures with colonies of cellular substructure inside grains, grown along the direction of the principal thermal gradient during laser scanning. In some areas of the microstructure, a significant number of precipitates were observed inside grains and at grain boundaries. Micro hardness measurements along the build direction revealed slight but gradual increase in hardness along the sample height. Uniaxial tensile tests of as manufactured samples showed the effect of un-melted areas causing scatter in room-temperature mechanical properties of samples extracted from the same SLM build. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) varied from 458MPa to 509MPa along with a variation in uniform elongation from 3.3% to 14.4%. The UTS of a sample exposed to the Cl- rich corrosion environment at 46oC temperature revealed a similar strength as of the original sample, indicating good corrosion resistance of SLM samples under those corrosion conditions.
The hippocampus plays an important role in psychopathology and treatment outcome. While posterior hippocampus (PH) may be crucial for the learning process that exposure-based treatments require, affect-focused treatments might preferentially engage anterior hippocampus (AH). Previous studies have distinguished the different functions of these hippocampal sub-regions in memory, learning, and emotional processes, but not in treatment outcome. Examining two independent clinical trials, we hypothesized that anterior hippocampal volume would predict outcome of affect-focused treatment outcome [Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT); Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP)], whereas posterior hippocampal volume would predict exposure-based treatment outcome [Prolonged Exposure (PE); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Applied Relaxation Training (ART)].
Thirty-five patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 24 with panic disorder (PD) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before randomization to affect-focused (IPT for PTSD; PFPP for PD) or exposure-based treatments (PE for PTSD; CBT or ART for PD). AH and PH volume were regressed with clinical outcome changes.
Baseline whole hippocampal volume did not predict post-treatment clinical severity scores in any treatment. For affect-focused treatments, but not exposure-based treatments, anterior hippocampal volume predicted clinical improvement. Smaller AH correlated with greater affect-focused treatment improvement. Posterior hippocampal volume did not predict treatment outcome.
This is the first study to explore associations between hippocampal volume sub-regions and treatment outcome in PTSD and PD. Convergent results suggest that affect-focused treatment may influence the clinical outcome through the ‘limbic’ AH, whereas exposure-based treatments do not. These preliminary, theory-congruent, therapeutic findings require replication in a larger clinical trial.
In this work, we study the hard-magnetic properties and its influence on the microstructure of MnBi-based glass-coated microwires obtained by Taylor-Ulitovsky process, as well as their magnetic and thermal dependence in the range of 200 K-360 K. We obtained glass-coated microwires pieces trough of the Taylor-Ulitovsky process. Glass-coated microwires exhibited the formation of Low-Temperature Intermetallic Phase (LTIP)-MnBi, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental chemical composition analysis showed LTIP regions interspersed within Bi- and Mn-rich areas. Magnetic properties were determined by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for which a considerable intrinsic coercivity field (iHc) up to 6000 Oe at 360 K, together with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 57.49 emu/cm3. Therefore, this combination of properties renders LTIP is a promising precursor with potential for applications at high temperatures.
Unusual mafic rock fragments deposited in Plio-Pleistocene-aged marine sediments were recorded at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1359, in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. These fragments were identified from sediment layers deposited between c. 3 and 1.2 Ma, indicating a sustained supply during this time interval. Clinopyroxenes in these basalts are Al–Ti diopside–hedenbergite, uncommon in terrestrial magmatic rocks. A single strong peak in the Raman spectra of a phosphate-bearing mineral at 963 cm-1 supports the presence of merrillite. Although not conclusive, petrological traits and oxygen isotopic compositions also suggest that the fragments may be extra-terrestrial fragments affected by shock metamorphism. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the basaltic fragments incorporated in marine sediments at Site U1359 represent ice-rafted material supplied to the continental rise of East Antarctica, probably from the bedrocks near the proximal Ninnis Glacier. Further studies on Plio-Pleistocene sediments near Site U1359 are required to characterize the unusual mafic rocks described.
High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
Phenological and aerobiological research into major crops is of great value in adapting traditional processes to the new conditions prompted by global climate change. Data on flowering phenology and airborne pollen have also proved useful for harvest forecasting purposes. The current paper reports on an agrometeorological study carried out in the Montilla-Moriles Protected Designation of Origin area (Córdoba, southern Spain) in 2015 and 2016. The study focused on four grape cultivars produced at seven local vineyards (Pedro Ximénez, the most widely grown in the area; Verdejo; Muscat blanc à petits grains; and Chardonnay, which has been recently introduced). Phenological observations were performed on a weekly basis using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie scale adapted for grapevine. Airborne pollen concentrations were monitored using one Hirst-type volumetric sampler and seven passive samplers. Airborne pollen was mainly detected in vineyards during inflorescence emergence and flowering. Year-on-year differences in climatic conditions led to differences in airborne pollen levels. The main variables affecting pollen concentrations were dew point and temperature. The life-cycles recorded here were shorter than in temperate climates but longer than in tropical climates. In terms of flowering period, the cultivars studied here were classed as ‘early cultivars’. Data obtained using local passive samplers located directly in the vineyard confirmed that the airborne pollen concentrations recorded by the volumetric sampler were representative of the study area.
Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG Si) solar cells with different ranges of efficiencies were characterized through electroluminescence imaging (ELi) and light-beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. The results showed a good correlation between the EL intensity and the efficiency of the solar cells. ELi images gave a bright contrast at the defects, grain boundaries and intragrain defects, and dark contrast inside the grain bodies. Metallic impurities are much more present in some cells due to the directional solidification of the Si ingot. Local short-circuit current mapping with LBIC measurements revealed a bright zone in the neighborhoods of the defects due to the depletion of impurities. Internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) and effective diffusion lengths (Leff) were calculated using different excitation wavelengths. High resolution LBIC measurements revealed micrometric clusters of impurities around intragrain defects.
The eclipsing supersoft X-ray binary CAL 87 has been observed with Chandra on August 13/14, 2001 for nearly 100 ksec, covering two full orbital cycles and three eclipses. The shape of the eclipse light curve derived from the zeroth-order photons indicates that the size of the X-ray emission region is about 1.5 R⊙. The ACIS/LETG spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines without any noticeable continuum. The brightest emission lines are significantly redshifted and double-peaked, suggestive of emanating in a 2000 km/s wind. We model the X-ray spectrum by a mixture of recombination and resonant scattering. This allows us to deduce the temperature and luminosity of the ionizing source to be kT ~ 50 — 100 eV and Lx ~ 5 x 1037 erg/s.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
The statistical properties are presented for the direct numerical simulation of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at the verge of separation. The APG TBL has a momentum thickness-based Reynolds number range from
to 13 800, with a self-similar region from
to 12 300. Within this domain the average non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter
, where for a unit density
the displacement thickness,
the mean shear stress at the wall and
the far-field pressure gradient. This flow is compared with previous zero pressure gradient and mild APG TBL (
) results of similar Reynolds number. All flows are generated via the direct numerical simulation of a TBL on a flat surface with far-field boundary conditions tailored to apply the desired pressure gradient. The conditions for self-similarity, and the appropriate length and velocity scales, are derived. The mean and Reynolds stress profiles are shown to collapse when non-dimensionalised on the basis of these length and velocity scales. As the pressure gradient increases, the extent of the wake region in the mean streamwise velocity profiles increases, whilst the extent of the log-layer and viscous sublayer decreases. The Reynolds stress, production and dissipation profiles of the APG TBL cases exhibit a second outer peak, which becomes more pronounced and more spatially localised with increasing pressure gradient. This outer peak is located at the point of inflection of the mean velocity profiles, and is suggestive of the presence of a shear flow instability. The maximum streamwise velocity variance is located at a wall normal position of
of spanwise wavelength of
. In summary as the pressure gradient increases the flow has properties less like a zero pressure gradient TBL and more akin to a free shear layer.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.