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This paper presents a study of the damage production in yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia single crystals irradiated with medium-energy (from 30 to 450 keV) heavy ions (from He to Cs). The disorder created in the two sublattices (Zr4+ and O2−) of the crystals and the lattice sites of heavy ions were determined as a function of the irradiation fluence by in situ Rutherford backscattering and channeling experiments using a 3 MeV 4He ion beam. Damage is created at a depth close to the ion projected range at low fluences and growths towards greater depths with increasing fluences once the saturation has been reached. The kinetics of the damage accumulation process reveals three stages, which (excepted for He) essentially depend on the number of displacements per atom (dpa) induced by irradiating ions (ballistic contribution). Channeling results show that the lattice location of the heaviest atoms (Xe, Cs and I) varies with the nature of implanted species (chemical contribution). The experimental data can be represented in a diagram involving both the number of dpa and the implanted ion concentration, which could be used to predict the damage evolution in other ion-irradiated nuclear ceramics.
The amorphization of the Fe/Ti multilayers due to ion-beam mixing induced by Ar and Kr ions is studied by conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy. Formation of the bcc-FeTi solid solution and the amorphous FeTi phase is studied as a function of ion dose for samples with the Fe to Ti thickness ratio of 1 and the modulation wavelengths of 20 and 60 nm. After reaching maximum abundance the amorphous fraction decreases at high ion doses.
The Ar-ion-beam-mixing of the FeZr multilayer system is studied by conversion electron Mdssbauer spectroscopy. The dependence of the amorphization process on the layer thickness and ion dose is studied in detail for samples with Fe to Zr ratio of 1 and 0.5 and modulation wavelength of 5 to 90 nm.
The role of alloying elements such as Cr and Al in the formation and stability of the nitride phases formed due to N ion implantation into metallic iron was studied by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The thermal stability of nitride phases upon 1 h annealing was greatly increased as a result of co-implanting either Cr or Al with N as compared to pure α-Fe implanted only with N.
Vectorcardiographs and electrocardiographic examinations were made inMZ and DZ twins, triplets and quadruplets. The similarity of the cardiac electrogenesis in the twins was studied using the correlation calculation after the affinic transformation of the vectorcardiograms and the multipolar description of cardioelectric field. The similarity of electrocardiograms and vectorcardiograms in MZ twins depends on heart electrogenesis.
The differences appearing during the neonatal period result from a nonuniform course of circulation organ adaptation and the establishment of conduction pathways in the newborn heart.
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