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Academic literature, practitioners, courts, and regulators routinely assert that both private and subsidiary targets sell at discounts relative to public targets. However, the empirical evidence to support this conclusion is thin. Our work alters the methodology from prior research to avoid biases due to both one-sided sample truncation and Jensen’s inequality. Following these changes, we find no evidence that unlisted targets sell at discounts. Our results hold under a number of different approaches and after controlling for known determinants of acquisition pricing.
This study analyses the epidemiologic, clinical and molecular findings of all culture-confirmed cases of listeriosis notified from 2010 to 2015 in the Tel Aviv District, which is known to have high rates of listeriosis. All clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes were subtyped using two-enzyme pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. During the studied period, 102 cases of listeriosis were notified, including 23 pregnancy-associated cases (23%). Among 79 non-pregnancy-associated cases, 18 had neuro-invasive disease (21%). There were 26 deaths associated with the disease. Using molecular identification, we found a number of clusters of identical bacterial clones, which pointed to possible sources of infection. The high rates of morbidity and mortality resulting from listeriosis, as well as the diverse ways of infection demonstrated in this study, accentuate the need to boost public health actions, in order to raise awareness and better control high-risk contamination routes.
Although alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with future risk for psychosocial dysfunction, the degree to which this arises from a direct causal effect of AUD on functioning v. from correlated risk factors (also known as confounders) is less clearly established.
AUD was assessed from Swedish medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. In a large general population cohort, using Cox proportional hazard and regression models, we predicted from the onset of AUD four outcomes: early retirement, unemployment, social assistance, and individual income. We then examined the degree to which these associations were attenuated by relevant confounders as well as by the use of discordant cousin, half-sibling, full-sibling, and monozygotic twin pairs.
In males, AUD most strongly predicted social assistance [hazard ratio (HR) 8.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.96–8.59], followed by early retirement (HR 5.63, 95% CI 5.53–5.72) and unemployment (HR 2.75, 95% CI 2.65–2.85). For income at age 50, AUD was associated with a decrease in income of 0.24 s.d.s (95% CI −0.25 to −0.23). Results were similar in females. Modest to moderate attenuation of these associations was seen in both sexes after the addition of relevant covariates. These associations were reduced but remained robust in discordant co-relative pairs, including monozygotic twins.
Our results suggest that AUD has a causal impact on a range of measures reflective of psychosocial dysfunction. These findings provide strong support for the drift hypothesis. However, some of the associations between AUD and dysfunction appear to be non-causal and result from shared risk factors, many of which are likely familial.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
Linked administrative population data were used to estimate the burden of childhood respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in an Australian cohort aged <5 years. RSV-coded hospitalizations data were extracted for all children aged <5 years born in New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 2001 and 2010. Incidence was calculated as the total number of new episodes of RSV hospitalization divided by the child-years at risk. Mean cost per episode of RSV hospitalization was estimated using public hospital cost weights. The cohort comprised of 870 314 children. The population-based incidence/1000 child-years of RSV hospitalization for children aged <5 years was 4·9 with a rate of 25·6 in children aged <3 months. The incidence of RSV hospitalization (per 1000 child-years) was 11·0 for Indigenous children, 81·5 for children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), 10·2 for preterm children with gestational age (GA) 32–36 weeks, 27·0 for children with GA 28–31 weeks, 39·0 for children with GA <28 weeks and 6·7 for term children with low birthweight. RSV hospitalization was associated with an average annual cost of more than AUD 9 million in NSW. RSV was associated with a substantial burden of childhood hospitalization specifically in children aged <3 months and in Indigenous children and children born preterm or with BPD.
Small-angle light scattering (SALS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) were used to study the influence of heat treatment on the texture and microstructure of extruded films of high-performance thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs). The microstructure was correlated with tensile mechanical properties. LCPs based on random units of hydroxybenzoic acid (B), hydroxynaphthoic acid (N), terephthalic acid (TA) and biphenol (BP) were supplied by the former Hoechst Celanese Corp. as 50 μm thick extruded films. The LCPs, denoted B-N, COTBP and RD1000, have B and N as common co-monomers and vary the other co-monomers. Thus, this study also enabled the investigation of the influence of monomer composition on microstructure and mechanical properties. Heat treatments were carried out at temperatures close to the solid-to-nematic transition (Ts→n) for periods up to 5 h, under dry air conditions. The thermal treatment produced either two endotherms or a small increase of Ts→n (B-N and RD1000), or Ts→n increased significantly (COTBP). Moreover, when heat treatment was carried out approximately 40°C below the respective Ts→n, the mechanical Young’s modulus, E, along the extrusion axis increased for all LCPs. Strikingly, for COTBP, E increased over 100% relative to the as-extruded film. The results also showed that the optimum treatment time for improving the Young modulus was between 3 and 4 h. Wide-angle X-ray scattering showed a significant sharpening of crystalline reflections and concentration of the 002 meridional reflection as a result of thermal treatment, suggesting the elimination of defects and a better alignment of the molecular chains along the extrusion axis. This would explain the increase in tensile modulus.
The incidence of invasive infections due to Neisseria meningitidis in Israel is about 1/100 000 population annually. Three cases of meningococcal meningitis were reported in employees at a single plant; the first case appeared in March 2013 and the second and third cases appeared in December, almost 9 months later. N. meningitidis serogroup B was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples. Multilocus sequence typing assigned the three meningococcal isolates to ST10418, a new sequence type and a member of the ST32 clonal complex. The clonality was confirmed by performance of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Post-exposure antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to close contacts of the first case. Upon the diagnosis of the additional two cases, post-exposure prophylaxis was administered to all the plant employees. This report demonstrates the importance of combining public health measures and advanced laboratory studies to confirm clonality and to prevent further disease spread in a closed setting.
I conclude the SCCC21 conference highlighting some of the contrasts we heard about, some specific topics (the statistics of random fields), and discuss how some of these play out in the analysis of cosmic microwave background data. I conclude with a hopeful look at the efficacy of blind analyses in the CMB and elsewhere in cosmology.
We have observed Centaurus A with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer at resolutions of 7–15 mas (at 12.5 μm) and filled gaps in the (u, v) coverage in comparison to earlier measurements. We are now able to describe the nuclear emission in terms of geometric components and derive their parameters by fitting models to the interferometric data. With simple geometrical models, the best fit is achieved for an elongated disk with flat intensity profile with diameter 76 ± 9 × 35 ± 2 mas (1.41 ± 0.17 × 0.65 ± 0.03 pc) whose major axis is oriented at a position angle (PA) of 10.1 ± 2.2° east of north. A point source contributes 47 ± 11% of the nuclear emission at 12.5 μm. There is also evidence that neither such a uniform nor a Gaussian disk are good fits to the data. This indicates that we are resolving more complicated small-scale structure in active galactic nuclei with MIDI, as has been seen in Seyfert galaxies previously observed with MIDI. The PA and inferred inclination i = of the dust emission are compared with observations of gas and dust at larger scales.
In recent years capnography has gained a foothold in the medical field and is fast becoming a standard of care in anaesthesiology and critical care medicine. In addition, newer applications have emerged which have expanded the utility of capnographs in a number of medical disciplines. This new edition of the definitive text on capnography reviews every aspect of this valuable diagnostic technique. An introductory section summarises the basic physiology of carbon dioxide generation and transport in the body. A technical section describes how the instruments work, and a comprehensive clinical section reviews the use of capnography to diagnose a wide range of clinical disorders. Edited by the world experts in the technique, and with over 40 specialist contributors, Capnography, second edition, is the most comprehensive review available on the application of capnography in health care.
Capnography can provide important clues concerning the acid-base status of patients. Arterial blood gas analysis is essential to properly evaluate the acid-base status, and diagnose and treat underlying disorders. Acids and bases are constantly formed in the body as by-products of metabolism, and are carefully regulated. Buffering mechanisms include intracellular and extracellular chemical buffers, regulation of CO2 by the respiratory and central nervous systems (CNS), and control of bicarbonate by the kidney. Capillary blood samples can be used, particularly in children, to measure arterial blood gases (ABGs). Loop and thiazide diuretics can incite a metabolic alkalosis, while carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can cause a metabolic acidosis. Overdoses of drugs can produce mixed acid-base disorders, such as the combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis from a salicylate overdose. Simple acid-base disorders involve a primary abnormality in either metabolism or respiration that produces a secondary change, or compensatory response, in the other component.
Enclosed and semi-enclosed environments, particularly those in extremely isolated and hostile environments, such as outer space and the deep oceans, present unique challenges in terms of maintaining safe working conditions for the individuals exposed to them. The best approach to view the current concern about greenhouse gases is to revisit the past, particularly through ice core analysis, which can yield a record of thousands of years. Many hazardous gases are present in mines, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4). The study of completely self-contained and renewable environments was attempted with several closed ecosystem experiments in order to better understand the closed environment of the planet we live on. Monitoring and control systems for these environments are highly complex and specialized to meet unique challenges.