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There is absence knowledge about the effects of lactation trimester and parity on eating behavior, production and efficiency of dairy cows. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize in 340 dairy cows, the 20% high efficient (HE), 20% low efficient (LE) and 60% mid efficient (ME) cows according to their individual residual feed intake (RFI) values, within and between lactation trimesters and between 1st and 2nd parities. Efficiency effect within each lactation trimester, was exhibited in daily dry matter intake (DMI), eating rate and meal size, that were the highest in LE cows, moderate in the ME cows and lowest in the HE group. Daily eating time, meal frequency, yields of milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) and BW were similar in the three efficiency groups within each trimester. The lower efficiency of the LE cows in each trimester attributes to their larger metabolic energy intake, heat production and energy losses. In subgroup of 52 multiparous cows examined along their 1st and 2nd trimesters, milk and ECM production, DMI, eating behavior and efficiency traits were similar with high Pearson’s correlation (r=0.78 to 0.89) between trimesters. In another subgroup of 42 multiparous cows measured at their 2nd and 3rd trimesters, milk and ECM yield, DMI and eating time were reduced (P<0.01) at the 3rd trimester, but eating rate, meal frequency and meal size remained similar with high Pearson’s correlation (r=0.74 to 0.88) between trimesters. In subgroup of 26 cows measured in 1st and 2nd parities, DMI, BW, milk and ECM yield, and ECM/DMI increased in the 2nd lactation, but eating behavior and RFI traits were similar in both parities. These findings encourage accurate prediction of DMI based on a model that includes eating behavior parameters, together with individual measurement of ECM production. This can be further used to identify HE cows in commercial herd, a step necessary for potential genetic selection program aimed to improve herd efficiency.
One in 5 PN are ejected from common envelope binary interactions but Kepler results are already showing this proportion to be larger. Their properties, such as abundances can be starkly different from those of the general population, so they should be considered separately when using PN as chemical or population probes. Unfortunately post-common envelope PN cannot be discerned using only their morphologies, but this will change once we couple our new common envelope simulations with PN formation models.
We present the initial results from an [O III] λ 5007 survey for intra-group planetary nebulae in the M 81 group of galaxies. A total of 0.36 square degrees of the survey have been analyzed thus far, and a total of four intra-group candidates have been detected. These data allow us to probe the physics of galaxy interactions in small groups, and give us an upper limit for the density of intracluster starlight. We find that the M 81 group has less than 3% of its stars in an intra-group component; this is much less than the fraction seen in richer galaxy clusters.
The study of the formation and evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs) has been a subject of active investigation for several decades. In the past 15 years the relationship between nebular morphology and nebular/stellar evolution has been investigated in some detail. Although important insights have been gained, the connection between PN formation and even basic morphological features of the evolving nebula is far from clear. One of the most vexing problems to overcome is the difficulty of obtaining, at least for Galactic PNs where statistical distances must be adopted, reliable dimensions, ages, luminosities, and other physical quantities that are essential for understanding the evolutionary state of individual nebulae. Our emphasis of late has been to obtain high-resolution images of a large sample of PNs in the Magellanic Clouds, where uncertainties in the distances are minimal and selection effects due to, e. g., dust absorption in the Galactic plane do not apply.
We present the results from multiple surveys for intracluster planetary nebulae (IPNe) in nearby galaxy clusters and groups. We find that in the case of clusters, our observations imply: 1) the amount of intracluster starlight is significant, up to 20% of the total starlight, 2) in Virgo, is elongated along our line of sight, and 3) is clustered on the sky, implying ongoing tidal stripping. In contrast, searches for IPNe in groups have found little or no intra-group population, implying there may be something in the cluster environment that significantly enhances intracluster star production. from high-resolution N-body simulations, we find that the IPNe should create observable features in position-velocity space, and that these features may eventually allow us to place limits on the dynamics of galaxy clusters.
As the nearest large elliptical galaxy, NGC 5128 is ideal for planetary nebula studies. Its size, favourable aspect, small distance and reddening allow low mass stellar evolution in a whole galaxy to be surveyed. The surface density and properties of the PN can be compared with stars of various ages, metallicities and components (bulge, halo). The PN provide the α-element abundances whilst stellar photometry is calibrated against Fe/H; applied to the same stellar population, the PN abundances can be related to those of the stars. Gradients and non-radial trends in the abundance can be mapped using spectral observations of a large number of PN, allowing star formation history to be studied.
The galaxy pair NGC 5194/95 (M51) is one of the closest and best known interacting systems. Despite its notoriety, however, many of its features are not well studied. Extending westward from NGC 5195 is a low surface brightness tidal tail, which can only be seen in deep broadband exposures. Our previous [O III] λ5007 planetary nebulae (PN) survey of M51 recovered this tidal tail, and presented us with a opportunity to study the kinematics of a galaxy interaction in progress. We report the results of a spectroscopy survey of the PN, aimed at determining their kinematic properties. We then use these data to constrain new self-consistent numerical models of the system.
Abundances in early-type galaxies are measured from the analysis of stellar spectra (e.g. colour indices, Peletier et al, 1990). The presence of many planetary nebulae (PN) in early-type galaxies provides an independent measure of abundances for the old stellar population and allows the spread in abundances to be sampled at a range of galacto-centric distances. PN are feasible for this project since the nebular O, Ne and S abundances in most PN reflect that of the progenitor star.
Jacoby & Fullton (1994, BAAS, 26, 1384) searched 133 of the ∼ 150 Galactic globular clusters for Planetary Nebulae (PNe) using the on-band/off-band imaging technique at [O III] λ5007Å. We present preliminary abundances and central star properties for the 2 new PN identified in that survey (labeled JaFu 1 and JaFu 2 by Acker, Marcout, & Ochsenbein 1996).
Provision and need for mental health services among military personnel are a major concern across nations. Two recent comparisons suggest higher rates of mental disorders in US and UK military personnel compared with civilians. However, these findings may not apply to other nations. Previous studies have focused on the overall effects of military service rather than the separate effects of military service and deployment. This study compared German military personnel with and without a history of deployment to sociodemographically matched civilians regarding prevalence and severity of 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders.
1439 deployed soldiers (DS), 779 never deployed soldiers (NS) and 1023 civilians were assessed with an adapted version of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic interview across the same timeframe. Data were weighted using propensity score methodology to assure comparability of the three samples.
Compared with adjusted civilians, the prevalence of any 12-month disorder was lower in NS (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.99) and did not differ in DS. Significant differences between military personnel and civilians regarding prevalence and severity of individual diagnoses were only apparent for alcohol (DS: OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.6; NS: OR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1–0.6) and nicotine dependence (DS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.6; NS: OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7) with lower values in both military samples. Elevated rates of panic/agoraphobia (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.3) and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3–8.0) were observed in DS with high combat exposure compared with civilians.
Rates and severity of mental disorders in the German military are comparable with civilians for internalising and lower for substance use disorders. A higher risk of some disorders is reduced to DS with high combat exposure. This finding has implications for mental health service provision and the need for targeted interventions. Differences to previous US and UK studies that suggest an overall higher prevalence in military personnel might result from divergent study methods, deployment characteristics, military structures and occupational factors. Some of these factors might yield valuable targets to improve military mental health.
Background: Obsessive beliefs account for substantial (but not all) obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms. Intolerance of internal experiences (IIE), which encompasses the constructs of experiential avoidance (EA) and distress tolerance (DT), refers to difficulty managing unwanted thoughts, emotions, and other internal states, and might add to current explanatory models. Although IIE appears to be conceptually relevant to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, scant research has examined this relationship empirically. Aim: The present study examined the relative contributions of EA and DT as predictors of OC symptom dimensions. Method: A nonclinical sample (n = 496) completed self-report questionnaires measuring general distress, EA, DT and OC symptom dimensions. Results: All variables of interest were significantly (all ps ≤ .001) correlated with one another, such that higher general distress, higher EA, and lower DT were associated with greater OC symptom severity for all symptom dimensions; however, only EA independently predicted obsessional symptoms, but not other OC symptom dimensions. Conclusions: One's willingness to endure (i.e. EA), rather than their ability to tolerate (i.e. DT) unpleasant internal experiences best predicts obsessional symptoms (i.e. obsessing) above and beyond general distress. Potential implications for understanding, assessing, and treating OC symptoms are discussed.
The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 78 patients with bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, aged 18–60 years, and with 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores ≤17 were randomized to the use of a smartphone for daily self-monitoring including a clinical feedback loop (the intervention group) or to the use of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for 6 months. The primary outcomes were differences in depressive and manic symptoms measured using HAMD-17 and YMRS, respectively, between the intervention and control groups.
Intention-to-treat analyses using linear mixed models showed no significant effects of daily self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive as well as manic symptoms. There was a tendency towards more sustained depressive symptoms in the intervention group (B = 2.02, 95% confidence interval −0.13 to 4.17, p = 0.066). Sub-group analysis among patients without mixed symptoms and patients with presence of depressive and manic symptoms showed significantly more depressive symptoms and fewer manic symptoms during the trial period in the intervention group.
These results highlight that electronic self-monitoring, although intuitive and appealing, needs critical consideration and further clarification before it is implemented as a clinical tool.
Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between dietary intakes of Zn and Mg and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a population-based cohort of adolescents.
Prospective analysis (general linear mixed models) of dietary intakes of Zn and Mg assessed using a validated FFQ and mental health symptoms assessed using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), adjusting for sex, physical activity, family income, supplement status, dietary misreporting, BMI, family functioning and energy intake.
Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.
Adolescents (n 684) at the 14- and 17-year follow-ups.
Higher dietary intake of Mg (per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising behaviours (β=−1·45; 95 % CI −2·40, −0·50; P=0·003). There was a trend towards reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase; β=−0·73; 95 % CI −1·57, 0·10; P=0·085).
The study shows an association between higher dietary Mg intake and reduced externalising behaviour problems in adolescents. We observed a similar trend, although not statistically significant, for Zn intake. Randomised controlled trials are necessary to determine any benefit of micronutrient supplementation in the prevention and treatment of mental health problems in adolescents.
Despite the importance of skeletal growth during adolescence, there is limited research reporting vitamin D status and its predictors in adolescents. Using prospective data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, we investigated vitamin D status and predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in adolescents. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the same participants at 14 and 17 years (n 1045 at both time points). The percentage of adolescents with serum 25(OH)D concentrations < 50, 50–74·9 and ≥ 75 nmol/l was reported year-round and by month of blood collection. We examined the predictors of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, including sex, race, month of blood collection, physical activity, BMI, family income, and Ca and vitamin D intakes (n 919 at 14 years; n 570 at 17 years), using a general linear mixed model. At 14 years, 31 % of adolescents had serum 25(OH)D concentrations between 50 and 74·9 nmol/l and a further 4 % had concentrations < 50 nmol/l. At 17 years, 40 % of adolescents had serum 25(OH)D concentrations between 50 and 74·9 nmol/l and 12 % had concentrations < 50 nmol/l. Caucasian ethnicity, being sampled at the end of summer, exercising more, having a lower BMI, a higher Ca intake and a higher family income were significantly associated with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The proportion of adolescents with serum 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/l was low in this Western Australian cohort. There is a need for international consensus on defining adequate vitamin D status in order to determine whether strategies to increase vitamin D status in adolescents are warranted.
As the amount of methyl bromide approved for use in Florida strawberry diminishes, growers are faced with a forced transition to alternative fumigants. Many of these methyl bromide alternatives have been associated with reductions in weed control, requiring additional but complementary measures. POST herbicide options for annual strawberry are limited, resulting in significant portions of the strawberry acreage in Florida being hand-weeded when troublesome weeds escape conventional control methods. Strawberry has shown acceptable tolerance to clopyralid in other areas and production systems; however, its integration into the Florida production system and ramifications of applications during fruiting warrants further research. Eight trials were conducted, with three common strawberry cultivars grown in West Central Florida subjected to POST spray and drip-tape-injected applications of clopyralid. Formation of new strawberry leaves was not affected by clopyralid application, except for a reduction in new leaves of the cultivar ‘Strawberry Festival' at the highest rate of application of 261 g ae ha−1 in comparison with the nontreated control. Strawberry leaf malformation was best explained by an exponential growth equation, whereas marketable yield followed the trend of a Weibull peak. At the maximum labeled rate (66 g ha−1), leaf malformation was less than 5% for all cultivars tested, and marketable yield was estimated at 104% of the nontreated control.
With the loss of methyl bromide (MeBr) and high prices of alternatives, tomato growers are applying lower fumigant rates or adopting a reduced system. Without the broad-spectrum control provided by the complete fumigant system, a fallow weed program might be needed to avoid an increase in pest pressure with consecutive years of application of the reduced-fumigant system. Nutsedges are among the pests of interest due to their fast reproduction by underground structures and ability to spread and quickly infest a field. Field trials were conducted between February and December of 2011 in Balm, FL, to evaluate the impacts of fallow treatments, fumigants, and halosulfuron on nutsedge control. The trial design was a split–split plot with main, sub-, and subsubplots being fallow, fumigant, and herbicide treatment, respectively. Fallow treatments were spaced evenly throughout the fallow season and consisted of sequential combinations of cultivation (C) and/or glyphosate (G) applied at 2.24 kg ae ha−1; including: C, CC, G, GG, CG, GC, GCG, and NO (nontreated control). Fumigant treatments included a reduced-fumigant system of 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin 40:60 (1,3-D + pic) at 281 kg ha−1, a complete fumigant system of dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin 79:21 (DMDS + pic) at 545 kg ha−1, and no fumigant (NoFum). Herbicide treatments were either two POST applications of halosulfuron at 39 g ai ha−1 (Hal) or no halosulfuron (NoHal). In general, the fallow weed treatment GCG was the most effective in reducing nutsedge shoot emergence through the plastic mulch. When the reduced-fumigant system 1,3-D + pic was combined with GCG fallow treatment and halosulfuron (GCG:1,3-D + pic:Hal), no differences were found between this combination and the complete fumigant system DMDS + pic with halosulfuron and combined with CC, G, GG, CG, GC or GCG. This study shows the importance of adding a fallow weed program and halosulfuron to either a reduced or complete fumigation system to minimize the reproduction and growth of nutsedges.
Archaeological work preceding a housing development revealed mid-Devensian (MIS 3) deposits preserved in a geological fault, a graben feature, on an interfluve plateau. Rare evidence for Early Upper Palaeolithic open-air occupation was characterised by a scant lithic signature of the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician (LRJ) leaf-point techno-complex of the North European plain. The lithics included a complete leaf-point, another broken example with traces of impact damage, and knapping debitage indicating leaf-point maintenance. The site also preserved good evidence for an open-air hyaena den with abundant faunal remains. Discrete bone clusters were present, some of which probably represent meat caches for hyaena cubs in the burrows and scrapes of a maternity den. It is suggested that the hominins targeted the den site to forage the stored food. Their occupation is associated with a group of spirally-fractured wild horse bones thought to be the result of marrow extraction by humans, and these have been dated to 44,290–42,440 calibrated years before present (44.3–42.5 kyr cal bp), comparable to the date range of continental LRJ sites. The early date of the LRJ techno-complex corresponds with that of the oldest Neanderthals in northern Europe, but possibly overlaps with the recently reported early dates for anatomically modern humans. However, it is concluded that the oldest Early Upper Palaeolithic technology in northern Europe was the product of final Neanderthals.