To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report the implementation of two new methods of accurate comparison of lattice parameters against a silicon standard using a high resolution X-ray diffractometer. The double axis method uses a specimen rotation stage which set the limit of reproducibility (at 3 sigma) to 3 parts in 105. An application of the technique is illustrated in measurements of the zinc concentration in Cd1-xZnx Te to an accuracy of 0.1%. The triple axis technique uses beam conditioner and analyser crystals to define the incident and diffracted wave vectors. In measurement of the lattice parameters of InAs, we found a precision of 1 part in 105 and traceable accuracy of a several parts in 105.
We compared sepsis “time zero” and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) SEP-1 pass rates among 3 abstractors in 3 hospitals. Abstractors agreed on time zero in 29 of 80 (36%) cases. Perceived pass rates ranged from 9 of 80 cases (11%) to 19 of 80 cases (23%). Variability in time zero and perceived pass rates limits the utility of SEP-1 for measuring quality.
Background: NEDA is a composite measure that may ultimately influence clinical decisions concerning switches of disease modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Cohort studies from MS clinics suggest NEDA is not sustained over time in most patients despite DMT but may be limited by referral bias. We investigated NEDA in a population-based RRMS cohort. Methods: We identified all incident cases of RRMS in Olmsted County from 01/01/2000-12/31/2011. Retrospective chart review was conducted to determine persistence of NEDA -following RRMS diagnosis. NEDA failure was defined as new MRI activity, relapse, or expanded disability status scale (EDSS) -worsening. Results: There were 93 incident cases of RRMS with 82 individuals having sufficient follow-up to determine persistence of NEDA. Prior to NEDA failure 44 were not on DMT, 37 were on first-tier, injectable DMT, and 1 received mitoxantrone. NEDA was maintained by 63% at 1 year, 38% at 2 years, 19% at 5 years, and 12% at 10 years. Disability measured by EDSS was no different at 10 years in patients maintaining NEDA versus those that failed NEDA at one year (p=0.3). Conclusions: Maintenance of NEDA beyond 2 years is infrequent among a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed RRMS patients and similar to prior clinic-based cohorts.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
The full theory of polarized SiO maser emission from the near-circumstellar environment of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars has been the subject of debate, with theories ranging from classical Zeeman origins to predominantly non-Zeeman anisotropic excitation or propagation effects. Features with an internal electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotation of ∼π/2 offer unique constraints on theoretical models. In this work, results are presented for one such feature that persisted across five epochs of SiO ν = 1, J = 1 − 0 VLBA observations of TX Cam. We examine the fit to the predicted dependence of linear polarization and EVPA on angle (θ) between the line of sight and the magnetic field against theoretical models. We also present results on the dependence of mc on θ and their theoretical implications. Finally, we discuss potential causes of the observed differences, and continuing work.
Salmonella causes an estimated 1·2 million illnesses annually in the USA. Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana (serotype Javiana) is the fourth most common serotype isolated from humans, with the majority of illnesses occurring in southeastern states. The percentage of wetland cover by wetland type and the average incidence rates of serotype Javiana infection in selected counties of the Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were examined. This analysis explored the relationship between wetland environments and incidence in order to assess whether regional differences in environmental habitats may be associated with observed variations in incidence. Findings suggest that environmental habitats may support reservoirs or contribute to the persistence of serotype Javiana, and may frequently contribute to the transmission of infection compared with other Salmonella serotypes.
Planets form in disks around young stars. The planet formation process may start when the protostar and disk are still deeply embedded within their infalling envelope. However, unlike more evolved protoplanetary disks, the physical and chemical structure of these young embedded disks are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed ALMA data for 13CO, C18O and N2D+ to constrain the temperature structure, one of the critical unknowns, in the disk around L1527. The spatial distribution of 13CO and C18O, together with the kinetic temperature derived from the optically thick 13CO emission and the non-detection of N2D+, suggest that this disk is warm enough (≳ 20 K) to prevent CO freeze-out.
The youngest low-mass protostars are known to be chemically rich, accreting matter most vigorously, and producing the most powerful outflows. Molecules are unique tracers of these phenomena. We use ALMA to study several outflow sources in the Serpens Main region. The most luminous source, Ser-SMM1, shows the richest chemical composition, but some complex molecules are also present in S68N. No emission from complex organics is detected toward Ser-emb 8N, which is the least luminous in the sample. We discuss whether these differences reflect an evolutionary effect or whether they are due to different physical structures. We also analyze the outflow structure from these young protostars by comparing emission of CO and SiO. EHV molecular jets originating from SMM1-a,b and Ser-emb 8N contrast with no such activity from S68N, which on the other hand presents a complex outflow structure.
In public opinion research, response latency is a measure of attitude accessibility, which is the ease or swiftness with which an attitude comes to mind when a respondent is presented with a survey question. Attitude accessibility represents the strength of the association in memory between an attitude object and an evaluation of the object. Recent research shows that attitude accessibility, as measured by response latency, casts light on a wide range of phenomena of public opinion and political behavior. We discuss response latency methodology for survey research and advocate the use of latent response latency timers (which are invisible both to respondents and interviewers) as a low cost, low-maintenance alternative to traditional methods of measuring response latency in public opinion surveys. We show that with appropriate model specification latent response latency timers may provide a suitable alternative to the more complicated and expensive interviewer-activated timers.
Our collaboration involves groups in Denmark, the U.S.A. Spain and of course New Zealand. Combining ground-based and satellite (IUE and HST) observations we aim to determine accurate and precise stellar fundamental parameters for the components of Magellanic Cloud Eclipsing Binaries as well as the distances to these systems and hence the parent galaxies themselves. This poster presents our latest progress.
Ireland has been actively involved in peacekeeping operations since the 1950s. The unique psychological stressors associated with this form of military activity have been under-recognised and under-researched.
The aim of this paper is to bring to the attention of mental health professionals, who have been caring for military and retired military peacekeeping personnel, the unique difficulties associated with peacekeeping and how they can impact upon the mental health of the peacekeeper.
The nature of peacekeeping is outlined. There is a short review of the limited literature on the mental health effects of this kind of military deployment. There is also an outline of the positive outcomes for the majority of those who have served as peacekeepers.
Both the negative and the positive mental health outcomes depend on the particular mission. Each mission is different and the nature of a mission also changes over time. Post-traumatic stress disorder rates can vary from 3% to 15% of a peacekeeping cohort, depending upon the nature of the violence associated with the mission. The vast majority of peacekeepers have found their peacekeeping deployments as an enriching experience.
Peacekeepers are often witnesses as well as the victims of traumatic events. The restrictions placed upon their military role by the mission mandate can be a source of stress for them. Their mental health needs to be supported during the mission and after they have returned home.
We are painfully aware: Psychiatry in some states of the international community is often used to subvert the political and legal guarantees of the freedom of the individual and to violate seriously his human and legal rights (Daes,1986).
It can be politically convenient to incarcerate political opponents in a psychiatric hospital. It saves any potential political embarrassment that a judicial trial may present. It also undermines the credibility of opponents by labelling them with the stigma of being mentally insane. For this to occur, there has to be the acquiescence of mental health professionals and a subservient legal system.
This article examines the abuse of psychiatry in two authoritarian systems, Russia and China.
New diagnostic categories such as sluggish schizophrenia were created to facilitate the silencing of dissenters and were a source of self-deception for psychiatrist to placate their consciences as they operated as a tool of oppression on behalf of a political system.
If we do not know the past, we will be condemned to repeat it.
We explore the relationship between religiosity and public support for greater government services. We theorize that increases in religiosity and public opinion both reflect demands from citizens in the face of insecurity. We argue that religiosity is comprised of two factors: responses to insecurity; and long-held preferences for religion, or secularity. We show that previous studies that have observed increased religiosity leading to decreased support for government spending have not distinguished among religiosity as driven by secularity versus insecurity. To test our theory, we first estimate a series of simulations, and we then turn to the dynamics of aggregate religiosity and public opinion in the United States over the past fifty years, an environment where long-held preferences for religious goods have remained relatively stable. Consistent with our theory, religiosity and public opinion respond to insecurity; the series are positively correlated, move together through time, and react in similar ways to changes in GDP per capita. Our findings indicate that during times when there is greater insecurity, both religiosity and demand from government increase.
Commercially deposited titanium nitride (TIN) thin films have been available daring recent years. These TiN films possess high hardness and have good wear resistance; however, the deposition process typically requires a temperature of 500°C or higher. In many cases, due to substrate characteristics, a deposition temperature below 150°C is required in order to exploit TiN coating properties.
The objective of this work is to demonstrate that ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) makes it possible to deposit gold-color TiN films with good adhesion onto a variety of substrates including plastics at temperatures below 150°C. These films have physical and mechanical properties as good as those produced at high temperatures. Samples have also been examined by nanohardness techniques to accurately determine the hardness of the films and relate them to process parameters and crystal sizes. Our results indicate that, by controlling the grain size of TiN, it is possible to fabricate TiN coatings at room temperature with hardness as high as 25.5 ± 1 GPa.
Typical high-temperature thin-film deposition techniques are not suitable for certain substrates such as polymers and thermally-sensitive steels. In this work, ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was used to deposit ceramic and metallic films at temperatures below 150°C with nanocrystalline (< 100Å diameter) grain size. Nanoindentation studies of these films have shown hardnesses 50 to 100% greater than larger-grained films and, in some cases, fracture toughness approaching that of Si3N4.
By combining chromium evaporation with nitrogen beam bombardment, hard, adherent CrN films without any porosity have been produced at low temperatures with a N/Cr arrival ratio of about 1. The grain size is typically smaller than 100Å and hardness is typically higher than 25 GPa. For a N/Cr arrival ratio slightly less than 1, we observed possible grain boundary porosity. However, even with porosity, hardness is typically 20 to 24 GPa for grain sizes smaller than 100Å. For a N/Cr arrival ratio of 1/4 we deposited elemental Cr with a grain size of 300 to 500Å and a hardness greater than that of silicon (12 GPa). Using Ar ions and a N backfill, we produced elemental Cr containing a mixture of coarse (120 to 150Å) and fine (25 to 30Å) grains. For high-temperature deposition of CrN, the grain size increases (200 to 600Å) with a noticeable decrease in hardness. Mechanical properties of CrN are greatly influenced by impurities, as well as by surface conditioning of the substrate.
TiN films having gold color and grain sizes from 50 to 1000Å have been produced at low temperatures. Nanoindentation measurements of hardness and fracture toughness indicate that impurity-free TiN (with grains smaller than 100Å) has a hardness higher than 25 GPa and a fracture toughness close to that of Si3N4, but with higher wear resistance. Mechanical properties of our TiN films are greatly influenced by impurities, particularly oxygen, although it does not influence the gold color of TiN.
Mechanical and tribological properties of chromium-nitrogen films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) were investigated. The films were deposited reactively, i.e., via chromium evaporation with concurrent nitrogen ion beam bombardment, on stainless steel substrates at low deposition temperatures (<200°C). Two primary deposition regimes, with differing Cr/N atom-to-ion arrival ratios, were investigated: approximately 0.8–1.0 and 2.5–3.0. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopic analysis showed the lower arrival ratio films to be essentially stoichiometric CrN, whereas films deposited at higher arrival ratios were Cr-rich with Cr/N ratios of about 3:1. Both films were fine grained polycrystalline (typically 5–20 nanometer crystal dimension). The stoichiometric films were approximately two times harder than the Cr-rich films., based on nanohardness indentation measurements, and possessed higher residual stress levels. Both film types substantially improved the wear resistance of stainless steel disks, based on the results of ball-ondisk wear tests against ruby balls. The best performance was obtained with Cr-rich films, which exhibited a very low wear rate and lower friction than either the stoichiometric film or the uncoated steel.
A strong resonance in the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) of cerium oxide was reported recently. Here, it is shown that dominance of the indirect channel of the resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (RIPES) is so complete that the photon energy dependence can be explained in terms of emission associated with a single photon energy.