To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Barton Peninsula is an ice-free area located in the southwest corner of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Following the Last Glacial Maximum, several geomorphological features developed in newly exposed ice-free terrain and their distribution provide insights about past environmental evolution of the area. Three moraine systems are indicative of three main glacial phases within the long-term glacial retreat, which also favoured the development of numerous lakes. Five of these lakes were cored to understand in greater detail the pattern of deglaciation through the study of lacustrine records. Radiocarbon dates from basal lacustrine sediments enabled the reconstruction of the chronology of Holocene glacial retreat. Tephra layers present in lake sediments provided additional independent age constraints on environmental changes based on geochemical and geochronological correlation with Deception Island-derived tephra. Shrinking of the Collins Glacier exposed the southern coastal fringe of Barton Peninsula at 8 cal ky BP. After a period of relative stability during the mid-Holocene, the ice cap started retreating northwards after 3.7 cal ky BP, confining some glaciers within valleys as shown by moraine systems. Lake sediments confirm a period of relative glacial stability during the last 2.4 cal ky BP.
We study C1-robustly transitive and nonhyperbolic diffeomorphisms having a partially hyperbolic splitting with one-dimensional central bundle whose strong un-/stable foliations are both minimal. In dimension 3, an important class of examples of such systems is given by those with a simple closed periodic curve tangent to the central bundle. We prove that there is a C1-open and dense subset of such diffeomorphisms such that every nonhyperbolic ergodic measure (i.e. with zero central exponent) can be approximated in the weak* topology and in entropy by measures supported in basic sets with positive (negative) central Lyapunov exponent. Our method also allows to show how entropy changes across measures with central Lyapunov exponent close to zero. We also prove that any nonhyperbolic ergodic measure is in the intersection of the convex hulls of the measures with positive central exponent and with negative central exponent.
The new species Lenonchium zanjanense sp. n. is described from a natural habitat of Zanjan province, Iran, including line, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy illustrations and a molecular (18S, 28S) study. It is characterized by its 3.50–4.51 mm long body, rounded lip region, continuous and 13.5–15.5 µm broad, odontostyle 21–24 µm long, neck 362–490 µm long, double guiding ring, pharyngeal expansion 190–285 µm long, female genital system didelphic–amphidelphic, uterus simple and 185–320 µm long or 3.4–5.9 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva nearly equatorial (V = 45–53), tail conical-elongated to filiform (90–165 µm, c = 23–43, c′ = 2.4–5.3) with three or four mucro-like projections at the tip, spicules 58–64 µm long and 16–21 contiguous ventromedian supplements ending at the level of the anterior end of the spicules. The taxonomy of the genus is updated, with an emended diagnosis, list of species, key to their identification and a compendium of their main morphometrics. Lenonchium asterocaudatum is regarded as identical and a junior synonym of L. denticaudatum. New insights into the phylogeny of the group are also provided, and the classification of Lenonchium within Nordiidae is seriously questioned.
Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury is common. In order to improve our understanding of acute kidney injury, we formed the multi-centre Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Our main goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload, and explore associations with outcomes.
The Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network collaborative includes representatives from paediatric cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery. The collaborative sites and infrastructure are part of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. An acute kidney injury module was developed and merged into the existing infrastructure. A total of twenty-two participating centres provided data on 100–150 consecutive neonates who underwent cardiac surgery within the first 30 post-natal days. Additional acute kidney injury variables were abstracted by chart review and merged with the corresponding record in the quality improvement database. Exclusion criteria included >1 operation in the 7-day study period, pre-operative renal replacement therapy, pre-operative serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl, and need for extracorporeal support in the operating room or within 24 hours after the index operation.
A total of 2240 neonatal patients were enrolled across 22 centres. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 54% (stage 1 = 31%, stage 2 = 13%, and stage 3 = 9%).
Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network represents the largest multi-centre study of neonatal kidney injury. This new network will enhance our understanding of kidney injury and its complications.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
Introduction: Over 2.6 million Hispanic/Latino construction workers (CWs) live in the US; 91% of South Florida CWs are Hispanic/Latino. CWs have higher smoking and lower cessation rates than other workers. Limited access to cessation services, worksite turnover, and lack of interventions tailored to culture/occupation hinder cessation. Partnering with worksite food trucks to deliver unique cessation interventions may improve these efforts.
Aims: To explore a novel cessation approach, assess worker/worksite acceptability, and seek input into intervention development.
Methods: In 2016, we conducted five semi-structured focus groups with 37 smoking Hispanic/Latino CWs. Constant comparative analysis was used to examine a priori themes regarding smoking behaviours, cessation treatments, intervention delivery, cultural adaptation, and quit interest.
Results: CWs reported tremendous job stress. Most smoking occurred during the workday and most CWs did not use nicotine replacement therapy with past quit attempts. Most CWs were open to a worksite face-to-face group cessation intervention before work (many underutilize breaks and feel pressure to keep working). CWs felt it unnecessary to tailor the intervention to Hispanics/Latinos indicating smokers are the same regardless of race/ethnicity.
Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the need to consider work environments, job demands/stress, and worker preferences when developing accessible and acceptable cessation interventions.
Isotopic composition of leaf carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) is determined by biotic and abiotic factors. In order to determine the influence of leaf habit and site on leaf δ13C and δ15N in the understorey of two Atlantic forests in Brazil that differ in annual precipitation (1200 and 1900 mm), we measured these isotopes in the shaded understorey of 38 tropical tree species (20 in the 1200-mm site and 18 in the 1900-mm site). Mean site values for δ15N were significantly lower at the 1200-mm site (−1.4‰) compared with the 1900-mm site (+3.0‰), and δ13C was significantly greater in the 1200-mm site (−30.4‰) than in the 1900-mm site (−31.6‰). Leaf C concentration was greater and leaf N concentration was lower at 1200-mm than at 1900-mm. Leaf δ15N was negatively correlated with δ13C across the two sites. Leaf δ13C and δ15N of evergreen and deciduous species were not significantly different within a site. No significant phylogenetic signal for any traits among the study species was found. Overall, site differences were the main factor distinguishing traits among species, suggesting strong functional convergence to local climate and soils within each site for individuals in the shaded understorey.
The objective of this work was to determine the rumen degradation characteristics over the growing season of maize stover in two contrasting zones in the central highlands of Mexico. Twenty four maize plots were selected, three harvest periods P1, P2, and P3 were established in order to evaluate degradation characteristics at different development stages, for ‘criollo’ maize varieties of three grain colours (white, yellow and black) representing different cultivation practices given their different growing cycles. In vitro gas production (GP) incubations were carried out, and cumulative gas volumes were fitted to the Krishnamoorthy, Soller, Steingass and Menke (1991) model. The results indicate that more research is needed to evaluate why maize degradability and fermentation characteristics as exemplified by this work are not greatly affected by time.
Two metal fillers with TiC nanoparticles (TiC NPs) of less than 100 nm for the overlay process is an alternative to hardfacing for treating surfaces subjected to severe wear. In this work, the effect of tribological behavior for TiC NPs addition on two Co-based filler materials, as well as the dilutions, was studied. Mixtures of Co-based filler metals without and with 0.5% and 2% TiC NPs were deposited onto D2 steel plates using PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc). The BET surface area was 0.17 m2 g-1 and 0.31 m2 g-1, respectively, for Stellite 6 and 12. The distribution of ca 23% macroporous for Stellite 6 was sufficient to get inside the TiC NPs, as well as in the case of Stellite 12, with a pore distribution of ca 13%. Stellite 12 has an increase in the dilutions (70%) and enthalpies showed endothermic reactions. Stellite 6 with NPs was determined to be most effective in increasing the wear resistance.
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
A new species belonging to the genus Belondira is described from natural areas in Iran. Belondira coomansi n. sp. is characterized by its general size, the dimensions and appearance of its lip region, presence of distinct labial and post-labial sclerotization, the length of the odontostyle and its inconspicuous lumen and aperture, the length of the neck and its pharyngeal expansion, the reduction of the female anterior genital branch to a simple uterine sac, a very short posterior uterus, the anterior position of the vulva, the length and shape of the caudal region with distinctly thick cuticle at its tip, the length of the spicules, and the presence of only one pair of ventromedian supplements. The new species is close to Belondira brevibulba, B. sacchari, B. tenuidens and B. thornei, and it is compared to them. Molecular characterization (D2–D3 expansion segments of the rRNA large subunit) of the new species is also provided, representing only the second species of this genus for which any DNA sequence data are available.
A new genus and new species, Tarantobelus arachnicida, was found in the oral opening of tarantula spiders bred in captivity in Poland. The new species is characterized by having a small body (0.77–0.95 mm long in females and 0.66–0.84 mm in males), cuticle poorly annulated by transverse incisures, lateral field inconspicuous, lips separated with small cuticular flaps topping each lip, stoma panagrolaimoid with gymnostom well developed with robust and refringent rhabdia, pharynx panagrolaimoid with isthmus slightly longer than the basal bulb, intestine with cardiac (anterior) and rectal (posterior) areas with narrower walls. Mature females with intestinal cells including needle crystal packs, excretory pore at isthmus level, female reproductive system panagrolaimoid with post-vulval sac 0.4–0.8 times the length of the corresponding body diameter and having very thick walls, vulva very prominent, female rectum 0.8–1.3 times the length of the anal body diameter, female tail conical with acute tip with phasmids at 58–62% of its length. Male tail conical with long and thin mucro, spicules ventrad bent having rounded manubrium and thick gubernaculum. Description, measurements and illustrations of the new species are provided. Molecular analyses show its relationship with Brevibucca and Cuticonema. On the other hand, Medibulla and its corresponding subfamily Medibullinae, previously in Osstellidae, are transferred to Panagrolaimidae, being Shahnematinae, the junior synonym of Medibullinae. Indocephalobus, recently proposed and located in the family Panagrolaimidae, is considered a junior synonym of Diplogastrellus (Diplogasteromorpha), and its only species, I. zebrae, is considered a junior synonym of D. gracilis. In addition, a key to identification of panagrolaimoid genera is included.
We describe the DR14 APOGEE-TGAS catalogue, a new SDSS value-added catalogue that provides precise astrophysical parameters, chemical abundances, astro-spectro- photometric distances and extinctions, as well as orbital parameters for ~30, 000 APOGEE-TGAS stars, among them ~5, 000 high-quality giant stars within 1 kpc.
This paper summarizes the first tool that is able to predict Ground Level Enhancements (GLE). It makes real-time predictions of the occurrence of GLE events from the analysis of soft X-ray and differential proton flux measured by the GOES satellite network. Before the development of this tool, space weather systems have been warning users about evolving GLE events by processing neutron measurements recorded on ground level. This tool, called HESPERIA UMASEP-500, can predict GLE events before the detection by any neutron monitor (NM) station. The prediction performance measured for the period from 1986 to 2016 is presented for two consecutive periods, because of their notable difference in performance. For the 2000-2016 period, this prediction tool obtained a probability of detection (POD) of 53.8% (7 of 13 GLE events), a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 30.0%, and average warning times (AWT) of 8 min and 15 min with respect to the first NM station’s alert and the GLE Alert Plus warning, respectively. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under agreement No 637324.
Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
The Cariri region is the largest sedimentary basin in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Located in the southern portion of the state, it comprises the Araripe Plateau and the Cariri Valley on its northern foot. The region's groundwaters are being heavily exploited. Using electric conductivity (EC) and 18O, 14C and 3H data, we differentiate groundwaters from various origins. We identified three horizons of springs on the slope of the Plateau through their geologic environment and the EC of their waters. Groundwaters from wells in the Cariri Valley are classified according to the aquifers exploited as indicated by the drilling profiles. However, strong tectonic features and intense fracturing in the Valley produce a great many horizontal discontinuities, which result in a mixing of groundwaters from different aquifers. Mixing systems are described in terms of δ18O–14C and EC–14C linear trends.