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This article involved a broad search of applied sciences for milestone technologies we deem to be the most significant innovations applied by the North American pork industry, during the past 10 to 12 years. Several innovations shifted the trajectory of improvement or resolved significant production limitations. Each is being integrated into practice, with the exception being gene editing technology, which is undergoing the federal approval process. Advances in molecular genomics have been applied to gene editing for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and to identify piglet genome contributions from each parent. Post-cervical artificial insemination technology is not novel, but this technology is now used extensively to accelerate the rate of genetic progress. A milestone was achieved with the discovery that dietary essential fatty acids, during lactation, were limiting reproduction. Their provision resulted in a dose-related response for pregnancy, pregnancy maintenance and litter size, especially in maturing sows and ultimately resolved seasonal infertility. The benefit of segregated early weaning (12 to 14 days of age) was realized for specific pathogen removal for genetic nucleus and multiplication. Application was premature for commercial practice, as piglet mortality and morbidity increased. Early weaning impairs intestinal barrier and mucosal innate immune development, which coincides with diminished resilience to pathogens and viability later in life. Two important milestones were achieved to improve precision nutrition for growing pigs. The first involved the updated publication of the National Research Council nutrient requirements for pigs, a collaboration between scientists from America and Canada. Precision nutrition advanced further when ingredient description, for metabolically available amino acids and net energy (by source plant), became a private sector nutrition product. The past decade also led to fortuitous discoveries of health-improving components in ingredients (xylanase, soybeans). Finally, two technologies converged to facilitate timely detection of multiple pathogens in a population: oral fluids sampling and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogen analysis. Most critical diseases in North America are now routinely monitored by oral fluid sampling and prepared for analysis using PCR methods.
The patient portal may be an effective method for administering surveys regarding participant research experiences but has not been systematically studied.
We evaluated 4 methods of delivering a research participant perception survey: mailing, phone, email, and patient portal. Participants of research studies were identified (n=4013) and 800 were randomly selected to receive a survey, 200 for each method. Outcomes included response rate, survey completeness, and cost.
Among those aged <65 years, response rates did not differ between mail, phone, and patient portal (22%, 29%, 30%, p>0.07). Among these methods, the patient portal was the lowest-cost option. Response rates were significantly lower using email (10%, p<0.01), the lowest-cost option. In contrast, among those aged 65+ years, mail was superior to the electronic methods (p<0.02).
The patient portal was among the most effective ways to reach research participants, and was less expensive than surveys administered by mail or telephone.
Task Force is a small group seminar required of all seniors in the Henry M. Jackson School's International Studies Program at the University of Washington. Five or more seminars are offered in the winter quarter, and each focuses on a current policy issue. In recent years, Task Forces have dealt with such topics as strategic arms control, apartheid, United States policy towards Central America, the future of NATO, and United States trade with Japan. The following is an abridged version of the handbook which serves as a general guide for Task Force students, instructors, and evaluators.
The International Studies Program at the Jackson School introduces undergraduate students to world affairs through traditional and multidisciplinary coursework. Its curriculum draws on economics, geography, history, political science, sociology, languages and literature, religious studies, and many other disciplines. The program also recognizes that the study of international affairs is rooted in policy issues and processes. It is this notion which underlies the concept of Task Force.
The organization and operation of Task Force were inspired by the Policy Conference of Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. The Policy Conference, which was initiated in 1930, consists of 25-30 people and operates much like a Presidential Commission or other investigative group. Its members explore a policy problem through research and discussions with experts; they debate the merits of policy proposals and arrive at a set of policy recommendations.
Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and their residents are especially susceptible to disruptions associated with natural disasters and often have limited experience and resources for disaster planning and response. Previous reports have offered disaster planning and response recommendations. We could not find a comprehensive review of studied interventions or facility attributes that affect disaster outcomes in LTCFs and their residents. We reviewed articles published from 1974 through September 30, 2015, that studied disaster characteristics, facility characteristics, patient characteristics, or an intervention that affected outcomes for LTCFs experiencing or preparing for a disaster. Twenty-one articles were included in the review. All of the articles fell into 1 of the following categories: facility or disaster characteristics that predicted preparedness or response, interventions to improve preparedness, and health effects of disaster response, most often related to facility evacuation. All of the articles described observational studies that were heterogeneous in design and metrics. We believe that the evidence-based literature supports 6 specific recommendations for facilities, governmental agencies, health care communities and academia. These include integrated and coordinated disaster planning, staff training, careful consideration before governments order mandatory evacuations, anticipation of the increased medical needs of LTCF residents following a disaster, and the need for more outcomes research. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:140–149)
Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact atrial septum is a poor predictor of outcomes. Prenatal assessment of pulmonary venous Doppler and emergent postnatal cardiac intervention may be associated with better outcomes.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of all hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients in two centres over a 5-year period was performed. Group 1 included patients with adequate inter-atrial communication. Group 2 included patients with prenatal diagnosis with an intact atrial septum who had immediate transcatheter intervention. Group 3 included patients with intact atrial septum who were not prenatally diagnosed and underwent either delayed intervention or no intervention before stage 1 palliation. Primary outcome was survival up to stage 2 palliation.
The incidence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a restrictive atrial communication was 11.2% (n=19 of 170). Overall survival to stage 2 or heart transplantation was 85% and 67% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (n=129/151, n=8/12; p=0.03), and 0% (n=0/7) for Group 3. Survival benefits were observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001). Foetal pulmonary vein Doppler reverse/forward velocity time integral ratio of ⩾18% (sensitivity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.58–1; specificity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.96–1) was predictive of the need for emergent left atrial decompression.
Using a multidisciplinary approach and foetal pulmonary vein Doppler, time-saving measures can be instituted by delivering prenatally diagnosed neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum close to the cardiac catheterisation suite where left atrial decompression can be performed quickly and safely that may improve survival.
Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9–18·1, P < 0·001] and disposing of dead animals (OR 13·6, 95% CI 1·5–119·8, P = 0·02). Participants owning or working with livestock (n = 131) were additionally interviewed about livestock management practices during the previous 6 months: 53 (44%) of 121 respondents vaccinated livestock against anthrax; 19 (16%) of 116 moved livestock >1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.
The excavations of the cemetery groups at Balneaves, Loanleven and Park of Tongland facilitate an examination of many aspects of Bronze Age burial practices in Scotland. They are notable as much for the differences in burial ritual they imply as for the very narrow chronological period in which they were used. The three sites produced a total of seventeen 14C dates, two of which are aberrant, with means of the remaining fifteen falling within a period of 250 years (3370–3610 bp in radiocarbon years). The excavations were sponsored by Historic Scotland (formerly Historic Buildings and Monuments, Scotland).
At Balneaves, a penannular ditch enclosed sixteen features, including a group of seven pits with cremation burials, four of which were associated with a distinctive assemblage of collared urns. The cremated bone was well preserved. At least one large standing stone had been erected on the site, and this was buried in the medieval period.
At Loanleven, only a segment of the enclosing ring-ditch survived, within which were four cists, two containing inhumations and two cremations, one of the latter (Cist 2) associated with a fragment of a food vessel. A decorated slab, in so-called ‘Passage Grave Style’, was recovered from Cist 1, and the same cist produced palynological evidence for grave furnishings in the form of a mat of plant material which probably underlay the body. 14C dates give a terminus ante quem of 3620±50 bp (GU–2543) for the re-use of the decorated slab, and a terminus post quem of 3410±50 bp (GU–2542) for the food vessel grave.
Park of Tongland, regarded as a Four-Poster stone circle, was excavated after the fall of a standing stone. It was shown to be of multi-period construction, consisting of a cairn which overlay seven pits containing fragmentary cremation burials, two associated with collared urns. The standing stones may not all have been erect at the same time. A series of 14C dates fell within the range of 1480–1530 bc.
Prior studies have suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) with pre-adult onset represents a distinct subtype with greater symptom severity and higher rates of suicidal ideation. Whether these patients have poorer response to various types of antidepressant treatment than those with adult-onset MDD is unclear.
A total of 665 psychiatric and primary care out-patients (aged 18–75 years) with non-psychotic chronic or recurrent MDD participated in a single-blind, randomized trial that compared the efficacy of escitalopram plus placebo, bupropion sustained-release plus escitalopram, or venlafaxine extended-release plus mirtazapine. We compared participants who self-reported MDD onset (before age 18) to those with a later onset (adult onset) with respect to baseline characteristics and treatment/outcome variables at 12 and 28 weeks.
Early-onset chronic/recurrent MDD was associated with a distinct set of sociodemographic (female, younger age) and clinical correlates (longer duration of illness, greater number of prior episodes, greater likelihood of atypical features, higher rates of suicidality and psychiatric co-morbidity, fewer medical problems, poorer quality of life, greater history of child abuse/neglect). However, results from unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed no significant differences in response, remission, tolerability of medications, quality of life, or retention at 12 or 28 weeks.
Although early-onset chronic/recurrent MDD is associated with a more severe clinical picture, it does not seem to be useful for predicting differential treatment response to antidepressant medication. Clinicians should remain alert to an increased risk of suicidality in this population.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is commonly chronic and/or recurrent. We aimed to determine whether a chronic and/or recurrent course of MDD is associated with acute and longer-term MDD treatment outcomes.
This cohort study recruited out-patients aged 18–75 years with non-psychotic MDD from 18 primary and 23 psychiatric care clinics across the USA. Participants were grouped as: chronic (index episode >2 years) and recurrent (n=398); chronic non-recurrent (n=257); non-chronic recurrent (n=1614); and non-chronic non-recurrent (n=387). Acute treatment was up to 14 weeks of citalopram (⩽60 mg/day) with up to 12 months of follow-up treatment. The primary outcomes for this report were remission [16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Rated (QIDS-SR16) ⩽5] or response (⩾50% reduction from baseline in QIDS-SR16) and time to first relapse [first QIDS-SR16 by Interactive Voice Response (IVR) ⩾11].
Most participants (85%) had a chronic and/or recurrent course; 15% had both. Chronic index episode was associated with greater sociodemographic disadvantage. Recurrent course was associated with earlier age of onset and greater family histories of depression and substance abuse. Remission rates were lowest and slowest for those with chronic index episodes. For participants in remission entering follow-up, relapse was most likely for the chronic and recurrent group, and least likely for the non-chronic, non-recurrent group. For participants not in remission when entering follow-up, prior course was unrelated to relapse.
Recurrent MDD is the norm for out-patients, of whom 15% also have a chronic index episode. Chronic and recurrent course of MDD may be useful in predicting acute and long-term MDD treatment outcomes.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of baseline features and early post-baseline depressive symptom changes have clinical value in predicting out-patient non-response in depressed out-patients after 8 weeks of medication treatment.
We analysed data from the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes study for 447 participants with complete 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report (QIDS-SR16) ratings at baseline and at treatment weeks 2, 4 and 8. We used a multi-time point, recursive subsetting approach that included baseline features and changes in QIDS-SR16 scores from baseline to weeks 2 and 4, to identify non-responders (<50% reduction in QIDS-SR16) at week 8 with a pre-specified accuracy level.
Pretreatment clinical features alone were not clinically useful predictors of non-response after 8 weeks of treatment. Baseline to week 2 symptom change identified 48 non-responders (of which 36 were true non-responders). This approach gave a clinically meaningful negative predictive value of 0.75. Symptom change from baseline to week 4 identified 79 non-responders (of which 60 were true non-responders), achieving the same accuracy. Symptom change at both weeks 2 and 4 identified 87 participants (almost 20% of the sample) as non-responders with the same accuracy. More participants with chronic than non-chronic index episodes could be accurately identified by week 4.
Specific baseline clinical features combined with symptom changes by weeks 2–4 can provide clinically actionable results, enhancing the efficiency of care by personalizing the treatment of depression.
In a series of experiments on solid C60, the low-energy rotational dynamics of the molecules, the higher-energy vibrational spectra, and aspects of disorder in the static structure, have been studied. The nearly spherical shape of the C60 molecule, and the occurrence of an orientational phase transition at Tc=256 K, make the C60 solid an excellent system for investigations of orientational dynamics. Coherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering above Tc is described quantitatively by a rotational diffusion model. Below Tc, inelastic scattering froma soft librational mode is observed between 2 and 3 meV. Models of the strong, temperaturedependent diffuse scattering due to orientational disorder are discussed. Finally, measurements of the density of states for the intramolecular ( E ≥ 33 meV) vibrational modes are also presented.
The new high-resolution neutron powder diffractometer BT-1 at the NIST reactor has proven to be a powerful and versatile instrument in its first year of operation. With 32 detectors arranged at 5° intervals and a 12° 2θ scan range, powder diffraction patterns can be collected to 167° 2θ. There is a choice of three monochromator take-off angles (75°, 90°, and 120°) so that the peak-width minimum can be matched to the rf-spacing range that is most important for each sample; all choices have a wavelength close to 1.54 Å. Data can be collected on sample sizes ranging from 200 mg to 30 g. Temperatures of 0.3 K to 1400 K are routinely available, and a magnetic field of 7T can be applied with a superconducting magnet. Typical data collection times range from 1-12 hours depending upon sample size and desired resolution. Examples are given of a variety of materials applications.
Inelastic neutron scattering methods were used in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy to probe the vibrational density of states of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 134 (HF2C-CF2H) and 134a (F3C-CFH2) adsorbed in the cages of dehydrated Na-X zeolite. A comparison of the vibrational spectra of the encaged HFC species with those of their gas-phase analogs indicates that the HFCs adsorb nondissociatively at room temperature and are most likely associated with Na cations in the supercages at the SIII sites. Guest-host interactions are manifested by adsorption-induced perturbations of the gas-phase torsional and C-H stretching vibrations and the presence of additional features presumably due to low-energy whole-molecule vibrations and adsorbate-coupled zeolite framework vibrations. Moreover, although the 134 trans conformer is favored by 5 kJ/mole in the gas phase at 300 K, the gauche conformer seems to be more prevalent in the zeolite at this temperature and below. This suggests that a sizeable fraction of the Na-X adsorption sites provides a stabilizing configuration for the otherwise higher-energy gauche conformation, perhaps due to hydrogen-bonding interactions with the zeolite framework.
The growth and characterisation of a number of organic single crystals, e.g. benzil, 2–methyl–4– nitroaniline and 2–N,N–dimethylamino–5–nitroacetanilide, in silica capillary has become fairly well established over recent years. [1–6 ] However the growth of these same compounds in glass capillary with a much higher refractive index than silica has received little interest. Crystal cored fibres, ccf's, in which there is a close match of the refractive index of the cladding to that of the core allows the possibility of fabricating single mode waveguides with useful dimensions for crystal growth. There is a better overlap integral between phase matched fundamental and second harmonic modes in a low moded structure than in a structure with more allowable modes and thus a rise in the conversion efficiency can be expected if the correct dimensions of waveguide are chosen. If a ccf of high conversion efficiency, 10% at 0.1 mW average power, could be made then the promise of fabricating an organic optical nonlinear device, e.g. parametric amplifier, might be realised. In this paper we will describe how the growth method adopted for silica clad organic crystals has been adapted for their growth in a range of Schott glasses which are better matched in refractive index, RI, than silica to the organic material. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of these crystal cored fibres will be given in terms of; the orientation of the crystal axes with respect to the fibre direction; the sideways scattering characteristics from defects; the throughput of the fundamental beam; the polarisation states of both the fundamental and the second harmonic outputs; and the overall efficiency of second harmonic generation.
Incoherent, inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the vibrational spectra of tetramethylammonium montmorillonite and trimethylammonium vermiculite in the energy range 20–140 meV. For both systems peaks are observed due to the internal modes of the intercalate and to the excitations of the hydroxyl groups within the host layers. For the montmorillonite sample, it is found that the steric constraints imposed on the tetramethylammonium ion by the bounding clay layers contribute an additional 28 meV to the rotational barrier of the methyl groups. This additional barrier is shown to be strongly related to the volume that the tetramethylammonium ion occupies. For the trimethylammonium vermiculite sample normal mode analysis of the internal modes of the intercalated ion shows that the N-H bond is parallel to the c-axis of the host.
The density of hydrogen in thin films or multilayers of metal hydrides can be inferred from an expansion of the host lattice as measured by conventional x-ray diffraction techniques. However, because hydrogen and deuterium have scattering lengths for neutrons that are comparable to those of most metal nuclei, unlike the corresponding case for x-ray atomic scattering amplitudes, the hydrogen density profile normal to the surface of a flat, thin film can be determined directly from neutron reflectivity measurements. The hydrogen (deuterium) density modulation in an artificial superlattice along the growth direction can also be determined in this manner. The thin film or multilayer host metal material need not even be crystalline. Furthermore, because relatively large, flat single crystal substrates such as Si or quartz are nearly transparent to neutrons, the substrate can serve as the incident medium and the reflectivities of films or multilayers in contact with liquid solutions can be obtained. Thus, in situ studies employing active electrochemical cells, for example, can be performed. In addition to discussing the sensitivity of the method, the results of some neutron reflectivity experiments on metal multilayers and films, electrolytically loaded in situ with deuterium, are reported in this paper.
Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to characterize the vibrational spectroscopy below 220 meV of para-nitroaniline adsorbed in the molecular sieve ALPO-5. Samples at loadings of both 3 and 13 weight %, which represent the onset of and the maximum in the nonlinear optical properties respectively, were studied. The torsional vibration of the amino (NH2) group has been identified at ca. 50 meV. The splitting and structure of this mode is sensitive to the loading level. This can be related to differences in the nature of the hydrogen bonding in these materials.
A constricted-tube gas flow levitator first developed by Berge, Oran, and Theiss shows promise both as a spacepositioning device and as a levitator for ground-based work. We present results of laboratory studies which were designed to predict the behavior of the device in a low-g environment.
We report neutron diffraction measurements of orientational ordering, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the inter- and intra-molecular excitations, for the 6:5 annulene isomer (C3 symmetry) of C61H2. We confirm previous x-ray measurements which have shown that above 290K this isomer has an fcc structure, with the molecules orientationally disordered such that the methylene groups preferentially occupy “octahedral” sites. Below 290K, the diffraction pattern can be indexed on a simple cubic lattice, in direct analogy with the orientational ordering transition of C60. The observed low energy dynamics reflect this behavior. A peak corresponding to molecular librations is observed below the transition, at ∼2.5meV, while above the transition the peak collapses into a quasielastic line characteristic of rotational diffusion. The intramolecular spectra show several pronounced peaks. The assignments of these modes are discussed.