To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This book offers translations of ten rhetorical declamations of the fourth-century AD sophist Libanius of Antioch and some related texts, almost all appearing for the first time in a modern language. In these works the declaimer impersonates such mythological or historical figures as Poseidon, Paris, Achilles, and Orestes, either in court (as prosecutor or defendant) or by trying to persuade his audience to take a course of action. The texts illustrate the sophist's eloquence and had an educational purpose in the schools, but were also delivered before adult audiences. They also put the Hellenic past on display for audiences of the Greek East in the Roman Empire. The annotated translations are accompanied by analyses of their themes, structure, and argumentation.
This chapter presents an augmented theory of successful intelligence. Successful intelligence is (1) the ability to formulate, strive for, and, to the extent possible, achieve one’s goals in life, given one’s sociocultural context, (2) by capitalizing on strengths and correcting or compensating for weaknesses (3) in order to adapt to, shape, and select environments (4) through a combination of analytical, creative, and practical abilities. People who are successfully intelligent figure out what life opportunities are available or they can create, and then proceed to optimize on those opportunities. Successfully intelligent people figure out their strengths and weaknesses and then capitalize on the strengths and correct or compensate for their weaknesses.
In this chapter, I review the history of psychological accounts of intelligence in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. I open with an account of the thinking of Galton and Binet. Although Binet is often viewed as atheoretical, I show this not to be the case at all. I then discuss some of their successors, including Spearman, Thomson, Holzinger, Thurstone, Guilford, Guttman, Burt, Vernon, Cattell, Carroll, and Johnson and Bouchard.
In this chapter, I discuss the metaphors of mind that underlie researchers’ thinking about intelligence. I discuss the geographic, computational, biological, genetic-epistemological, sociological, anthropological, and systems metaphors. I point out some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various metaphors. I conclude by arguing that metaphors are not “right” or “wrong” but rather more or less useful for particular purposes. Sometimes, it is optimal even to mix metaphors to understand how different ways of understanding intelligence can be mutually enhancing.
This chapter poses some of the principal questions that will confront the future of intelligence research. Among these questions are (1) What is the role of the brain in intelligence and of intelligence-enhancing drugs upon the brain? (2) Does culture affect what intelligence is or just what it is conceived of as being? (3) What are the genetic bases of intelligence? (4) Can intelligence of individuals be meaningfully increased by environmental interventions? (5) Is high intelligence having negative as well as positive effects on the world, and what is to be done about it? (6) Will artificial intelligence ultimately be dangerous to the world? (7) What effects are social media and the Internet more generally having on both individual and collective intelligence? (8) Why are people who are so intelligent at times so lacking in rational and wise thinking? (9) Are there noncognitive (e.g., emotional, attitudinal, motivational) aspects of intelligence and, if so, what are they? (10) What kinds of environmental factors inadvertently decrease intelligence?