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A 141m ice core was recovered from Combatant Col (51.385° N, 125.258° W; 3000ma.s.l.), Mount Waddington, Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Records of black carbon, dust, lead and water stable isotopes demonstrate that unambiguous seasonality is preserved throughout the core, despite summer surface snowmelt and temperate ice. High accumulation rates at the site (>4 m ice eq. a-1) limit modification of annual stratigraphy by percolation of surface meltwater. The ice-core record spans the period 1973–2010. An annually averaged time series of lead concentrations from the core correlates well with historical records of lead emission from North America, and with ice-core records of lead from the Greenland ice sheet. The depth-age scale for the ice core provides sufficient constraint on the vertical strain to allow estimation of the age of the ice at bedrock. Total ice thickness at Combatant Col is ~250 m; an ice core to bedrock would likely contain ice in excess of 200 years in age. Accumulation at Combatant Col is significantly correlated with both regional precipitation and large-scale geopotential height anomalies.
We use optical (ASTER and Landsat) and radar (ERS-1 and ERS-2) satellite imagery to document changes in the Prince Gustav Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, and its tributary glaciers before and after its January 1995 collapse. The satellite image record captures the transition from an ice-shelf glacier system to a tidewater glacial system and the subsequent rapid retreat and inferred ‘fatal’ negative mass balances that occur as lower glacier elevations lead to higher ablation and tidewater-style calving collapse. Pre-1995 images show that the central ice shelf was fed primarily by Sjögren Glacier flowing from the Antarctic Peninsula and by Röhss Glacier flowing from James Ross Island. Numerous structural discontinuities (rifts and crevasses) and melt ponds were present on the ice shelf before the collapse. After the ice shelf collapsed, Röhss Glacier retreated rapidly, becoming a tidewater glacier in 2002 and receding a total of ∼15 km between January 2001 and March 2009, losing >70% of its area. Topographic profiles of Röhss Glacier from ASTER-derived digital elevation models show a thinning of up to ∼150 m, and surface speeds increased up to ninefold (0.1–0.9 m d−1) over the same period. The rates of speed increase and elevation loss, however, are not monotonic; both rates slowed between late 2002 and 2005, accelerated in 2006 and slowed again in 2008–09. We conclude that tributary glaciers react to ice-shelf removal by rapid (if discontinuous) recession, and that the response of tidewater glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula to ice-shelf removal occurs over timescales ranging from sub-annual to decadal.
Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion.
Data were extracted from an anonymised database comprising the electronic medical records of patients within a large South London mental health trust. Two cohorts were derived, (1) a PICU cohort comprising all patients transferred from general adult acute wards to a non-forensic PICU ward between April 2008 and April 2013 (N = 986) and a randomly selected group of patients admitted to general adult wards within this period who were not transferred to PICU (N = 994), and (2) a seclusion cohort comprising all seclusion episodes occurring in non-forensic PICU wards within the study period (N = 990) and a randomly selected group of patients treated in these wards who were not secluded (N = 1032). Demographic and clinical factors (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis, admission status and time since admission) and behavioural precursors (potentially relevant behaviours occurring in the 3 days preceding PICU transfer/seclusion or random sample date) were extracted from electronic medical records. Mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed with all variables included as predictors.
PICU cases were significantly more likely to be younger in age, have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and to be held on a formal section compared with patients who were not transferred to PICU; female sex and longer time since admission were associated with lower odds of transfer. With regard to behavioural precursors, the strongest predictors of PICU transfer were incidents of physical aggression towards others or objects and absconding or attempts to abscond. Secluded patients were also more likely to be younger and legally detained relative to non-secluded patients; however, female sex increased the odds of seclusion. Likelihood of seclusion also decreased with time since admission. Seclusion was significantly associated with a range of behavioural precursors with the strongest associations observed for incidents involving restraint or shouting.
Whilst recent behaviour is an important determinant, patient age, sex, admission status and time since admission also contribute to risk of PICU transfer and seclusion. Alternative, less coercive strategies must meet the needs of patients with these characteristics.
This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15–16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18–25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental–relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether five subcomponents of children's externalizing behavior showed distinctive patterns of long-term growth and predictive correlates. We examined growth in teachers' ratings of overt aggression, covert aggression, oppositional defiance, impulsivity/inattention, and emotion dysregulation across three developmental periods spanning kindergarten through Grade 8 (ages 5–13 years). We also determined whether three salient background characteristics, family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity, and child gender, differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 543 kindergarten-age children (52% male, 81% European American, 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers each successive year of development through Grade 8. Latent growth curve analyses were performed for each component scale, contrasting with overall externalizing, in a piecewise fashion encompassing three developmental periods: kindergarten–Grade 2, Grades 3–5, and Grades 6–8. We found that most subconstructs of externalizing behavior increased significantly across the early school age period relative to middle childhood and early adolescence. However, overt aggression did not show early positive growth, and emotion dysregulation significantly increased across middle childhood. Advantages of using subscales were most clear in relation to illustrating different growth functions between the discrete developmental periods. Moreover, growth in some discrete subcomponents was differentially associated with variations in family socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Our findings strongly affirmed the necessity of adopting a developmental approach to the analysis of growth in children's externalizing behavior and provided unique data concerning similarities and differences in growth between subconstructs of child and adolescent externalizing behavior.
Oral mucositis is common for patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Despite the significant detrimental sequelae associated, there is no consensus on the optimum mouth care regimen. This prospective audit aims to record mucositis and dysphagia toxicity and the level of analgesia prescribed when recent products: MuGard™, Caphosol® and Episil® are compared with our standard departmental mouth care regimen.
Patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced SCCHN at University Hospital Birmingham, UK were prospectively audited weekly for 8 consecutive weeks starting from week 1 of chemoradiotherapy from June 2009 until January 2011. Patients received either standard oral care regimen of aspirin, glycerin and sucralfate, or, MuGard™, Caphosol® or Episil®. Grade of mucositis, dysphagia and analgesia score were prospectively recorded using the common toxicity criteria v3·0.
One hundred and four patients were included. There was no difference in the grade and duration of mucositis (p = 0·82), dysphagia (p = 0·99) or analgesia score (p = 0·61) for either MuGard™, Caphosol® or Episil® compared with standard oral care.
There is no evidence from this audit that Mugard™, Caphosol® or Episil® improves mucositis and dysphagia toxicity or the level of analgesia prescribed compared with our standard departmental mouth care regimen. Randomised trials comparing these approaches are required to detect any meaningful clinical benefit.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ANX) are debilitating and prevalent conditions that often co-occur in adolescence and young adulthood. The leading theoretical models of their co-morbidity include the direct causation model and the shared etiology model. The present study compared these etiological models of MDD–ANX co-morbidity in a large, prospective, non-clinical sample of adolescents tracked through age 30.
Logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between ANX and MDD at Time 1 (T1). In prospective analyses, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine T1 predictors of subsequent disorder onset, including risk factors specific to each disorder or common to both disorders. Prospective predictive effect of a lifetime history of one disorder (e.g. MDD) on the subsequent onset of the second disorder (e.g. ANX) was then examined. This step was repeated while controlling for common risk factors.
The findings supported relatively distinct profiles of risk between MDD and ANX depending on order of development. Whereas the shared etiology model best explained co-morbid cases in which MDD preceded ANX, direct causation was supported for co-morbid cases in which ANX preceded MDD.
Consistent with previous research, significant cross-sectional and prospective associations were found between MDD and ANX. The results of the present study suggest that different etiological models may characterize the co-morbidity between MDD and ANX based upon the temporal order of onset. Implications for classification and prevention efforts are discussed.
BNFL owns and operates the UK's principal solid Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, north west England. Drigg has been receiving waste since 1959 with approximately 900,000 m3 of waste disposed of to date. Waste accepted for disposal at Drigg comes in a variety of forms including rubble, spoil, redundant equipment, scrap and process waste, and typically contains significant metallic and cellulosic components. The organic content of the waste means that microbial activity plays a significant role in the development of the repository environment. Consequently, microbial processes are integrated into many aspects of the Drigg Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA). This begins with the identification and screening of relevant features, events and processes, through supporting research, engineering designs and finally integration into radiological safety assessment modelling. This paper outlines how and where microbiology is integrated into the Drigg PCRSA and indicates areas of active research.
Using ellipsometric analysis, the complex index of refraction of lowenergy, hydrogen ion bombarded,  single-crystal silicon was measured as a function of distance from the bombarded surface. The bombardment conditions were a 1600 eV hydrogen beam produced by a Kaufman ion source, 1.4 mA/cm2 flux, 2 × 1018 ions/cm2 fluence and 275°C bulk silicon temperature. These conditions are comparable to the conditions generally reported to result in a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline silicon solar cell material. The results of this study indicate that the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the ion bombarded surface region approach that of the unbombarded substrate at a depth of 50 nm. The refractive index of about the first 10 nm of ion bombarded material is strongly dependent on the bombardment conditions. Variations in the imaginary part of the refractive index indicate that approximately 10% of incident radiation is absorbed by the first 50 nm of modified material.
.We report the growth and magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe films, prepared by MBE on films of GaAs and In0.2Ga0.8As, on GaAs (100) substrates. We find that the magnetic properties of the Fe films, which are in the thickness range 300-900Å have virtually no dependence on the nature of the buffer film between the GaAs substrate and the Fe film. In terms of FMR linewidth, 4πMs and anisotropy, the Fe films are of the highest quality yet reported. Values of exchange constant and surface anisotropies were derived from an analysis of spinwaves observed in the thickest films.
For thin (Ga1−xInx)As films on GaAs (100) substrates we have measured the phonon frequencies (Raninn technique) and the strains (x-ray rocking curve technique). The films range from perfect epitaxial (the thinner films) to those that have relaxed by different amounts (thicker films). Using the measured strains and the phonon deformation constants, the strain-induced frequency shift was calculated for each sample. From the measurements and calculation, we find that the frequency shifts due to strain give equivalent bulk phonon frequencies that are in good agreement with each other. This indicates that the Raman technique can be used for in-situ monitoring of the growth process.
The elastic strain in 2 MeV He ion-bombarded pseudomorphic or lattice-relaxd GaInAs is found to vary by 13% over tlhe beam dose range, 5x1012 - 5×1015 cm-2, with a minimum at 5×1013 cm-2. The data suggest a beam-induced annealing effect at lower doses and the build-up of radiation damage at higher doses, which are also indicated by the phonon line shift data. The phonon shift and the elastic strain in lattice-relaxed GaInAs, bombarded with 15 MeV Cl ions, are approximately the same as in an ion-bombarded bulk GaAs. The lattice mismatch in parallel constant decreases for a sample with a lower misfit and increases for a sample with higher misfit with increasing beam dose. The phonon shift in a pseudomorphic GaInAs bombarded with 15 MeV Cl ions is smaller than in the relaxed samples by a factor of two.
The influence of metallization and processing on Schottky barrier formation provides the basis for one of several fruitful approaches for controlling junction electronic properties. Interface cathodo-and photoluminescence measurements reveal that electrically-active deep levels form on GaAs(100) surfaces and metal interfaces which depend on thermally-driven surface stoichiometry and reconstruction, chemical interaction, as well as surface misorientation and bulk crystal quality. These interface states are discrete and occur at multiple gap energies which can account for observed band bending. Characteristic trends in such deep level emission with interface processing provide guides for optimizing interface electronic behavior. Correspondingly, photoemission and internal photoemission spectroscopy measurements indicate self-consistent changes in barrier heights which may be heterogeneous and attributable to interface chemical reactions observed on a monolayer scale. These results highlight the multiple roles of atomic-scale structure in forming macroscopic electronic properties of compound semiconductor-metal junctions.
We have used a variety of characterization techniques including electron spin resonance (ESR), photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), ellipsometry, and I–V and C-V analysis to study silicon samples damaged by 500–1500 eV Ar ions from a Kaufman ion source. In agreement with our ballistic penetration calculations, PDS and ellipsometry data show that the majority of the lattice damage lies within 40Å of the surface. The ellipsometry results are well modelled as a thin, damage-induced layer of a- Si with a high (4.63) refractive index, while the PDS measurements show an Urbach-like subgap adsorptance tail. In addition to Schottky barrier height alterations produced by Ar bombardment, we also observe marked changes in electrically active dopant densities in boron doped silicon samples. C-V analyses show that these changes extend quite far (1–2 μm) into the sample and are readily removed by a mild (150°C) thermal anneal. Hydrogen, injected from surface adsorbed H2O or hydrocarbons, appears to be the source of these effects. We will also discuss our upper limit estimate of 1013 “dangling bond” spins/cm2 for our damaged samples in light of prior ESR observations on similarly treated surfaces.
MoSi2, (γ-NiAl and TiAl with Cr additions are of interest for high temperature applications in oxidizing environments, where an oxide layer such as SiO2 or Al2O3 should form to protect the base material. At elevated temperatures (600-1700°C), a protective SiO2 layer forms on MoSi2, while near 500°C pesting and/or accelerated oxidation could disintegrate the material to powder as Mo and Si oxidize to form a complex, thick, non-protective oxide layer. Use of γ -TiAl is limited by poor oxidation resistance, whereby layered mixed oxides of TiO2 and Al2O3 form. With the addition of Cr from 4 to 34 at%, results are varied: protective Al2O3 formation, mixed oxide formation as with TiAl or more rapid oxidation than TiAl. NiAl is currently used as a diffusion coating on Ni-based superalloys and is being considered for use as a structural material itself because of its excellent oxidation resistance, i.e. forming α-alumina above 1000°C. Recent work indicates that pure NiAl oxidized under low oxygen partial pressures in a contained atmosphere develops nonprotective oxide scales similar to accelerated oxidation of MoSi2. This study explores the parameters defining protective behavior of these intermetallics and attempts to describe and explain anomalies at low temperatures and pressures.
A molecular adaptor for interfacing environmentally sensitive, soluble polymers and antibody molecules has been developed. The gene coding for the minimally sized, 55 amino acid IgG binding domain from protein G has been constructed by total gene synthesis. This domain is thermally stable, exhibits a highly reversible folding and unfolding equilibrium, and recognizes IgG and Fab molecules with high affinity. These properties make the protein G domain a potentially useful adaptor for non-covalent immobilization of antibodies to soluble polymers and hydrogels. Engineered single-chain Fv antibody fragments have also been constructed and a method for expanding the usefulness of the protein G adaptor to these molecules is proposed. The engineered antibodies also provide a model system for developing general immobilization strategies aimed at maximizing binding affinities and therapeutic responses. The overall goal is to develop optimized engineering designs for functionally optimized antibody-material hybrids.
The biogeochemical processes controlling release of radionuclides from solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposed at the Drigg site have been represented in a computational model in order to determine the effects of varying major element chemical parameters and solubility limits of radionuclides. The model is used to provide a source term for radiological safety assessment calculations for the groundwater pathway. Site data has been compared to the results for the initial stages of the model in order to build confidence in the conceptual and mathematical model used to derive the source term for 234U, the key dose contributor, and other radionuclides which are influenced by the biogeochemical processes. Measured aqueous concentrations of radionuclides whose release from LLW is sorption controlled are compared to the model results as a basis to discuss the uncertainty in sorption input parameters used.
To develop and evaluate a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) with the widely used Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) based on the method developed for use with the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrient Dietary Data System (FNDDS) and MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED).
Non-institutionalized, community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and above.
Two hundred and seventy-one adults participating in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) and 620 age- and race-matched adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2002 (NHANES) were included in the analysis. The HEI-2005 scores were generated using NDSR in GRAS and compared to scores generated using FNDDS and MPED in NHANES.
Similar total HEI-2005 scores (mean 62·0 (se 0·75) in GRAS v. 57·4 (se 0·55) in NHANES) were estimated, and the individual components most strongly correlated with total score in both samples were compared. Cronbach’s coefficient α values of HEI-2005 were 0·52 in GRAS and 0·43 in NHANES.
Since NDSR is commonly used for educational purposes, in clinical settings and in nutrition research, it is important to develop methodology for assessing diet quality through the use of HEI-2005 with this dietary analysis software application and its accompanying food and nutrient database. Results from the present study show that HEI-2005 scores can be generated with NDSR using the method described in the present study and the detailed USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion technical report as guidance.