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The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13’ N, 50°30’W), was delineated, first using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor k describing the relative importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. Themeltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard DEMs were found to be inadequate for delineation purposes, whereas delineations from high-resolution data were found to be very sensitive to changes in k in a non-linear way, causing a factor 5 change of basin area, corresponding to a doubling of the modelled runoff. The 50% standard deviation of the measured basin run-off could thus be explained by small year-to-year variations of the k-factor.
Assuming a channelized drainage system in steady state, we investigate the influence of enhanced surface melting on the water pressure in subglacial channels, compared to that of changes in conduit geometry, ice rheology and catchment variations. The analysis is carried out for a specific part of the western Greenland ice-sheet margin between 66° N and 66°30′N using new high-resolution digital elevation models of the subglacial topography and the ice-sheet surface, based on an airborne ice-penetrating radar survey in 2003 and satellite repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis of European Remote-sensing Satellite 1 and 2 (ERS-1/-2) imagery, respectively. The water pressure is calculated up-glacier along a likely subglacial channel at distances of 1, 5 and 9 km from the outlet at the ice margin, using a modified version of Röthlisberger’s equation. Our results show that for the margin of the western Greenland ice sheet, the water pressure in subglacial channels is not sensitive to realistic variations in catchment size and mean surface water input compared to small changes in conduit geometry and ice rheology.
Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.
During the past three years observational and theoretical work has been uncommonly extensive and fruitful in two of the fields within the interests of Commission 28—namely, the distribution of external galaxies and the analysis of diffuse nebulosity, the latter including interstellar absorbing material. Important work is also under way at a number of observatories in the interpretation of planetary nebulae. Studies of clusters, however, have been limited to a few active workers, and progress has not been rapid in the analysis of individual galaxies.
During the past three years the measurement of stellar radial velocities has formed an important part of the spectroscopic programme of most observatories possessing large telescopes. As observations are carried to fainter and fainter stars and the number of observable objects increases rapidly, a natural development has been the selection of special groups and types of stars, the radial velocities of which will aid in the solution of certain specific problems. Illustrations are the studies of the O, B and A type stars made at the Dominion Astrophysical, the Lick, and the Simeis Observatories, of the members of the galactic clusters at the Lick Observatory, and of the fainter Cepheid variables and early-type stars with strong interstellar lines at the Mount Wilson Observatory.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be delivered efficaciously through various modalities, including telephone (T-CBT) and face-to-face (FtF-CBT). The purpose of this study was to explore predictors of outcome in T-CBT and FtF-CBT for depression.
A total of 325 depressed participants were randomized to receive eighteen 45-min sessions of T-CBT or FtF-CBT. Depression severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were conducted with baseline participant demographics and psychological characteristics predicting depression outcomes, HAMD and PHQ-9, at end of treatment (week 18).
The demographic and psychological characteristics accurately identified 85.3% and 85.0% of treatment responders and 85.7% and 85.0% of treatment non-responders on the HAMD and PHQ-9, respectively. The Coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale predicted outcome on both the HAMD and PHQ-9; those with moderate to high CSE were likely to respond with no other variable influencing that prediction. Among those with low CSE, depression severity influenced response. Social support, physical functioning, and employment emerged as predictors only for the HAMD, and sex predicted response on the PHQ-9. Treatment delivery method (i.e. telephone or face-to-face) did not impact the prediction of outcome.
Findings suggest that the predictors of improved depression are similar across treatment modalities. Most importantly, a moderate to high level of CSE significantly increases the chance of responding in both T-CBT and FtF-CBT. Among patients with low CSE, those with lower depressive symptom severity are more likely to do well in treatment.
On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.
We generalize several results of the classical theory of thermodynamic formalism by considering a compact metric space
as the state space. We analyze the shift acting on
and consider a general a priori probability for defining the transfer (Ruelle) operator. We study potentials
which can depend on the infinite set of coordinates in
. We define entropy and by its very nature it is always a non-positive number. The concepts of entropy and transfer operator are linked. If
is not a finite set there exist Gibbs states with arbitrary negative value of entropy. Invariant probabilities with support in a fixed point will have entropy equal to minus infinity. In the case
, and the a priori measure is Lebesgue
, the infinite product of
will have zero entropy. We analyze the Pressure problem for a Hölder potential
and its relation with eigenfunctions and eigenprobabilities of the Ruelle operator. Among other things we analyze the case where temperature goes to zero and we show some selection results. Our general setting can be adapted in order to analyze the thermodynamic formalism for the Bernoulli space with countable infinite symbols. Moreover, the so-called
model also fits under our setting. In this last case
is the unitary circle
. We explore the differentiable structure of
by considering a certain class of smooth potentials and we show some properties of the corresponding main eigenfunctions.
At the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a new type of refractive X-ray optics has been developed. Owing to its comparably easy fabrication method and the large aperture, the so-called Rolled X-ray Prism Lenses (RXPL) have the potential to be used with X-ray tubes in an industrial environment as a low-cost alternative to existing optics. The lens itself is built out of a micro-structured foil which is cut into shape and rolled around a winding core to form a refracting element for X-rays. The resulting refractive structure can be used as illumination optics. Diffractometry experiments with an NIST 1976a sample were performed and showed up to an 18-fold enhanced integrated intensity compared to that acquired with a steel tube collimator.
Stressful life events have long been suspected to contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The few studies examining the relationship between stressful events and neuroimaging markers have been small and inconsistent. This study examined whether different types of stressful events and perceived stress could predict the development of brain lesions.
This was a secondary analysis of 121 patients with MS followed for 48 weeks during a randomized controlled trial comparing stress management therapy for MS (SMT-MS) to a waitlist control (WLC). Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans every 8 weeks. Every month, patients completed an interview measure assessing stressful life events and self-report measures of perceived stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, which were used to predict the presence of gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) and T2 lesions on MRI scans 29–62 days later. Participants classified stressful events as positive or negative. Negative events were considered ‘major’ if they involved physical threat or threat to the patient's family structure, and ‘moderate’ otherwise.
Positive stressful events predicted decreased risk for subsequent Gd+ lesions in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.53 for each additional positive stressful event, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.91] and less risk for new or enlarging T2 lesions regardless of group assignment (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55–0.99). Across groups, major negative stressful events predicted Gd+ lesions (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.18–2.64) and new or enlarging T2 lesions (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11–2.23) whereas moderate negative stressful events, perceived stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms did not.
Major negative stressful events predict increased risk for Gd+ and T2 lesions whereas positive stressful events predict decreased risk.
The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.36, I2 = 0%, 95% CI 0–58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00–12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.
Site measurements were collected at Mount John University Observatory in 2005 and 2007 using a purpose-built scintillation detection and ranging system. C2N(h) profiling indicates a weak layer located at 12–14 km above sea level and strong low altitude turbulence extending up to 5 km. During calm weather conditions, an additional layer was detected at 6–8 km above sea level. V(h) profiling suggests that tropopause layer velocities are nominally 12–30m s−1, and near-ground velocities range between 2 and 20m s−1, dependent on weather. Little seasonal variation was detected in either C2N(h) and V(h) profiles. The average coherence length, r0, was found to be 7±1 cm for the full profile at a wavelength of 589 nm. The average isoplanatic angle, θ0, was 1.0±0.1 arcsec. The mean turbulence altitude, , was found to be 2.0±0.7 km above sea level. No average in the Greenwood frequency, fG, could be established due to the gaps present in the V(h) profiles obtained. A modified Hufnagel-Valley model was developed to describe the C2N(h) profiles at Mount John, which estimates r0 at 6 cm and θ0 at 0.9 arcsec. A series of V(h) models were developed, based on the Greenwood wind model with an additional peak located at low altitudes. Using the C2N(h) model and the suggested V(h) model for moderate ground wind speeds, fG is estimated at 79 Hz.
Vigorous Carboniferous extensional tectonism and associated igneous activity is a feature of Ireland and the neighbouring areas of Newfoundland and Britain. In West Connacht, Ireland, dolerite dikes of late Carboniferous age are newly recognised and distinguished from Tertiary dolerites. In the N, the 320 Ma-old Logmor dike trends N–S across the Ordovician South Mayo Trough, and has an evolved, mildly alkaline basalt geochemistry. In the S, in Connemara, a diffuse and arcuate swarm of ENE–NE trending, 305 Ma-old dolerite dikes, the Teach Doite swarm, cuts the Galway Granite batholith and its envelope of Dalradian gneisses. These more tholeiitic dolerites reveal the mineralogical and geochemical effects of varying degrees of pervasive hydrothermal alteration, imposed on an original magmatic composition similar to that of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Variscan overprinting on k–Ar ages from West Connacht dolerites clusters at 300, 245 and 205 Ma. Overprinting is also a feature of much of the Galway Granite. Carboniferous diking in West Connacht may have responded to nascent opening of the proximate North Atlantic, its pattern related to domal uplift adjacent to the rifted zone.
The data base for compounds produced during long-term corrosion of iron and copper objects is reviewed. Compounds are identified that occur in long-term but not in short-term corrosion. Where possible, the formation of these compounds is explained or at least rationalized. An effort is made to discriminate those compounds whose formation depends on microbiological action from those forming abiotically.
A vacuum UV-photo-CVD reactor for direct decomposition of Si2H6, SiH4, GeH4, and B2H6 for a-Si:H, a-Ge:H, and a-SiGe:H deposition has been operated with a large area dielectric-barrier discharge lamp emitting excimer radiation of Xe (7.3eV), Kr (8.6eV), or Ar (9.8eV).
It is shown that the deposition process (Si2H6 or GeH4 at 0.5 mbar) is governed by the diffusion of long-lifetime radicals.
High quality undoped and p-type doped a-Si:H has been deposited from Si2H6 and B2H6 with the Xe lamp spectrum (σph/σ≈106 at Eg=1.9eV) and film growth rates of up to 5 nm/min have been achieved.
We have studied the spectral dependence of various types of amorphous silicon-germanium (a-Si:Ge) alloy p-i-n solar cells in which the band gap of the intrinsic (i) layer is profiled between 1.4 and 1.7 eV. It is observed that the cell performance depends critically on the shape of the profile, especially for red-light illumination where the device output is found to vary by more than a factor of two. We have correlated the experimental data with optical absorption and dynamic internal collection efficiency (DICE) measurements. We have also fabricated two-cell tandem and three-cell triple devices by incorporating a-Si:Ge alloy with multiple band-gap profiles in the bottom cell and achieved 13.0% and 13.7% conversion efficiencies, respectively. These are the highest efficiency amorphous silicon-based alloy solar cells reported to date.