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The field of psychiatry would benefit significantly from developing objective biomarkers that could facilitate the early identification of heterogeneous subtypes of illness. Critically, although machine learning pattern recognition methods have been applied recently to predict many psychiatric disorders, these techniques have not been utilized to predict subtypes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD + DS).
Using Multiclass Gaussian Process Classification within PRoNTo, we examined the classification accuracy of: (i) the mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mALFF; reflecting spontaneous neural activity during rest); and (ii) seed-based amygdala complex functional connectivity within 181 participants [PTSD (n = 81); PTSD + DS (n = 49); and age-matched healthy trauma-unexposed controls (n = 51)]. We also computed mass-univariate analyses in order to observe regional group differences [false-discovery-rate (FDR)-cluster corrected p < 0.05, k = 20].
We found that extracted features could predict accurately the classification of PTSD, PTSD + DS, and healthy controls, using both resting-state mALFF (91.63% balanced accuracy, p < 0.001) and amygdala complex connectivity maps (85.00% balanced accuracy, p < 0.001). These results were replicated using independent machine learning algorithms/cross-validation procedures. Moreover, areas weighted as being most important for group classification also displayed significant group differences at the univariate level. Here, whereas the PTSD + DS group displayed increased activation within emotion regulation regions, the PTSD group showed increased activation within the amygdala, globus pallidus, and motor/somatosensory regions.
The current study has significant implications for advancing machine learning applications within the field of psychiatry, as well as for developing objective biomarkers indicative of diagnostic heterogeneity.
Previous studies have shown that the interaction between limiting vitamin A (VA) and an alcohol dehydrogenase 1 C (ADH1C) variant in beef cattle results in increased intramuscular fat in the longissimus thoracis muscle in one genotype when fed low dietary VA. Although quality grade is important for increased profitability and improving taste characteristics of beef products, limiting VA too drastically can impair animal welfare. The objectives of this study were to determine if this marker-assisted management strategy would be effective, and whether any impairment in immune function would occur in a feedlot setting. Mixed breed beef steers (n=2000) were sorted into 40 feedlot pens so that all combinations of ADH1C genotype (TT or CT), VA level (50% or 100% of recommended) and hormonal implant status (implanted (IMP) or non-implanted (NI)) were equally represented within the population. The VA×ADH1C interaction was not observed. An implant status × ADH1C interaction was observed with average daily gain (ADG; P=0.03). Steers that were IMP and CT had higher ADG than IMP TT (CT=1.69 and TT=1.62 kg/day), whereas both genotypes in the NI steers were lower (CT=1.29 and TT=1.32 kg/day). Implant status was shown to affect dry matter intake (DMI; IMP=8.55 and NI=7.87 kg; P<0.01), total days-on-feed (IMP=164.4 and NI 210.5 days; P<0.01), USDA yield grade (YIELD; IMP=2.40 and NI=2.77; P<0.01), marbling score (MARB; IMP=392 and NI=455; P<0.01), longissimus thoracis area (LTA; IMP=85.0 and NI=80.7 cm2; P=0.01) and backfat thickness (FAT; IMP=8.0 and NI 10.0 mm; P<0.01). Overall, IMP animals finished on fewer total days-on-feed with higher ADG, DMI, larger LTA, and lower YIELD, MARB and FAT. To investigate immune function parameters, crossbred steers (n=18) were selected from a prior feeding trial so that all combinations of ADH1C (TT, CT and CC) and VA (25% or 75%) were equally represented. Blood cell count analysis and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulation assays were conducted. None of these immune parameters were affected by VA level. Treatment and mortality records were examined in the 2000 steer population, where no correlations with ADH1C, implant status or VA level were observed. Due to no VA × ADH1C interaction, this nutrigenetic marker-assisted management strategy is not effective at this time in commercial beef cattle feedlots, however, supplementing VA at a level as low as 25% of recommended in finishing rations would likely not result in signs of immune dysfunction.
Oat hulls are a byproduct of the oat processing industry. Nutritionally, oat hulls are high in fiber, low in protein and are comparable to cereal straw as a feedstuff. As such, they are only suitable for ruminant feed. Due to the large supply, it is economically important to improve the nutritional qualities of this byproduct. Oat hulls contain hydroxycinnamic acids, which are covalently cross-linked to polysaccharides by ester bonds and to components of lignin mainly by ether bonds. These cross-links are a barrier to biodegradation and limit cell-wall degradability by rumen microorganisms. It is believed that these hydroxycinamic acids are among the factors most inhibitory to the biodegradability of plant cell wall polysaccharides.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a debilitating disorder (1). Based on neuromotor impairments it is divided to spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic types (2). Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs), monogenic and chromosomal disorders mimic CP (3). We aimed to identify causal genetic variants in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP in whom known IEMs were ruled out. Timely diagnosis is essential for proper management, especially in conditions that mimic CP and are treatable. Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with unexplained atypical dyskinetic CP, for whole exome sequencing. Variants were filtered against public and in-house databases to identify variants predicted as damaging (in silico tools and ACMG criteria). We applied a virtual gene panel of known and suspected CP and movement disorder genes and investigated each sample. Results: The participants presented with symptoms including: spasticity, dystonia, choera-athetosis, ataxia and cognitive delays. We identified 23 diagnoses: 13 dominant,6 recessive and 4 X-linked. 12 patients had movement disorders. In 4, the diagnoses enabled targeted treatment (neurotransmitter supplements in Unverricht Lundborg diseases (CSTB) and PAK3 deficiency, deep brain stimulation in GNAO1 deficiency, medical diet in Glutaric Aciduria (GCDH). Conclusions: Whole Exome Sequencing contributes to establishing diagnosis in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP resulting in precision medicine and improved health outcomes.
The great grig, Cyphoderris monstrosa Uhler (Orthoptera: Prophalangopsidae), is a large (20–30 mm, >1 g), nocturnal ensiferan that inhabits montane coniferous forests in northwestern North America. Cyphoderris monstrosa overwinters as a late instar nymphs, but its cold tolerance strategy has not previously been reported. We collected nymphs from near Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada in late spring to determine their cold tolerance strategy. Cyphoderris monstrosa nymphs were active at low temperatures until they froze at −4.6±0.3 °C. The nymphs survived internal ice formation (i.e., are freeze tolerant), had a lethal temperature between −9 °C and −12 °C, and could survive for between five and 10 days at −6 °C. Isolated C. monstrosa gut, Malpighian tubules, and metafemur muscle tissues froze at temperatures similar to whole nymphs, and likely inoculate freezing in vivo. Hemolymph osmolality was 358±51 mOsm, with trehalose and proline comprising ~10% of that total. Glycerol was not detectable in hemolymph from field-fresh nymphs, but accumulated after freezing and thawing. The control of ice formation and presence of hemolymph cryoprotectants may contribute to C. monstrosa freeze tolerance and overwintering survival.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
Previously, the single nucleotide polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1C c.-64T>C) was shown to have an association with intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle when vitamin A was limited in finishing rations of beef steers. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum vitamin A supplementation level, in combination with ADH1C genotype, to increase IMF of the LT muscle. In total, 45 TT genotype, 45 CT and 27 CC Black Angus crossbred steers were backgrounded on a commercial ration containing 3360 IU vitamin A/kg dry matter (DM). During finishing, the steers were randomly assigned to one of three vitamin A treatments at 25%, 50% and 75% of the National Research Council recommendation of 2200 IU/kg DM. Treatments were administered via an oral bolus. Carcass quality was evaluated and a sample from the LT muscle was collected for analysis of IMF. A treatment×genotype interaction (P=0.04) was observed for IMF; TT steers on the 75% treatment had higher IMF relative to CT and CC steers on the same treatment. Western blot analysis showed that TT steers had higher (P=0.02) ADH1C protein expression in hepatic tissue. Previously, TT steers exhibited increased IMF when fed limited vitamin A. In the current study, the lack of variation in IMF between treatments and genotypes at the lower vitamin A treatment levels was likely due to the majority of the steers grading Canada AAA (USDA Choice). However, the western blot data supports that TT steers are expected to have higher IMF deposition, due to an increased production of ADH1C. The interaction between ADH1C genotype and vitamin A supplementation level has the potential for use in marker-assisted management programs to target niche markets based on increased marbling.
The PULSE@Parkes project has been designed to monitor the rotation of radio pulsars over time spans of days to years. The observations are obtained using the Parkes 64-m and 12-m radio telescopes by Australian and international high school students. These students learn the basis of radio astronomy and undertake small projects with their observations. The data are fully calibrated and obtained with the state-of-the-art pulsar hardware available at Parkes. The final data sets are archived and are currently being used to carry out studies of 1) pulsar glitches, 2) timing noise, 3) pulse profile stability over long time scales and 4) the extreme nulling phenomenon. The data are also included in other projects such as gamma-ray observatory support and for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. In this paper we describe the current status of the project and present the first scientific results from the Parkes 12-m radio telescope. We emphasise that this project offers a straightforward means to enthuse high school students and the general public about radio astronomy while obtaining scientifically valuable data sets.
In 1994, the New South Wales Board of Studies, Australia, introduced three high level Distinction Courses for gifted and talented students: Comparative Literature, Cosmology, and Philosophy. All are offered by distance education but the cosmology course employs an interactive design model and an extensive communication system that differentiates it from the other two. This paper explains the model and the way it is used in practice to organise, sequence and deliver the course. A discussion addresses ways in which the model might be used to design a wider range of courses in science for gifted and talented students.
V- and I-band observations were taken over 9 months to study the RR Lyrae population in the metal-poor diffuse globular cluster NGC 6101. We identify one new variable, which is either a potential long-period red giant variable or eclipsing binary, and recover all previously identified RR Lyraes. One previously studied RR Lyrae is reclassified as an RRc type, while two period estimations have been significantly refined. We confirm that NGC6101 is Oosterhoff type II with a high ratio of n(c)/n(ab + c) = 0.833 with a very long mean RRab period of 0.86 d. By using theoretical RRLyrae period-luminosity-metallicity relations, we use our V- and I-band RR Lyrae data to gain an independent estimate of the reddening towards this cluster of E(B − V) = 0.15 ± 0.04 and derive a distance of 12.8 ± 0.8 kpc. The majority of the work in this study was undertaken by upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project in Australia.
We present new imaging data and archival multiwavelength observations of the little-studied emission nebula K 1-6 and its central star. Narrow-band images inHα (+[N II]) and [O III] taken with the Faulkes Telescope North reveal a stratified, asymmetric, elliptical nebula surrounding a central star which has the colours of a late G or early K-type subgiant or giant. GALEX ultraviolet images reveal a very hot subdwarf or white dwarf coincident in position with this star. The cooler, optically dominant star is strongly variable with a period of 21.312± 0.008 days, and is possibly a high-amplitude member of the RS CVn class, although an FK Com classification is also possible. Archival ROSAT data provide good evidence that the cool star has an active corona. We conclude that K 1-6 is most likely an old bona fide planetary nebula at a distance of ∼1.0 kpc, interacting with the interstellar medium, and containing a binary or ternary central star. The observations and data analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with Year 11 high school students as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant science education project, denoted Space To Grow, conducted jointly by professional astronomers, educational researchers, teachers, and high-school students.
A substitution for Cu by a 3d-metal (Fe, Co, Mn) in the superconducting Bi phases (Bi2Sr2Can−1CunOy; n = 1,2 and 3) has led to the discovery of new phases. These 3d-metal substituted phases are non-superconducting and, in contrast to the Cu-based phases, they exhibit a structural modulation that is commensurate. Single crystal x-ray studies were performed on the Bi2Sr3Fe2Oy, Bi2Sr2CoOy and Bi2Sr2MnOy compounds. A result, in common, is that the modulation is caused by the periodic insertion of a row of oxygen atoms in the Bi layers and this results in a corrugated-like slab structure. The Bi-O layers can be described as composed of alternating rocksalt-type and oxygen deficient perovskite-type blocks. For the Fe (n=2) phase the Bi atoms form ribbons (chains) in the ab plane. This is in contrast to the n=1 Co or Mn phases for which a disorder at the oxygen position is observed. Although the extra oxygen in the Bi-O layer could account for the doping mechanism in the high Tc Bi-phases, cation non-stoichiometry may also beimportant.
In this study we report different surface treatments and device designs that can be used to improve the performance of InGaAs/InP heterostructure devices. The surface properties of InGaAs (100) after sulfur or UV-ozone passivation were investigated by photoluminescence and high energy-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The base leakage current and the dc current gain of InGaAs/InP heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the passivation treatments. Although these treatments successfully passivated large area HBTs, the improved device characteristics degraded after a dielectric was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or even just with time. Nevertheless, we found a combined surface treatment that is successful even under PECVD deposition – a UV-ozone treatment that produces a sacrificial oxide that is then removed by HF. This approach will be contrasted with a different method based on an optimized HBT layer structure with a thin InP emitter. In this case, the thin layer of depleted InP from the emitter left on the extrinsic base passivates the surface, and no treatment is required.
The aim of this study was to improve clinical management through rationalization of repeat prescribing in an inner-city practice with a high percentage of older adults with extensive comorbidity through systematic review and cost containment. Outcome measures were based on an analysis of PACT data for level and cost of prescribing before and after the systematic reviews, reported patient and staff satisfaction with changes and the identification of drug interactions. The formalization of a 28-day prescribing cycle and systematic review every 6 months was almost universally acceptable to patients and staff. The systematic review led to a decrease in prescribing costs of 12% over 2 years. The number and cost of wound dressings decreased by almost 50%. The prescribing of inappropriate medications, over-the-counter drugs, benzodiazepines and combinations of drugs that interacted was reduced. The study demonstrates that monitoring and rationalization of repeat prescribing can reduce costs and improve quality of care. In addition, increased surveillance on the part of the reception staff improved communication both between members of staff and between members of staff and patients. This led to increased confidence in repeat prescribing among all staff.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV allele is most commonly associated with community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infection; however, such organisms have also been identified in the healthcare setting. The objective of the present study was to characterize the epidemiology of and clinical outcomes associated with SCCmec-IV MRSA infection acquired in the healthcare setting, compared with infection caused by MRSA of other SCCmec types.
We evaluated a cohort of 100 inpatients with MRSA infection that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition for healthcare-associated infection and compared the patients' demographic characteristics, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the MRSA isolates, the infection types, and the associated clinical and microbiological outcomes. For each MRSA isolate, the SCCmec type and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) were determined by polymerase chain reaction methods.
SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates were isolated from 53 patients (42% of these isolates were positive for PVL), and SCCmec-II or SCCmec-III MRSA was isolated from 47 patients (3% of these isolates were positive for PVL). No differences were noted between the patients in the SCCmec-II/III group and the patients in the SCCmec-IV group with respect to age (median, 55 vs 50 years); sex (77% vs 64% of patients were male); medical service (surgical service, 60% in both groups; ICU admission, 55% vs 53%), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (median, 8 vs. 7); infection type; or underlying comorbidities, except for presence of a burn wound (13% vs 2%; P < .04). Patients in the SCCmec-II/III group were more likely to have multiple sites of infection (P = .006) and a longer length of stay (LOS) prior to detection of MRSA than were patients in the SCCmec-IV group (median, 4 vs 1 days; P < .001). Total LOS was significantly greater for patients in the SCCmec-II/III, compared with those in the SCCmec-IV group (P = .006). Multiple logistic regression identified liver disease and longer LOS prior to detection of MRSA as predictors of infection with SCCmec-II/III MRSA. Rates of susceptibility to clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline was significantly greater among SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates, compared with type II/III isolates (P ⩽ .05). Compared with SCCmec-IV isolates acquired in the community, the susceptibility rates among healthcare-associated SCCmec-IV isolates was significantly less for clindamycin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, indicating that these organisms may quickly acquire resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics, as do SCCmec-II/III strains.
SCCmec-IV MRSA appears to have become established in hospitals. The onset of infection caused by SCCmec-IV strains is earlier than the onset of infection with SCCmec-II/III strains; however, associated types of infection are similar. Infection with SCCmec- II/III MRSA is currently associated with an adverse impact on outcome, compared with infection with SCCmec-IV MRSA. Further research is warranted to determine the impact of SCCmec type IV strains in hospital settings.
The effects of addition of EDTA on the dissociation of caseins
foaming properties of milks (100 g solids/l) reconstituted from skim
given a low-heat (72°C for 30 s) or high-heat (85°C for 30 min)
powder manufacture were determined. The EDTA-induced dissociation of caseins
was independent of heat treatment but in high-heat milk was accompanied
of denatured whey proteins. EDTA changed the proportions of individual
the supernatant. EDTA addition improved both foam overrun and foam stability
low- and high-heat milks. The increase in serum protein on addition of
contributed to the improvement in foaming properties of milks by increasing
availability of the proteins for formation of the air–water interface.
The udder health of a research herd of between 160 and 220 Friesian cows run on a commercial basis has been monitored closely, including detailed bacteriological study, over 5 years. The five point mastitis control plan had been in use for several years prior to this study and was continued with minor alterations to the management of the plan, more detailed bacteriological monitoring and increased encouragement to apply it. It has proved possible to make a substantial improvement in the udder health of the herd. The percentage of infected cows fell from 21·9 to 12·0 and the percentage of infected quarters from 7·3 to 3·3. The main benefit has been a drastic reduction in the rate of clinical and subclinical mastitis caused by coagulase-positive staphylococci. However the total incidence of clinical mastitis did not change substantially, averaging around 30 cases/100 cows per year. This was largely because environmental mastitis organisms were responsible for 65 % of all clinical cases. The results showed marked differences in the patterns of infection due to the environmental mastitis pathogens, Gram-negative bacteria and aesculin-hydrolysing streptococci, suggesting different mechanisms of invasion of the gland.