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As in its first edition, this book traces the contours of select US common law doctrinal developments concerning international commercial arbitration. This new edition supplements the foundational work contained in the first edition in order to produce a broader and deeper work. The author explores how the US common law may help bridge cross-cultural legal differences by focusing on the need to address these contrasting approaches through the nomenclature and goal of securing equality between party-autonomy and arbitrator discretion in international commercial arbitration. This book thus focuses on the common law development of arbitrator immunity, as well as the precepts of party-initiative and –autonomy forming part of the US common law discovery rubric that may contribute to promoting expediency, efficiency and transparency in international commercial arbitration proceedings. It does so by carefully analyzing, among other things, the IBA Rules on Evidence Gathering, the Prague Rules, and the role of 28 U.S.C. §1782 in international arbitration.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing and implementing a transdisciplinary community-based research center, the Center for Health Equity Research (CHER) Chicago, to offer a model for designing and implementing research centers that aim to address structural causes of health inequality.
Scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines formed a multidisciplinary team for the Center, and adopted the structural violence framework as the organizing conceptual model. All Center activities were based on community partnership. The Center activities were organized within three cores: administrative, investigator development, and community engagement and dissemination cores. The key activities during the first year were to develop a pilot grant program for early stage investigators (ESIs) and to establish community partnership mechanisms.
CHER provided more than 60 consultations for ESIs, which resulted in 31 pilot applications over the three application cycles. Over 200 academic and community partners attended the community symposium and discussed community priority. Some challenges encountered were: to improve communication among investigators, to clarify roles and responsibilities of the three cores, and to build consensus on the definition and operationalization of the concept of structural violence.
There is an increasing need for local hubs to facilitate transdisciplinary collaboration and community engagement to effectively address health inequity. Building consensus around a shared vision among partners is a difficult and yet important step toward achieving equity.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can sometimes cause severe symptoms and lead to hospitalisation, but they often go unnoticed in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to describe the profile of patients hospitalised by TBDs; and (ii) to evaluate the data collected in the medical records from the ED in order to analyse their potential clinical consequences. A total of 84 cases that included all TBD diagnoses registered in the ED records were identified and analysed. These corresponded to all the hospitalisations by TBDs in the last 10 years (2009–2019) in two tertiary hospitals in Granada, Spain. Statistical analyses were made using RStudio. Coinciding with the absence of patient's report of exposure to ticks, 64.3% of TBDs were not suspected in the ED. Intensive care unit admission was required in 8.3% of cases, and the mortality rate was 2.4%. Non-suspected cases showed longer hospital stay (P < 0.001), treatment duration (P = 0.02) and delay in the initiation of antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that symptoms associated with TBDs are highly non-specific. In the absence of explicit information related to potential tick exposure, TBDs are not initially suspected. As a consequence, elective treatment administration is delayed and hospitalisation time is prolonged. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of addressing potential exposure to ticks during the ED contact with patients presenting with febrile syndrome.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Selective solar absorbers comprised of plasmonic materials offer great flexibility in design along with a highly promising optical performance. However, the nanopattern generation, typically done with electron beam writing, is a very time-intensive process. In this work, we present a fast, scalable, and flexible method for the fabrication of plasmonic materials by the combination of a deposition mask prepared by nanoimprint lithography and thin film deposition by magnetron sputtering. The fabrication process was first performed on silicon wafer substrates using AFM and SEM measurements to calibrate the deposition time, determine maximal deposition height, and characterize samples. Afterwards, the process was transferred to polished Inconel NiCr-alloy substrates used in high temperature solar absorbers. To investigate the adhesion properties of the nanostructure on the substrate, two different deposition methods were investigated: DC magnetron sputtering and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS).
In this work, a poly-Si0.35Ge0.65 microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based actuator was designed and fabricated using a CMOS compatible standard process to specifically strain a bi-layered (2L) MoS2 flake and measure its electrical properties. Experimental results of the MEMS-TMDC device show an increase of conductivity up to three orders of magnitude by means of vertical actuation using the substrate as the body terminal. A force balance model of the MEMS-TMDC was used to determine the amount of strain induced in the MoS2 flake. Strains as high as 3.3% is reported using the model fitted to the experimental data.
An oblique shock impinging on a shear layer that separates two uniform supersonic streams, of Mach numbers
, at an incident angle
can produce regular and irregular interactions with the interface. The region of existence of regular shock refractions with stable flow structures is delineated in the parametric space
considering oblique-shock impingement on a supersonic vortex sheet of infinitesimal thickness. It is found that under supercritical conditions, the oblique shock fails to deflect both streams consistently and to provide balanced flow properties downstream. In this circumstance, the flow renders irregular configurations which, in the absence of characteristic length scales, exhibit self-similar pseudosteady behaviours. These cases involve shocks moving upstream at constant speed and increasing their intensity to comply with equilibrium requirements. Differences in the variation of propagation speed among the flows yield pseudosteady configurations that grow linearly with time. Supercritical conditions are described theoretically and reproduced numerically using highly resolved inviscid simulation.
Here we report the results of an experimental study where we measure the hydrodynamic force acting on a plate which is lifted from a water surface, suddenly starting to move upwards with an acceleration much larger than gravity. Our work focuses on the early stage of the plate motion, when the hydrodynamic suction forces due to the liquid inertia are the most relevant ones. Besides the force, we measure as well the acceleration at the centre of the plate and the time evolution of the wetted area. The results of this study show that, at very early stages, the hydrodynamic force can be estimated by a simple extension of the linear exit theory by Korobkin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 737, 2013, pp. 368–386), which incorporates an added mass to the body dynamics. However, at longer times, the measured acceleration decays even though the applied external force continues to increase. Moreover, high-speed recordings of the disc displacement and the radius of the wetted area reveal that the latter does not change before the disc acceleration reaches its maximum value. We show in this paper that these phenomena are caused by the elastic deflection of the disc during the initial transient stage of water exit. We present a linearised model of water exit that accounts for the elastic behaviour of the lifted body. The results obtained with this new model agree fairly well with the experimental results.
To evaluate how rearing programmes could affect resources allocation and reproductive performance of primiparous rabbit females, a total of 118 rabbit females were used to evaluate the effects of five rearing feeding programmes on their performance from 1st to 2nd parturition: CAL, fed ad libitum C diet (11.0 MJ digestible energy (DE), 114 g digestible protein (DP) and 358 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM) until 1st parturition; CR, fed ad libitum with C diet until 12 weeks of age and then C diet restricted (140 g/day) until 1st parturition; F, fed ad libitum with F diet (8.7 MJ DE, 88 g DP and 476 NDF/kg DM) until 1st parturition; FC, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, and C diet ad libitum until 1st parturition; FCF, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, then C diet ad libitum until 20 weeks and then F diet ad libitum until 1st parturition. From 1st parturition, C diet was ad libitum offered to all the experimental groups until 2nd parturition. CAL females presented lower feed intake than females of F, FC and FCF groups in the 1st week of lactation (on av. −16.6%; P<0.05). During 1st lactation, the perirenal fat thickness change in CAL females was not different from 0 (+0.02 mm), while in the other four groups it increased (on av. +0.44 mm; P<0.05). Plasma of females fed with F diet during rearing (F, FC and FCF) had lower non-esterified fatty acids content than those exclusively fed with C diet (–0.088 and –0.072 mmol/l compared to CAL and CR, respectively; P<0.05). FCF litters had higher weight than F litters at day 21 of lactation (+247 g; P<0.05), but FCF litter had significantly lower weight than FC litters at weaning (+170 g; P<0.05). CR females had the shortest average interval between the 1st and 2nd parturition (49 days) and FCF females the longest (+ 9 days compared to CR; P<0.05). At 2nd parturition, liveborn litters of F females were larger and heavier than litters of FCF females (+2.22 kits and +138 g; P<0.05), probably due to the lower mortality at birth of F litters (–16.5 percentage points; P<0.05). In conclusion, rearing females on fibrous diets seems to increase the ability of primiparous rabbit females to obtain resources, especially at the onset of lactation.