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Operators are mindful of the balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio when performing balloon aortic valvuloplasty. The method of measurement of the aortic valve annulus has not been standardised.
Methods and results:
Patients who underwent aortic valvuloplasty at two paediatric centres between 2007 and 2014 were included. The valve annulus measured by echocardiography and angiography was used to calculate the balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio and measurements were compared. The primary endpoint was an increase in aortic insufficiency by ≥2 degrees. Ninety-eight patients with a median age at valvuloplasty of 2.1 months (Interquartile range (IQR): 0.2–105.5) were included. The angiographic-based annulus was 8.2 mm (IQR: 6.8–16.0), which was greater than echocardiogram-based annulus of 7.5 mm (IQR: 6.1–14.8) (p < 0.001). This corresponded to a significantly lower angiographic balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio of 0.9 (IQR: 0.9–1.0), compared to an echocardiographic ratio of 1.1 (IQR: 1.0–1.1) (p < 0.001). The degree of discrepancy in measured diameter increased with smaller valve diameters (p = 0.041) and in neonates (p = 0.044). There was significant disagreement between angiographic and echocardiographic balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio measures regarding “High” ratio of >1.2, with angiographic ratio flagging only 2/12 (16.7%) of patients flagged by echocardiographic ratio as “High” (p = 0.012). Patients who had an increase in the degree of aortic insufficiency post valvuloplasty, only 3 (5.5%) had angiographic ratio > 1.1, while 21 (38%) had echocardiographic ratio >1.1 (p < 0.001). Patients with resultant ≥ moderate insufficiency more often had an echocardiographic ratio of >1.1 than angiographic ratio of >1.1 There was no association between increase in balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio and gradient reduction.
Angiographic measurement is associated with a greater measured aortic valve annulus and the development of aortic insufficiency. Operators should use caution when relying solely on angiographic measurement when performing balloon aortic valvuloplasty.
To thoroughly examine the elder, either clinically or at autopsy, the oral cavity must be included. The teeth, gingiva, palates, tongue, lips, frenula, and lingual and buccal mucosa can often convey a great deal of information about the decedent’s overall health as well as current illnesses. Immunological abnormalities, endocrinopathies, dehydration, hematological disorders, malignancies, malnutrition, neglect, and diabetes mellitus are but a few of hundreds of entities that have oral manifestations.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
A cross-sectional survey study of inpatient prescribers in a university health system was performed to assess the importance they place on different clinical risk factors when making empiric antibiotic decisions. Our findings show that these clinical risk factors were weighted differently based on the clinical scenario and the type of prescriber.
FeCrAl alloys are among the best and most mature accident tolerant fuel cladding candidates produced to date, due to their superior combination of mechanical properties and stability at elevated temperatures. For fuel cladding applications, these materials are drawn into tubes with plugs welded to the ends. The mechanical properties of such welds and the impact on cladding performance have not been fully investigated. A novel mesoscale mechanical test and a variety of microscale tests were performed to evaluate a range of properties including nanoindentation hardness, compression and shear yield strengths, and tensile strengths and elongations. Micromechanical testing generally matched the trends of the larger mesoscale testing, with nanoindentation reproducing the trend the best, although some discrepancies existed in regions with low dislocation content. Mesoscale tensile testing showed good correlation with macroscale tests and revealed that the plug heat-affected zone possessed the lowest strength and ductility. This indicated that failure would occur first in or near this region.
To evaluate the effect of the burden of Staphylococcus aureus colonization of nursing home residents on the risk of S. aureus transmission to healthcare worker (HCW) gowns and gloves.
Multicenter prospective cohort study.
Setting and participants:
Residents and HCWs from 13 community-based nursing homes in Maryland and Michigan.
Residents were cultured for S. aureus at the anterior nares and perianal skin. The S. aureus burden was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting the nuc gene. HCWs wore gowns and gloves during usual care activities; gowns and gloves were swabbed and then cultured for the presence of S. aureus.
In total, 403 residents were enrolled; 169 were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and comprised the study population; 232 were not colonized and thus were excluded from this analysis; and 2 were withdrawn prior to being swabbed. After multivariable analysis, perianal colonization with S. aureus conferred the greatest odds for transmission to HCW gowns and gloves, and the odds increased with increasing burden of colonization: adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3–3.5) for low-level colonization and aOR 5.2 (95% CI, 3.1–8.7) for high level colonization.
Among nursing home patients colonized with S. aureus, the risk of transmission to HCW gowns and gloves was greater from those colonized with greater quantities of S. aureus on the perianal skin. Our findings inform future infection control practices for both MRSA and MSSA in nursing homes.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
Following the previous article, here we describe the first field demonstration of the ELVIS system, performed at Newport Beach, CA. We examined ocean water to detect microorganisms using the combined holographic and light-field fluorescence microscope and successfully detected both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The shared field of view provided simultaneous bright-field (amplitude), phase, and fluorescence information from both chlorophyll autofluorescence and acridine orange staining. The entire process was performed in a nearly autonomous manner using a specifically designed sample processing unit (SPU) and custom acquisition software. We also discuss improvements to the system made after the field test that will make it more broadly useful to other types of fluorophores and samples.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the perception of disaster issues between disaster directors and general health care providers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
The Gyeonggi provincial committee distributed a survey to acute care facility personnel. Survey topics included awareness of general disaster issues, hospital preparedness, and training priorities. The questionnaire comprised multiple choices and items scored on a 10-point Likert scale. We analyzed the discrepancies and characteristics of the responses.
Completed surveys were returned from 43 (67%) of 64 directors and 145 (55.6%) of 261 health care providers. In the field of general awareness, the topic of how to triage in disaster response showed the greatest discrepancies. In the domain of hospital level disaster preparedness, individual opinions varied most within the topics of incident command, manual preparation. The responses to “accept additional patients in disaster situation” showed the biggest differences (> 21 versus 6~10).
In this study, there were disaster topics with discrepancies and concordances in perception between disaster directors and general health care providers. The analysis would present baseline information for the development of better training programs for region-specific core competencies, knowledge, and skills required for the effective response.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
Hierarchization is a deliberate process to create a vertically nested governance architecture where actors and institutions in a lower rank are bound or otherwise compelled to obey, respond to or contribute to higher-order norms and objectives. Drawing on this definition, we review recent research on hierarchization in earth system governance and the political and legal processes that establish, maintain and legitimize it. Here we present three mutually non-exclusive forms of hierarchization – systematization, centralization and prioritization. Each involves different actors and rationales, mechanisms and strategies, while achieving different purposes with varying governance outcomes. We illustrate our argument with empirical examples including the proposed Global Pact for the Environment, the proposal to establish a world environment organization and the Sustainable Development Goals. We conclude with an assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of hierarchization as an approach to some of the challenges inherent in earth system governance, and offer suggestions for future research.
Governance through goals, a relatively new global governance mechanism, has recently gained prominence, particularly since the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals. Through this mechanism, internationally agreed policy goals orchestrate the activities of governmental and non-governmental actors. This chapter argues that governance through goals has important effects on governance architectures and their degree and type of fragmentation. To analyze these effects, we review literature around four characteristics of governance through goals: their non-legally binding nature, weak global institutional arrangements, inclusive goal-setting processes and national leeway. We argue that alternative forms of bindingness, such as reporting and accountability mechanisms, can steer actors toward a shared vision. This may result in synergistic fragmentation if broad support is obtained through inclusive processes. However, tensions and cherry-picking may arise when goals are prioritized and implemented. Further research on the effects of governance through goals is crucial given that it is likely to maintain – and gain – importance in earth system governance.
This is the first of two articles on the Extant Life Volumetric Imaging System (ELVIS) describing a combined digital holographic microscope (DHM) and a fluorescence light-field microscope (FLFM). The instrument is modular and robust enough for field use. Each mode uses its own illumination source and camera, but both microscopes share a common objective lens and sample viewing chamber. This allows correlative volumetric imaging in amplitude, quantitative phase, and fluorescence modes. A detailed schematic and parts list is presented, as well as links to open-source software packages for data acquisition and analysis that permits interested researchers to duplicate the design. Instrument performance is quantified using test targets and beads. In the second article on ELVIS, to be published in the next issue of Microscopy Today, analysis of data from field tests and images of microorganisms will be presented.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), like many rural states, faces clinical and research obstacles to which digital innovation is seen as a promising solution. To implement digital technology, a mobile health interest group was established to lay the foundation for an enterprise-wide digital health innovation platform. To create a foundation, an interprofessional team was established, and a series of formal networking events was conducted. Three online digital health training models were developed, and a full-day regional conference was held featuring nationally recognized speakers and panel discussions with clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates involved in digital health programs at UAMS. Finally, an institution-wide survey exploring the interest in and knowledge of digital health technologies was distributed. The networking events averaged 35–45 attendees. About 100 individuals attended the regional conference with positive feedback from participants. To evaluate mHealth knowledge at the institution, a survey was completed by 257 UAMS clinicians, researchers, and staff. It revealed that there are opportunities to increase training, communication, and collaboration for digital health implementation. The inclusion of the mobile health working group in the newly formed Institute for Digital Health and Innovation provides a nexus for healthcare providers and researches to facilitate translational research.