To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Recent scientific evidence on Culex quinquefasciatus has suggested its potential as a vector for ZIKV, which may change the current risk zones. We aimed to quantify the world population potentially exposed to ZIKV in a spatially explicit way, considering the primary vector (A. aegypti) and the potential vector (C. quinquefasciatus). Our model combined species distribution modelling of mosquito species with spatially explicit human population data to estimate ZIKV exposure risk. We estimated the potential global distribution of C. quinquefasciatus and estimated its potential interaction zones with A. aegypti. Then we evaluated the risk zones for ZIKV considering both vectors. Finally, we quantified and compared the people under risk associated with each vector by risk level, country and continent. We found that C. quinquefasciatus had a more temperate distribution until 42° in both hemispheres, while the risk involving A. aegypti is concentrated mainly in tropical latitudes until 35° in both hemispheres. Globally, 4.2 billion people are under risk associated with ZIKV. Around 2.6 billon people are under very high risk associated with C. quinquefasciatus and 1 billion people associated with A. aegypti. Several countries could be exposed to ZIKV, which emphasises the need to clarify the competence of C. quinquefasciatus as a potential vector as soon as possible. The models presented here represent a tool for risk management, public health planning, mosquito control and preventive actions, especially to focus efforts on the most affected areas.
Defect structures in Rubidium Titanyl Phosphate (RTP) crystals (non-doped and doped) grown by the Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) method were characterized using Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography. Main defects observed in non-doped crystals are growth sector boundaries while both growth sector boundaries and growth striations are observed in the Nb single doped and (Nb,Yb)-codoped crystals with relatively few linear defects such as dislocations. Results show that the overall crystalline quality is lowered as more doping elements are incorporated. Details of defect distributions are correlated with the growth process to facilitate high quality growth of doped RTP.
The ferroic phase transition in LaEr(MoO4)3 has been analyzed for the first time. It has been confirmed that this compound undergoes a phase transition from a tetragonal system (paraelectric-paraelastic phase), with space group P-421m [β-Gd2(MoO4)3 averaged phase] to an orthorhombic system (ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase), with space group Pba2 [β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 phase] in a reversible process. This phenomenon, together with the observed demixing at high temperature has been studied using different techniques. LaEr(MoO4)3 samples have been obtained by the conventional solid-state synthesis. The thermal dependence of the crystal structure was studied by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, following a new refining procedure in which the symmetry modes of atomic displacements from the paraelectric-paraelastic structure were analyzed. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements have confirmed the structural results, showing a very smooth phase transition. Finally, calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory show a behavior of the lattice parameters similar to that observed in our experiments.
Two polymorphs of Holmium molybdate, known as β'-phase and γ-phase, were prepared by solid state reaction with different thermal treatments. These polycrystalline samples have been studied for the first time by X-ray thermodiffractometry from room temperature up to 1300 K. We found that the initial β'-phase undergoes a transition to a β-phase and then to a γ-phase. The γ (hydrated)-phase, turns to the γ (dehydrated)-phase and then to the β-phase. Each sequence involves a reversible and an irreversible phase transition for Ho2(MoO4)3. Both polymorphs have remarkable physical properties like nonlinear optics, ferroelectricity and negative thermal expansion. We have calculated the linear expansion coefficients of both phases. We have obtained a positive coefficient for the β'-phase and a negative one for the γ-phase. Moreover, we have made a comparison of the obtained coefficients with previous results for other rare earth molybdates.
We present a technique for the direct deposition of nanoporous GaN particles on Si substrates without requiring any post-growth treatment. The internal morphology of the nanoporous GaN particles deposited on Si substrates by using a simple chemical vapor deposition approach was investigated, and straight nanopores with diameters ranging between 50 and 100 nm were observed. Cathodoluminescence characterization revealed a sharp and well-defined near band-edge emission at ∼365 nm. This approach simplifies other methods used for this purpose, such as etching and corrosion techniques that can damage the semiconductor structure and modify its properties.
Arabinoxylan gels are receiving increasing attention as oral delivery systems of biomolecules for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this research was to evaluate arabinoxylan gels as an oral delivery system for insulin, representing a painless therapy for diabetics. Gels at two concentrations of arabinoxylan were prepared (2.5 and 3.5 % w/v). One concentration of insulin (0.05 % w/v) entrapped in the arabinoxylan gels was investigated. At the end of gelation elasticity (G’) values were 11 and 20 for gels at 2.5 and 3.5% (w/v) in arabinoxylan, respectively. The presence of insulin in the gels did not affect the values of G’. The apparent diffusion coefficient for insulin decreased from 1.30 x 10-7 to 1.09 x 10-7 cm2/s when the concentration of arabinoxylan in the gel increased from 2.5 to 3.5% (w/v). The percentage of proteolysis for insulin entrapped in the gels at 2.5 and 3.5% in arabinoxylan (w/v) were 35 and 17%, respectively, in relation to 100% hydrolysis of insulin in solution. Results indicate that arabinoxylan gels could be potential candidates as oral delivery systems for insulin.
Arabinoxylans are polysaccharides constituted of a linear backbone of xylose in which arabinose substituents are attached, some ferulic acid esterifies arabinose. Arabinoxylan can form covalent gels by oxidative coupling of ferulic acid. Arabinoxylan gels could have potential applications for colon-specific biomolecules delivery due to their macroporous structure, and their aqueous environment and their dietary fiber nature. Lycopene has received increasing attention for its possible role in the prevention of colon cancer. It has been previously reported that arabinoxylan gels could be formed in presence of lycopene with no detriment on the lycopene antioxidant activity. The objective of this research was to investigate the in vitro degradation of arabinoxylan gels (AX gels) by two human colon bacterial species (Bacteroides ovatus and Bifidobacterium longum). Bacterial counts (CFU ml-1) and metabolic heat production (p) followed a similar pattern with a high response during the first 24 h at 37 °C. A regression model related CFU ml-1 and p (r2= 0.98). These results show that AX gels could be carriers for lycopene delivery in colon due structure degradation by gut microbiota.
This article describes the characteristics of the Chilote breed of sheep (OCH) as a genetic animal resource which is highly adapted to the conditions of the Chiloé archipelago in the south of Chile. The article describes the geomorphological features of the archipelago, the historical and cultural origins of the Chilote breed, its genetic structure, its morphological and productive characteristics, and the systems of production in which it is used.
Ni-NiO 30% electrodes coated with LiMg0.05Co0.95O2 cobaltite deposited on the substrate by complex sol-gel process were investigated by neutron diffraction. The measurements were carried out at the D20 diffractometer at the High Flux Reactor of the Institut Max von Laue – Paul Langevin. As the catalytic layer is only a few microns thick, the diffracting volume of the cobaltite phase was optimised by stacking small rectangular pieces cut from the original electrode and assuming that the catalytic layer on the electrodes was homogenous. A pure cobaltite sample was used as a reference for identifying in the complete electrode the diffraction peaks of the catalytic layer. Both an as-received sample and an electrode tested for 100 h at 650 °C in a cell were measured. Despite the small diffracting volume, due to the high flux available at D20, it was possible to detect the hexagonal phase of the catalytic layer and estimate its volume fraction in the as-received sample; in the tested electrode the original crystallographic structure is completely modified but information on the phases present can be obtained.
Linear rheological behavior and Microrheology measurements of sodium salt calf-thymus DNA aqueous solutions as a function of concentration are reported here. The microrheological behavior was obtained by a combination of experimental techniques: mechanical Rheometry and Dynamic light scattering (DLS). The viscoelastic properties of DNA in water as a function of concentration were performed at 20 °C and rheological and microrhelogical curves were performed. The result indicated that for concentrations lower than the entanglement concentration (Ce) the system exhibits a predominantly viscous behavior, whereas for higher concentrations exhibits a predominantly elastic behavior. The plateau modulus (G0) and the zero complex viscosity () follow a power law concentration dependence of the form: and , respectively The microrheology results overlap perfectly in a single line with the mechanical rheology results, extending the time resolution to faster breathing modes