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The prediction of void fraction, which relies on interfacial force models, is a major issue in the context of boiling. The two-fluid model requires the modelling of the momentum transfer between phases. When bubbles are small (particle hypothesis), the momentum transfer is related to interfacial forces acting on bubbles. However, the splitting of these forces into drag, lift, added mass, etc., is not straightforward from the local point of view, where only the total interfacial force is defined as an integral of the constraint over the interface. For large-size bubbles, the particle hypothesis can be questioned. The momentum transfer can then be connected to the forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. Based on the local and averaged formulations of the Navier–Stokes equations, a new balance equation for forces enables us to define lift, drag, added-mass and dispersion forces acting on a fluid element of the vapour phase. This equation gives a local definition for all the forces responsible for spatial distribution of bubbles and reflects the meaning usually assigned to the interfacial forces in the particle approach. Through this means, the link between the local formulation and physical phenomena is established and a new way of modelling the lift force is proposed. Furthermore, a new laminar dispersion force which relies on surface tension and pressure effects is introduced. The analysis of the budget equation on our direct numerical simulation database brings into light the large influence of this laminar dispersion force in the migration process. Different well-known physical behaviours can be modelled via this new force: the horizontal clustering of spherical bubbles in laminar flows and the oscillating trajectories of deformable bubbles.
Soft tissue-to-bone interfaces are complex structures that consist of gradients of extracellular matrix materials, cell phenotypes, and biochemical signals. These interfaces, called entheses for ligaments, tendons, and the meniscus, are crucial to joint function, transferring mechanical loads and stabilizing orthopedic joints. When injuries occur to connected soft tissue, the enthesis must be re-established to restore function, but due to structural complexity, repair has proven challenging. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution for regenerating these tissues. This prospective review discusses methodologies for tissue engineering the enthesis, outlined in three key design inputs: materials processing methods, cellular contributions, and biochemical factors.
The mechanisms by which agriculture spread across Europe in the Neolithic, and the speed at which it happened, have long been debated. Attempts to quantify the process by constructing spatio-temporal models have given a diversity of results. In this paper, a new approach to the problem of modelling is advanced. Data from over 300 Neolithic sites from Asia Minor and Europe are used to produce a global picture of the emergence of farming across Europe which also allows for variable local conditions. Particular attention is paid to coastal enhancement: the more rapid advance of the Neolithic along coasts and rivers, as compared with inland or terrestrial domains. The key outcome of this model is hence to confirm the importance of waterways and coastal mobilities in the spread of farming in the early Neolithic, and to establish the extent to which this importance varied regionally.
According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas–poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 – 29 mag.arcsec−2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
NGC 1266 is a nearby field galaxy observed as part of the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011). NGC 1266 has been shown to host a compact (< 200 pc) molecular disk and a mass-loaded molecular outflow driven by the AGN (Alatalo et al. 2011). Very Long Basline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.65 GHz revealed a compact (diameter < 1.2 pc), high brightness temperature continuum source most consistent with a low-level AGN origin. The VLBA continuum source is positioned at the center of the molecular disk and may be responsible for the expulsion of molecular gas in NGC 1266. Thus, the candidate AGN-driven molecular outflow in NGC 1266 supports the picture in which AGNs do play a significant role in the quenching of star formation and ultimately the evolution of the red sequence of galaxies.
In around ≈25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is quite different than that in spiral galaxies however, with harsher radiation fields, deeper potentials and high metallicity and alpha-element abundances. Here we report on one element of our multi-faceted programme to understand the similarities and differences between the gas reservoirs in spirals and ETGs. We use spatially resolved observations from the CARMA mm-wave interferometer to investigate the size of the molecular reservoirs in the the CO-rich ATLAS3D ETGs (survey described in Alatalo et al. 2012, submitted). We find that the molecular gas extent is smaller in absolute terms in ETGs than in late-type galaxies, but that the size distributions are similar once scaled by the galaxies optical/stellar characteristic scale-lengths (Fig 1, left). Amongst ETGs, we find that the extent of the molecular gas is independent of the kinematic misalignment, despite the many reasons why misaligned gas might have a smaller extent. The extent of the molecular gas does depend on environment, with Virgo cluster ETGs having less extended molecular gas reservoirs (Fig 1, right). Whatever the cause, this further emphases that cluster ETGs follow different evolutionary pathways from those in the field. Full details of this work will be presented in Davis et al. (2012), submitted.
Recently, massive early-type galaxies have shed their red-and-dead moniker, thanks to the discovery that many host residual star formation. As part of the ATLAS-3D project, we have conducted a complete, volume-limited survey of the molecular gas in 260 local early-type galaxies with the IRAM-30m telescope and the CARMA interferometer, in an attempt to understand the fuel powering this star formation. We find that around 22% of early-type galaxies in the local volume host molecular gas reservoirs. This detection rate is independent of galaxy luminosity and environment. Here we focus on how kinematic misalignment measurements and gas-to-dust ratios can be used to put constraints on the origin of the cold ISM in these systems. The origin of the cold ISM seems to depend strongly on environment, with misaligned, dust poor gas (indicative of externally acquired material) being common in the field but completely absent in rich groups and in the Virgo cluster. Very massive galaxies also appear to be devoid of accreted gas. This suggests that in the field mergers and/or cold gas accretion dominate the gas supply, while in clusters internal secular processes become more important. This implies that environment has a strong impact on the cold gas properties of ETGs.
The spatial heterogeneity of tropical forest epiphytes has rarely been quantified in terms of biomass. In particular, the effect of topographic variation on epiphyte biomass is poorly known, although forests on ridges and ravines can differ drastically in stature and exposure. In an Ecuadorian lower montane forest we quantified epiphytic biomass along two gradients: (1) the twig–branch–trunk trajectory, and (2) the ridge–ravine gradient. Twenty-one trees were sampled in each of three forest types (ridge, slope, ravine positions). Their epiphytic biomass was extrapolated to stand level based on basal area–epiphyte load relationships, with tree basal areas taken from six plots of 400 m2 each per forest type. Our results document the successional addition and partial replacement of lichens by bryophytes, angiosperms and finally dead organic matter along the twig–branch–trunk trajectory. Despite having the highest tree basal area, total epiphytic biomass (mean ± SD) of ravine forest was significantly lower (2.6 ± 0.7 Mg ha−1) than in mid-slope forest (6.3 ± 1.1 Mg ha−1) and ridge forest (4.4 ± 1.6 Mg ha−1), whereas maximum bryophyte water storage capacity was significantly higher. We attribute this pattern to differences in forest dynamics, stand structure and microclimate. Although our study could not differentiate between direct effects of slope position (nutrient availability, mesoclimate) and indirect effects (stand structure and dynamics), it provides evidence that fine-scale topography needs to be taken into account when extrapolating epiphytic biomass and related matter fluxes from stand-level data to the regional scale.
Nutrient dynamics in tropical montane cloud forests
W. Wilcke, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
J. Boy, Johannes Gutenberg University, Germany,
R. Goller, University of Bayreuth, Germany,
K. Fleischbein, University of Potsdam, Germany,
C. Valarezo, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Ecuador,
W. Zech, University of Bayreuth, Germany
Tropical montane forests are frequently located on steep slopes with pronounced differences in topographic exposure, related microclimatic conditions and hence in composition and structure of the vegetation over small distances. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that topographic position significantly influences soil fertility and water flow in these forests. Soil properties were determined at various topographic positions and water samples of selected ecosystem fluxes analyzed over a 1-year period for oxygen isotopes in three small, steep watersheds under lower montane forest in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes in southern Ecuador. The soils are subject to lateral material movement (landsliding and solifluction). This, together with the pronounced variation in climatic conditions and vegetation over small distances, resulted in high heterogeneity of soil properties. The pH of the A-horizon ranged between 3.7 and 6.4; concentrations of base metals (calcium, magnesium), sulfur and phosphorus, and trace metals (manganese, zinc) showed enormous spatial variation (coefficient of variation: 358–680% over a surface area of <30 ha). The steepness of the study area and the large contrast in hydraulic conductivities of the organic layer and the mineral soil resulted in a hillslope flow regime dominated by fast lateral flow. During baseflow conditions, δ18O values were similar to that of the sub-soil solution, but rapidly became similar to values in the top-soil solution during rain storms. The chemical composition of stormflows resembled that of the litter leachate. Stormflow had lower pH and higher organic carbon and metal concentrations than did baseflow. […]
The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry/wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra–deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the ATLAS3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec−2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.
Early-type galaxies (ETGs) satisfy a now classic scaling relation Re ∝ σ1.2eI−0.8e, the Fundamental Plane (FP; Djorgovski & Davis 1987; Dressler et al. 1987), between their size, stellar velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness. A significant effort has been devoted in the past twenty years to try to understand why the coefficients of the relation are not the ones predicted by the virial theorem Re ∝ σ2eI−1e.
To make the best use of limited resources for supporting health-related research to reduce child mortality, it is necessary to apply a suitable method to rank competing research options. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) developed a new methodology for setting health research priorities. To broaden experience with this priority-setting technique, we applied the method to rank possible research priorities concerning the control of Zn deficiency. Although Zn deficiency is not generally recognized as a direct cause of child mortality, recent research indicates that it predisposes children to an increased incidence and severity of several of the major direct causes of morbidity and mortality.
Leading experts in the field of Zn research in child health were identified and invited to participate in a technical working group (TWG) to establish research priorities. The individuals were chosen to represent a wide range of expertise in Zn nutrition. The seven TWG members submitted a total of ninety research options, which were then consolidated into a final list of thirty-one research options categorized by the type of resulting intervention.
The identified priorities were dominated by research investment options targeting Zn supplementation, and were followed by research on Zn fortification, general aspects of Zn nutrition, dietary modification and other new interventions.
In general, research options that aim to improve the efficiency of an already existing intervention strategy received higher priority scores. Challenges identified during the implementation of the methodology and suggestions to modify the priority-setting procedures are discussed.
In this work a novel technique to create nanometer sized air gaps for high frequency (HF) mechanical resonators will be presented. The technique is based on the narrowing of initially wide gaps with a conformal “narrowing” layer. The novelty of this technique is that it enables the creation of narrow high-aspect ratio gaps (e.g. 100nm gaps in 10μm thick layers) without the need for complex lithography or high aspect ratio etching. Furthermore, the electrodes and the resonator itself can be patterned in a single processing step. The process methodology will be explained and validation experiments in a silicon-germanium (SiGe) based technology will be shown. This technology uses low temperature (∼450°C) poly silicon-germanium (SiGe) as the structural layer, which can be processed above CMOS, and therefore allows the fabrication of MEM devices above CMOS.
Background: The suggested induction dose of methohexital for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies widely influencing efficacy of ECT and safety of anaesthesia. Bispectral index (BIS), a monitor of consciousness, may be useful to assure adequate hypnosis with optimized methohexital dose. Methods: Patients with medically resistant major depression (ICD10), scheduled for multiple ECT's, were studied. Depth of anaesthesia was BIS controlled. ECT was not performed until BIS dropped below 50. Initially anaesthesia was induced with methohexital 1.0 mg kg−1, and stepwise reduced by 0.1 mg kg−1 during consecutive treatments. If BIS did not drop below 50, the methohexital was supplemented by further boluses of 0.5 mg kg−1, until the desired level of hypnosis was reached. The adequacy of the anaesthetic recommendation for methohexital (1.0–1.5 mg kg−1) as well as the psychiatric recommendation (0.75–1 mg kg−1) was investigated. Results: One-hundred and nine ECT's in 14 patients were studied. The recommended anaesthetic dose (1.0–1.5 mg kg−1) was inadequate in 40% of the treatments, with 12% exceeding 1.5 mg kg−1, and 28% below 1.0 mg kg−1. Psychiatric recommendation (0.75–1.0 mg kg−1) was inadequate in 49%, with 39% exceeding 1.0 mg kg−1 and 10% undershooting at 0.75 mg kg−1. Conclusions: Methohexital for ECT showed a great variability, exceeding as well as undershooting the dosage recommendations widely. BIS monitoring may be useful to secure adequate hypnosis during muscle relaxation and treatment and may optimize ECT efficacy.
The preparation of ordered mesoporous boron nitride by using borazinic precursors as boron nitride source (tri(methylamino)borazine (MAB) and tri(chloro)borazine TCB) and a mesoporous carbon CMK-3 as template is reported. A template elimination performed by hydrogenation allows to obtain an organized porous structure. The X-ray diffraction, TEM and pore size analysis show that the structure of the BN molecular sieves synthesized from CMK-3 consists in a 2D regular array of uniform mesopores of 3.4 nm in diameter.
Psychoactive substance use is strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity in both adults and adolescents.
To determine which of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is most closely linked to psychiatric disorders in early adolescence.
Data from 2624 adolescents aged 13–15 years were drawn from a national mental health survey of children. The relationship between psychiatric morbidity and smoking, drinking and cannabis use was examined by logistic regression analyses.
Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with an increased risk of substance use. Greater involvement with any one substance increased the risk of other substance use. Analyses of the interactions between smoking, drinking and cannabis use indicated that the relationship between substance use and psychiatric morbidity was primarily explained by regular smoking and (to a lesser extent) regular cannabis use.
In this sample, links between substance use and psychiatric disorders were primarily accounted for by smoking. The strong relationship is likely to be due to a combination of underlying individual constitutional factors and drug-specific effects resulting from consumption over the period of adolescent development and growth.
The links between drug use and psychosis are of major aetiological and prognostic significance. Psychosis and drug dependence frequently co-occur within the prison population, providing the opportunity to study this link more closely.
To explore the relationship between psychosis and drug dependence in a sample of prisoners.
A total of 3142 prisoners were surveyed nationally and structured clinical data were obtained from a subsample of 503 respondents. Psychiatric assessment was based on the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (version 1.0). Measures of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and heroin use and dependence were obtained through self-report.
Logistic regression analyses indicated that first use of amphetamines or cocaine before the age of 16 years and severe cannabis or cocaine dependence were related to an increased risk of psychosis. In contrast, severe dependence on heroin was associated with a reduced risk of this classification.
Severe dependence on cannabis and psychostimulants is associated with a higher risk of psychosis and is in contrast to severe dependence on heroin, which has a negative relationship with psychosis.
Ferrobielastic twinning in quartz single crystals has been investigated in relation to
crystallographic orientation and crystal origin. By means of uniaxial compressive stress
experiments, complete volumetric transformation to the alternate Dauphiné twin state was
performed in X- and AT-cut samples of natural and synthetic quartz. Either polarized light or
synchrotron radiation X-ray topography was employed to observe the movement of twin
boundaries. The dependence of the coercive stress and the preferential orientation of twin
boundaries on the crystallographic orientation are explained in terms of the thermodynamic
potential of the Gibbs free energy. In relation to natural crystals, the stress levels related to
optical visualization and complete transformation to the alternate twin state were 50% and
30% lower for synthetic quartz. These results are qualitatively discussed by the pinning of
Dauphiné twin boundaries at randomly distributed impurity-related point defects which were
evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and ion coupled plasma spectrometry. The spontaneous
irreversibility of ferrobielastic twinning on unloading is confirmed.
Hybrid siloxane-oxide systems were prepared by sol-gel techniques. Siloxane precursors are either monomeric species, dimethyldiethoxysilane, or OH-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes. The oxide component is introduced via metallic alkoxides, M(OR)n (M=Si, Ti, Zr). Transparent materials from flexible to brittle gels, can be obtained over a large M/siloxane range. The structure of the various systems was investigated by 29Si MAS-NMR. The signals due to the difunctional Si units, (CH3)2SiO, depend strongly on the nature of M and on the M/siloxane ratio. Structural models are proposed, ranging from single phase systems with highly interconnected siloxane and oxide units, to nanocomposites made of polysiloxane chains crosslinked with oxide-based particles.