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The indications for expanded endoscopic transnasal approaches continue to increase, with more complex skull base defects needing to be repaired. This study reviews the management of large anterior skull base defects with opening of the sellar diaphragm.
A prospective analysis of endonasal endoscopic surgery carried out at Son Espases University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018 was performed. The analysis included only the cases with a significative intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak. In all cases, reconstruction was performed by combining the gasket seal technique with a pedicled mucosal endonasal flap.
Twenty-eight patients were included. The mucoperiosteal nasoseptal flap, the lateral wall flap and the middle turbinate flap were used in 13, 8 and 7 patients, respectively, combined with the gasket seal technique. One case of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed (3.57 per cent).
The combination of a gasket seal with an endonasal mucosal flap is an excellent technique for repairing large anterior skull base defects.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
The Iberian pig is one of the pig breeds that has the highest meat quality. Traditionally, producers have bred one of the available varieties, exclusively, and have not used crosses between them, which has contrasted sharply with other populations of commercial pigs for which crossbreeding has been a standard procedure. The objective of this study was to perform an experiment under full diallel design among three contemporary commercial varieties of Iberian pig and estimate the additive genetic variation and the crossbreeding effects (direct, maternal and heterosis) for prolificacy. The data set comprised 18 193 records for total number born and number born alive from 3800 sows of three varieties of the Iberian breed (Retinto, Torbiscal and Entrepelado) and their reciprocal crosses (Retinto × Torbiscal, Torbiscal × Retinto, Retinto × Entrepelado, Entrepelado × Retinto, Torbiscal × Entrepelado and Entrepelado × Torbiscal), and a pedigree of 4609 individuals. The analysis was based on a multiple population repeatability model, and we developed a model comparison test that indicated the presence of direct line, maternal and heterosis effects. The results indicated the superiorities of the direct line effect of the Retinto and the maternal effect of the Entrepelado populations. All of the potential crosses produced significant heterosis, and additive genetic variation was higher in the Entrepelado than it was in the other two populations. The recommended cross for the highest yield in prolificacy is a Retinto father and an Entrepelado mother to generate a hybrid commercial sow.
Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in Latin America. In order to know the epidemiology and the geographical distribution of this disease in Mexico, the present work analyses the national surveillance data (10 years) for Chagas disease issued by the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE). An ecological analysis of Chagas disease (2007–2016) was performed in the annual reports issued by the GDE in Mexico. The cases and incidence were classified by year, state, age group, gender and seasons. A national distribution map showing Chagas disease incidence was generated. An increase of new cases was identified throughout the country (rates from 0.37 to 0.81 per 100 000 inhabitants). Of the total cases accumulated (7388), the major cases were attributed to the states of Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Oaxaca, Morelos and Yucatán. The analysis per age groups and gender revealed that, in most age groups, the incidence was higher in the male population. The most number of cases was identified in spring and summer; a direct relationship between the environmental temperature increase and the number of new cases was identified. The analysis showed that the rate of Chagas disease increased presumably due to state programmes; the search for new cases has expanded and we speculate that the disease is associated with occupational activities. These results summarise and recall how important it is to implement the monitoring of Chagas disease mainly in south states of the Mexican Republic in order to implement strategies to control this disease.
By combining three complementary perspectives, the present chapter goes beyond previous treatments of figurative language in general and of conceptual metaphor in particular. Besides viewing metaphor in terms of the basic cognitive processes underlying it, it also investigates how metaphor combines with other metaphors and with metonymy and in what way it is related to other cases of figurative meaning construction. The present chapter paves the way toward an encompassing theory of meaning construction that employs a highly restricted set of principles to account for a broader range of phenomena than previous accounts have done.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients’ relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition.
We administered a heartbeat detection (HBD) task (with related interoceptive confidence and awareness measures) to three matched groups (OCD patients, panic disorder patients, healthy controls) and recorded ongoing modulations of two task-relevant electrophysiological markers: the heart evoked potential (HEP) and the motor potential (MP).
Behaviorally, OCD patients outperformed controls and panic patients in the HBD task. Moreover, they exhibited greater amplitude modulation of both the HEP and the MP during cardiac interoception. However, they evinced poorer confidence and awareness of their interoceptive skills.
Convergent behavioral and electrophysiological data showed that overactive monitoring in OCD extends to the sensing of internal bodily signals. Moreover, this pattern discriminated OCD from panic patients, suggesting a condition-distinctive alteration. Our results highlight the potential of exploring interoceptive processes in the OCD spectrum to better characterize the population's cognitive profile. Finally, these findings may lay new bridges between somatic theories of emotion and cognitive models of OCD.
The main purpose of this research was to establish the effectiveness of the V844 corrosion inhibitor for seawater on various metallic materials: carbon steel, aluminum and copper alloy at different concentrations via colloid formation. The changes in both physical and chemical properties of seawater, including pH, total hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductivity at different concentrations of V844 were assessed, too. The test procedure involves dissolving the V844 corrosion inhibitor powder provided by Magna International Private Limited in seawater to obtain a stock solution of 4% V844 in seawater, which was further diluted to obtain the remaining concentrations. The analysis of parameters begun when various metal species, polished beforehand, were placed into the solutions. The analysis was observed over a period of 26 days and a total of 9 sets of readings were obtained. From our observation and analysis, it was concluded that the inhibitor worked best at 0.05% concentration for carbon steel.
Corrosion is a worldwide, crucial problem that strongly affects natural and industrial environments, in particular the oil and gas industry. Natural gas (NG) is a source of energy in industrial, residential, commercial and electric applications. The abundance of NG in many countries augurs a profitable situation for the vast energy industry. NG is considered friendlier to the environment and with lesser greenhouse gas emissions as compared with other fossil fuels. In the last years, shale gas is increasingly exploited in U.S. and Europe, applying a hydraulic fracturing technique, for releasing gas from the bed rock by injection of saline water, acidic chemicals and sand to the wells. Various critical sectors of the NG industry infrastructure suffer from several types of corrosion: steel casings of production wells and their drilling equipment; gas conveying pipelines including pumps and valves; plants for regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and municipal networks of NG distribution to the consumers. Practical technologies that minimize or prevent corrosion include selection of corrosion resistant engineering materials, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, and application of external and internal paints, coatings and linings. Mexico is undergoing an intense reform process of the energy sector, that involves its oil, NG and electricity industries. Typical cases of corrosion management in the NG industry are presented based on the authors experience and knowledge.
Concrete is a composite material, composed of cement, sand, gravel and water, reinforced with steel bars or mesh. It is used for the construction of infrastructure assets such as airports, dams, ports, bridges and road ways. Polymer concrete is a relative new material containing a thermosetting resin (instead of water) displaying improved mechanical strength, low permeability, greater corrosion resistance and higher durability. It is employed for new construction and old concrete reparation in the chemical, food, fertilizer, mine and civil industries. Polymer concrete pipe specimens, reinforced with glass-fibers were prepared and exposed in a salt spray (fog) chamber, operating with a NaCl solution, following ASTM standard B-117-11. The deterioration effects were assessed by testing the physical and mechanical properties, before and after the exposure in the spray chamber, in accordance with standard ASTM D3039-2013. Corrosion resistance was evaluated applying ASTM standard C876-2013. The result of this work are presented, illustrated and discussed.
Recurrent GBM and AA have a dismal prognosis and a high unmet need for effective therapies. Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is an investigational retroviral replicating vector that encodes the transgene cytosine deaminase (CD). Toca 511 selectively infects, persists and spreads in tumor. Subsequent oral administration of 5-fluorocytosine (Toca FC) produces 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by CD within infected cells. 5-FU kills cancer cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells, inducing robust antitumor immune responses in animal models. Clinical data from phase 1 trials are consistent with this mechanism of action, and show extended survival compared to historical controls. Toca 5 is a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase 2/3 trial of Toca 511 and Toca FC versus standard of care administered to patients undergoing resection for first or second recurrence of GBM or AA. Phase 2 will enroll 170 patients. Primary endpoint is overall survival (OS). Key secondary endpoints are safety, objective response rate, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival, and landmark OS. Key inclusion criteria are age 18-75 years, histologically proven GBM or AA, measurable disease preoperatively of less than 5cm, candidate for equal or greater 80% resection of enhancing tumor based on pre-operative evaluation, and KPS equal or greater to 70. Assays for immune monitoring will be performed and molecular profiling of resected tumor samples will be correlated efficacy.
The objective of this work was to study the changes that, selecting for environmental variability of birth weight (BW), could bring to other interesting traits in livestock such as: survivability at weaning (SW), litter size (LS) and weaning weight (WW), their variability assessed from standard deviations of LS, standard deviation of WW (SDWW) and also the total litter weight at birth (TLBW) and total litter weight at weaning. Data were registered after eight generations of a divergent selection experiment for BW environmental variability in mice. Genetic parameters and phenotypic and genetic evolution were assessed using linear homoscedastic and heteroscedastic models in which the traits were attributed to the female, except BW and WW that were in some models also attributed to the pup. Genetic correlation between the trait and variability levels was −0.81 for LS and −0.33 for WW. Clear divergent phenotypic trends were observed between lines for LS, WW and SDWW. Although animals were heavier in the high line, TLBW and at weaning was greater in the low line. Despite the negative genetic correlation that was obtained, SDWW was also higher in the high line. Heritabilities were 0.21 and 0.06, respectively, for LS and SW. Both phenotypic and genetic trends showed clear superiority of the low line over the high line for these traits, but inferior for WW. Heteroscedastic model performed similar to the homoscedastic model when there was enough information. Considering LS and survival, the low line was preferred from a welfare point of view, but its superiority from the productivity perspective was not clear. Robustness seemed higher as shown by a low variation and having a benefit to the animal welfare, but this still remains unclear. It was concluded that low variation benefits the welfare of animals.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
A selection of 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3-ones (1–19) and 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles substituted at positions 1 (20–24) or 2 (25–39) from our in-house compound library were screened in vitro against the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 41% of the studied molecules (16/39) achieved a significant activity of more than 85% growth inhibition at the highest concentration assayed (100 µg mL−1). Among these compounds, 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole derivatives 23, 24, 25 and 27 inhibited parasite growth by more than 50% at 10 µg mL−1. In addition, the first two compounds (23, 24) still showed remarkable activity at the lowest dose tested (1 µg mL−1), inhibiting parasite growth by nearly 40%. Their specific activity towards the parasite was corroborated by the determination of their non-specific cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The four mentioned compounds exhibited non-cytotoxic profiles at all of the concentrations assayed, showing a fair antiparasitic selectivity index (SI > 7·5). In silico studies were performed to predict pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug-score using Molinspiration and OSIRIS computational tools. The current in vitro results supported by the virtual screening suggest 2-substituted and, especially, 1-substituted 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles as promising starting scaffolds for further development of novel chemical compounds with the main aim of promoting highly selective trichomonacidal lead-like drugs with adequate pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles.
The purpose of this project was to investigate the role of perceived parenting styles in the choice of identity processing and commitment among a group of Chinese youth. Examining the identity processing styles of 209 young people using the ISI-4 (Smits et al., 2008) and Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ; Buri, 1991), we hypothesised that parental styles and family socio-economic status would differentially impact the identity commitment of youth in Macao. The findings corroborated Berzonsky's (2004) model, with minor differences, showing a positive relation between authoritative parenting and informational processing and identity commitment. However, a negative relation between a normative processing style and identity commitment was found in the Chinese sample. Testing for the moderating effect of socioeconomic status showed that authoritative parenting combined with high SES levels lead to the informational processing style.
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
Clostridium difficile infection has gained importance in recent years as a result of the rapid spread of epidemic strains, including hypervirulent strains. This study reports the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile obtained from hospitalized patients in Chile. Seven hundred and nineteen isolates of toxigenic C. difficile from 45 hospitals across the country were characterized through toxin profile, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and sequencing of the tcdC gene. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on a subset of selected strains. PFGE typing of 719 isolates of C. difficile produced 60 PFGE patterns (subtypes). Subtype 1 was predominant (79% of isolates) and related to the hypervirulent strain (NAP1). Subtype 1 showed 73% relatedness with nine other subtypes, which had a similar tcdC deletion. Subtype 1 corresponded to ribotype 027 and ST1. This report shows the wide dissemination of the hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/ST1 in Chile.
An experiment of a 2×2 full diallelic cross between two contemporary Iberian pig strains (Retinto: RR, and Torbiscal: TT) was conducted to estimate the crossbreeding effects for growth and carcass traits. Phenotypic records were obtained under intensive management and consisted of two different data sets. The first set comprised growth traits until weaning and was collected at two different farms (6236 and 1208 records, respectively). Specific data included individual piglet weight at birth and at weaning at 28 days and average daily gain from birth to weaning at 28 days (ADG28) for both RR and TT and their reciprocal crosses. The second set comprised growth data from birth to slaughter (~340 days and ~160 kg) and carcass traits from 349 individuals (randomly) sampled at weaning from the first dataset. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian analysis by using a reparameterization of Dickerson’s model that allowed estimation of the posterior distributions of the following crossbreeding effects: average maternal breed effect (gM), average paternal breed effect (gP) and individual heterosis (hI). Results showed that the relative magnitude of crossbreeding effects depends on the trait analyzed. Crosses where Torbiscal strain was used as mother (RT and TT) achieved the greatest performance for all growth traits at weaning, leading to remarkable gM effects. The most outstanding example is the case of ADG28 where the probability of relevance was one. In contrast, TR cross showed the greatest differences from RR cross for all growth at slaughter and carcass traits. These differences were mainly due to hI and gP crossbreeding parameters. In particular, the posterior mean of hI was more noticeable for live weight at slaughter, average daily gain at slaughter and carcass length, while gP was more relevant for hams (kg) and loins (kg) representing from 3% to10% of average performance of traits. Hence, growth traits at weaning did not reveal any notable advantage of the crossbreeding scheme because of the superiority of the Torbiscal strain with respect to its mothering ability and the small hI. However, results from growth and carcass traits at slaughter would support the implementation of a TR crossbred system. It would allow exploitation of both the gP of the Torbiscal strain and the hI between these two Iberian pig strains. Additionally, gP estimates and phenotypic differences between reciprocal crosses might suggest signs of the presence of paternal genetic imprinting in primal cuts traits.
Area-wide sterile insect technique (SIT) programs assume that offspring reduction of the target population correlates with the mating success of the sterile males released. However, there is a lack of monitoring tools to prove the success of these programs in real-time. Field-cage tests were conducted under the environmental conditions of the Mediterranean coast of Spain to estimate: (a) the mating success of sterile Vienna-8 (V8) Ceratitis capitata males using molecular markers and (b) their efficacy to reduce C. capitata populations under six release ratios of wild females to wild males to V8 males (1:0:0, 1:1:0, 1:1:1, 1:1:5, 1:1:10, and 1:1:20). Statistical models were developed to predict: (a) the number of females captured in traps, (b) sperm ID (sterile or not) in spermathecae of the trapped females, and (c) the viable offspring produced, using release ratio and temperature as predictors. The number of females captured was affected by relative humidity. However, its influence in the model was low. Female captures were significantly higher in ratios 1:0:0 compared to ratios where V8 males were released. The proportion of V8 sperm in spermathecae increased with temperature and with the number of V8 males released, but leveled off between ratios 1:1:10 and 1:1:20. In all seasons, except winter (no offspring), viable offspring increased with temperature and was lowest for ratio 1:1:20. For the first time, a strong negative relationship between proportion of V8 sperm detected by molecular tools and C. capitata offspring was established. The models obtained should contribute to enhance the efficacy of SIT programs against this pest.