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Patients with advanced cancer can experience debilitating physical symptoms, making participation in exercise programs difficult. This systematic review investigated the recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates of patients with advanced cancer participating in exercise interventions and examined components of exercise programs that may affect these rates.
Relevant studies were identified in a systematic search of CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to December 2017. Two quality assessment tools were used, and levels of evidence were assigned according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines.
The search identified 18 studies published between 2004 and 2017. Recruitment, adherence, and attrition rates varied widely among the studies reviewed. The mean recruitment rate was 49% (standard deviation [SD] = 17; range 15–74%). Patient-reported barriers to recruitment included time constraints and difficulties in traveling to exercise centers. Levels of adherence ranged from 44% to 95%; however, the definition of adherence varied substantially among trials. The average attrition rate was 24% (SD = 8; range 10–42%), with progression of disease status reported as the main cause for dropout during exercise interventions.
Significance of results
Concentrated efforts are needed to increase the numbers of patients with advanced disease recruited to exercise programs. Broadening the eligibility criteria for exercise interventions may improve accrual numbers of patients with advanced cancer to exercise trials and ensure patients recruited are representative of clinical practice.
The collection of Finlay Papers in the British School at Athens though throwing invaluable light on the character of George Finlay and on conditions in the Greece and western Europe of his day, are by no means complete in their coverage. The diaries cover only certain years; the Letter Book records mainly family and business correspondence; the actual copies of surviving letters both to and from Finlay—apart from Finlay to Leake or Leicester Warren—seem to owe their preservation to chance rather than policy. Yet Finlay was no less interested in the history of Trebizond than in Greek topography or in numismatics, and a stray survival among his papers seems to indicate that he had closer relations with Fallmerayer than is suggested by the almost total omission of any reference to him in the works on the Fragmentist (as Fallmerayer called himself). The editor of Fallmerayer’s collected works, his best friend G. M. Thomas (the ‘carissimus Thomas’ of the Tagebücher), does mention the generosity of Fallmerayer’s attitude towards Finlay’s work on Trebizond, but that is about all.
The reason why it is easy to kill another person must be that one's imagination is too sluggish to conceive what his life means to him—the infinite possibilities of a succession of days which are furled in him, & have already been spent.
Diary, August 27, 1918
When Diana Swanson and Pamela Caughie first invited me to organize this roundtable, we discussed bringing together some of the contributors to Virginia Woolf and War, the 1991 essay collection published in the Syracuse UP series, Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution. But in the more than two decades since I claimed in that volume that “all Woolf's work is deeply concerned with war; that it helps redefine our understanding of the nature of war; and that from her earliest to her final work she sought to explore and make clear the connections between private and public violence, between the domestic and the civic eff ects of patriarchal society, between male supremacy and the absence of peace, and between ethics and aesthetics” (3), there has been such an abundance of sophisticated work done on violence in its many forms, both in the context of modernist studies and of Woolf scholarship generally, extending and complicating our understanding of violence, conflict, force and aesthetics, that a retrospective look seemed likely to be less valuable than more current reflections. It is a long time since it has been possible to think of Woolf in isolation from her contemporaries or as a voice disconnected from the political currents of her time. Virginia Woolf and War played its part in that transformation of Woolf's reception.
The four scholars on this roundtable each have thought deeply about issues of violence, war, peace, conflict, force, and form in the work of Virginia Woolf. In At The Violet Hour: Modernism and Violence in England and Ireland, Sarah Cole describes Woolf as “one of the great formalists of violence in the twentieth century” (37), a description that brought home to me the vast change in Woolf's cultural presence eff ected by the past few decades of scholarship. Ashley Foster's work examines the interrelationships among pacifism, modernism, and war and tries to recuperate the lost threads of modernism's pacifist history.
The present study examined the impact of children's maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children.
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Advances in management have not greatly altered overall survival. Over the last decade, there have been significant scientific advances in our knowledge of cell cycle regulation and the complex oncogenic processes. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which are integral to the regulation of gene expression and which play a part in carcinogenesis. The literature on the role of microRNA in head and neck cancer is reviewed.
To introduce the role and significance of microRNAs in head and neck cancer.
The possibilities of incorporating microRNAs into clinical practice are discussed, including their potential role in diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of metastatic spread, therapy and tumour surveillance.
Discoveries in expression profiling of microRNA in head and neck oncology promise advancements in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these cancers.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a controversial but increasingly made diagnosis used in patients with a collection of often non-specific laryngeal symptoms. It is a clinical diagnosis, and its pathophysiology is currently poorly understood.
Previous reflux research has focused on injurious agents, acid, pepsin and biomarker expression. Failure of intrinsic defences in the larynx may cause changes in laryngeal epithelia, particularly alterations in carbonic anhydrases and E-cadherin. Carbonic anhydrase III levels vary in the larynx in response to laryngopharyngeal reflux, depending on location. Expression of E-cadherin, a known tumour suppressor, is reduced in the presence of reflux. Mucin expression also varies according to the severity of reflux.
Further research is required to define the clinical entity of laryngopharyngeal reflux, and to identify a definitive mechanism for mucosal injury. Understanding this mechanism should allow the development of a comprehensive model, which would enable future diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to be developed.
Neutron imaging as a method to perform in situ studies of hydrogen fuel cells, hydrogen storage devices, heat pipes, and batteries has made tremendous progress in recent years. Neutrons are useful to study light elements mixed with heavy Z elements where penetration by other forms of radiation is either impossible or incapable of contrasting the light elements. Useful spatial resolution available at neutron imaging facilities is now approaching 10 micrometers. Complimentary time resolution of 30 fps or greater is also possible with a spatial resolution approaching 300 micrometers. Here we will provide an overview of the technique of neutron imaging and experimental studies with neutrons at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Examples of in situ studies of fuel cells, hydrogen storage devices, heat pipes and batteries will be discussed.
Superconducting films of Ba2RECu3O7−x were prepared from aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic mixed solutions of barium, rare earth (RE), and copper nitrates. The solutions were sprayed onto heated (100) orientated MgO, ZrO2 —9%Y2O3 and SrTiO3 substrates to form a dehydrated nitrate precursor; subsequent thermal treatment yielded the superconducting 2:1:3 compound. Earlier magnetic film studies with aqueous-alcoholic mixed solutions of rare-earth iron garnet precursors showed that alcohol improves the spreading and drying of solutions on substrates. Here, however, alcohol significantly lowers the solubility of Ba(NO3)2. Some compositions tend to phase segregate during film preparation. A key objective of this study was to understand reaction paths of the precursors in order to optimize the furnace annealing schedule. Film and substrate reactions complicate the process, especially for SrTiO3, which otherwise has a good lattice match with films. Analytical methods used were Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy and temperature-dependent resistivity. The best samples showed a Tc of 95K and had zero resistivity below 89K. Advantages of this process include: simplicity of equipment, short deposition time; ease of making composition adjustments; and possible deposition on complex shapes.
We have carried out experiments for etching manganese-zinc ferrite in aqueous KOH solution using a copper vapor laser. The high repetition rate (5-10 KHz), the high peak power (∼ 250 KW), and the short pulse length (24-30 ns) result in rapid etching of grooves with high aspect ratios. The depth of the grooves increased with laser power and slower scan speeds while, the width was limited to the laser beam focus. The etching process is believed to be purely thermal in nature and limited only by the removal of the molten material out of the grooves. The copper vapor laser was also used as a source for projection deposition of various metals on quartz substrate by a pyrolytic process. This system achieved patterns with finefeature sizes, good resolution, and metallic properties of the deposits. In this technique, both the spun-on organometallic films as well as LCVD were tried.
The generation of high-energy-density plasmas by the electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding plasma shells or hollow z-pinches) has been explored analytically and through numerical simulation. These theoretical investigations have been performed for a variety of foil initial conditions (radius, height, and foil mass) for both capacitive and inductive pulsed power systems. The development of the theoretical modeling techniques is presented, covering both circuit models and plasma load models. The circuit models include simple single loop capacitive and multiple loop inductive systems. These circuits are coupled to the imploding plasma loads whose response has been studied by models ranging from simple time varying inductances to complex two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. Results from a series of configurations are given, showing the development of modelling techniques used to study the dynamics of the plasma implosion process and the role of instabilities. Interaction between analytic techniques and detailed numerical simulation has led to improvement in all theoretical modeling techniques presently used to study the implosion process. Comparisons of implosion times, shell structure, instability growth rates, and thermalization times have shown good agreement between analytic/heuristic techniques and more detailed two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. These in turn have provided excellent agreement with experimental results for both capacitor and inductor pulse power systems.
George Finlay died at the age of seventy-five on 24 January a hundred years ago and I am honoured to pay tribute to this distinguished Scottish scholar and philhellene on the occasion of his centenary. It is indeed fitting that this should take place in the School which possesses many of his books and papers.
It might well be asked why there has as yet—to the best of my knowledge—been no full biography of Finlay. A glance at the available material may suggest the answer. What are usually known as the Finlay Papers housed in the British School comprise a formidable collection. Perhaps the best-known items are the so-called Journals. They are in part genuine journals in the sense of a day to day record, particularly of Finlay's experiences when travelling round the Aegean, or in Turkey, or on a visit to Scotland, journeying via Malta and France or Switzerland.
In 1688 a Spanish octogenarian could have remembered when Spain was the first nation of Europe. Although in his youth the royal finances were already in ruinous state, no Spaniard at that time need reasonably have dreaded the future. Yet the octogenarian would have lived his remaining years amid disasters. From 1620 until the Truce of Ratisbon Spain was at war, with one or many nations, for 58 of the 65 years. By 1684 she had lost critical areas in Europe and much that she claimed in the Americas. Her naval reputation had perished at the Dunes and her infantry never recovered from the humiliation of Rocroi. Her economy now lay in ruins. Only her culture retained vestiges of its former vitality. Disillusioned by the success of the Neapolitan Luca Giordano at court, the last great painter of the Madrid school, Claudio Coello, was to die in 1693; but native architecture flourished in the ornate work of the Churriguera family. Except for the works of the Mexican nun-poetess, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, who died in 1695, few books of great literary worth were published in Spain during the last decades of the century, when political satire, significantly, was the liveliest manifestation of Spanish ingenuity. From 1685 to 1693 Francisco Bances Candamo wrote subtle political plays for the court, striving to revive the drama which, as he saw, had declined since the death of Calderón in 1681. The greatest of Spanish bibliographers, Nicolás Antonio, died in 1684, but his Bibliotheca hispana vetus was not published till 1696.