To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [i.e., Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)] has been considered a relative contraindication for radiation therapy (RT) to the abdomen or pelvis, potentially preventing patients with a diagnosis of IBD from receiving definitive therapy for their malignancy.
Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) conventions, a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted using the keywords RT, brachytherapy, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and toxicity.
A total of 1,206 publications were screened with an addition of 8 studies identified through hand searching. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. The total population across all studies was 497 patients, 50·5% having UC, 37% having CD and an additional 12·5% having unspecified IBD. Primary gastrointestinal malignancy (55%) followed by prostate cancer (40%) composed the bulk of the population. Acute and late grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal specific toxicity ranged from 0–23% to 0–13% respectively for those patients with IBD treated with RT to the abdomen or pelvis. In the literature reviewed, RT does not appear to increase fistula or stricture formation or IBD flares; however, one study did note RT to be a statistically significant risk factor for subsequent IBD flare on multivariate analysis.
A review of reported acute and late toxicities suggests that patients with IBD should still be considered for definitive radiotherapy. Patient characteristics including IBD distribution relative to the irradiated field, inflammatory activity at the time of radiation, overall disease severity and disease phenotype in the case of CD (fistulising versus stricturing versus inflammatory only) should be considered on an individual basis when evaluating potential patients. When possible, advanced techniques with strict organ at risk dose constraints should be employed to limit toxicity in this patient population.
Raqqa Governorate, Syria has recently been affected by overlapping conflicts related to the Syrian Civil war and occupation by ISIS, resulting in widespread displacement and disruption of economic livelihoods. However, little information is currently known about mental health needs and risk factors among women. Therefore, this study sought to examine potential risk factors for depressive symptoms among married women living in northern Syria.
Data were collected between March and April 2018 as part of an evaluation of an International Rescue Committee cash transfer program targeted toward vulnerable households. Using cross-sectional data from 214 married women participating in the program, linear regression models were generated to explore the associations between depressive symptoms [nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)] and its potential risk factors, including food insecurity, perceived deprivation of basic needs [the Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER) scale], and past-3-month intimate partner violence (IPV).
The average depressive symptom score was 10.5 (s.d.: 4.9; range: 2–27). In the final adjusted model, any form of recent IPV (β = 2.25; 95% CI 0.92–3.57; p = 0.001), severe food insecurity (β = 1.62; 95% CI 0.27–2.96; p = 0.02) and perceived needs (β = 0.38; 95% CI 0.18–0.57; p = 0.0002) were associated with an increase in depressive symptoms.
Study findings point to the need to address the mental health needs of women in conflict-affected areas of Syria. Programming to address risk factors for depression, including IPV and other factors associated with daily stressors such as food insecurity and deprivation of basic needs, may be effective in reducing depression in this population.
The objective of the present study was to investigate live weight (LW) gain, urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion and urination behaviour of dairy heifers grazing pasture, chicory and plantain in autumn and spring. The study comprised a 35-day autumn trial (with a 7-day acclimation period) and a 28-days spring trial (with a 7-day acclimation period). For each trial, 56 Friesian × Jersey heifers were blocked into five dietary treatments balanced for their LW and breeding worth (i.e. genetic merit of a cow for production and reproduction): 1·00 perennial ryegrass–white clover pasture (PA); 1·00 chicory (CH); 1·00 plantain (PL); 0·50 pasture + 0·50 chicory (PA + CH); and 0·50 pasture + 0·50 plantain (PA + PL). A fresh allocation of the herbage was offered every 3 days with allowance calculated according to feed requirement for maintenance plus gain of 1·0 kg LW/day. In both trials, LW gain was lower on CH than other treatments. In the spring trial, UN concentration and UN excretion were lower in CH and PL than other treatments. In autumn, a higher urination frequency was observed over the first 6 h after forage allocation in CH and PA + CH than other treatments. Data from the present study indicate that feeding CH alone limited heifer LW gain. However, heifers grazing swards containing chicory (CH and PA + CH) and plantain (PL and PA + PL) had the potential to lower nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching from soil compared with heifers grazing PA, by reducing N loading in urine patches.
Cushing disease (CD) constitutes a challenging condition for the pituitary surgeon. Given the variety of factors affecting outcomes in CD, it is uncertain whether the newer endoscopic technique improves the results of surgery.
A review was conducted of CD cases at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Analysis was done to: determine if surgical technique had an effect on outcome, identify the predictors of outcome and provide details of failed cases. Remission was defined as normal postoperative 24-hour urinary free cortisol (24-h UFC), suppression of morning serum cortisol to <50 nmol/L after 1mg of dexamethasone or being dependent on steroid replacement.
Forty-two patients met our inclusion criteria. Average follow-up period was 33 months. There were 15 macroadenomas and 27 microadenomas. Seventeen patients had an endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery and twenty-five patients had a microscopic transsphenoidal procedure. Long-term overall remission was achieved in 26 (62%) patients. There was no significant difference in remission rates between the two techniques (p value 0.757). Patient's subjective symptomatic improvement and drop of morning serum cortisol in the postoperative period to less than 100 nmol/L correlated with long-term remission (p value 0.0031and 0.0101, respectively) while repeat surgery was the only predictor of the lack of postoperative remission (p value 0.0008).
Revision surgery predicted poor remission rate for CD. Within the power of our study size, there was no difference in outcome between the endoscopic and microscopic approaches. Surgical outcomes should be reviewed in association with remission criteria used in a study.
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films have been prepared on ultrasonicated glass substrates using a specially designed chemical bath deposition technique via isochronal synthesis. The structural properties have been determined through XRD. The nanostructures have been identified in FE-SEM images. The chemical analysis has been carried out through EDAX. Optical analysis and PL studies were carried out on these films. The growth conditions and the characterization results exhibit strong dependence on the pH of the precursor solution as well as the temperature of the bath. Cu doping has been employed on the tailored films to make them low resistive and efficient for window layer applications.
For the first time, a new AFM mode is presented that simultaneously allows the measuring of adhesion and friction forces at different constant and continuous sliding velocities. Our methodology consists of implementing a circular relative displacement of the contact to reach a constant sliding velocity, with no stop periods. Some of the main advantages of performing a circular displacement is that continuous and high sliding velocities (more than 1 mm/s) can be reached compared to the low sliding velocities (up to 10 μm/s) available when using commercial AFM. Also, a stationary state is reached when doing measurements. Moreover, the circular mode can be coupled with the classical operating mode, for instance, force spectrum. Main applications of this circular mode are related to metrological measurements in physics that require high speed displacements. As an example, we report the evolution of friction and adhesive forces measured in air at different high sliding velocities.
Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tariffs on U.S. potato imports to Mexico were phased out by 1993. Citing phytosanitary issues, in 1996, the Mexican government placed quantitative restrictions on U.S. potato imports and restricted their import only to designated border areas. This article estimates the welfare cost of restricting U.S. potato imports into Mexico. We find that removing trade restrictions may lead to over 1.8 million tons of new imports into Mexico, a gain of consumer surplus of 4.0 billion pesos per year, and a loss of 2.9 billion pesos of producer surplus.
The use of magnetic elements within microelectronic devices are increasingly required in the fabrication of miniature magnetic structures with high energy densities. A synthesis technique is reported that yields Sb-doped CoPt nanoparticles possessing magnetic coercivities as high as 1671 kA/m and magnetic remanences of 295 kA/m, providing an energy product of 20 kJ/m2. Antimony doping was shown to influence the atomic ordering within the alloy sublattices, which allowed the tetragonalization temperature of the nanoparticle structure to be lowered by 200 °C to 400 °C, thereby reducing crystallite growth and sintering during annealing. The “as-synthesized” particles had average diameters of 4.5 nm, which rose to 25 nm on annealing at 600 °C. Synthesis of the doped CoPt particles with high-energy products together with control of particle size distributions in the range of 25 nm allows fabrication of micromagnetic structures by conventional microfabrication techniques such as spin coating and ink-jet printing.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, light, cold stratification, dry storage, solution pH, solution osmotic potential, and planting depth on germination and emergence of dame's rocket. Maximal germination (> 80%) of fresh seeds occurred at alternating temperatures ≥ 25/15 C in both alternating light/dark and continuous darkness. However, < 10% of seeds germinated at or below 20/10 C, with lower germination in the presence of light than in darkness. Cold stratification at 4 C for 4 to 16 wk enhanced germination at low alternating temperatures (≤ 20/10 C), but depressed germination at warm temperature regimes (≥ 25/15 C). After 1 yr of dry storage (after-ripening), germination exceeded 94% and did not differ significantly among temperature regimes. Germination exceeded 60% in solutions with pH 3 to 10. Germination was reduced below 50% in solutions with osmotic potentials below −0.6 MPa. Percent emergence was greater than 56% at burial depths in soil of 0 to 5 cm, with maximal emergence (93 to 99%) at 0 to 2 cm. Dame's rocket seeds possess non-deep physiological dormancy at maturity, but when dormancy is alleviated, the seeds are capable of germinating in a variety of climatic and edaphic conditions.
The study aim was to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Egyptian schoolchildren and its effect on growth parameters.
A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among 286 schoolchildren (168 boys and 118 girls), with a mean age of 11.04 ± 0.19 years, to determine the prevalence of H. pylori. The presence of the bacterium was assessed using the [13C]urea breath test. Relevant personal and socio-economic data on risk factors for infection were collected. Height and weight were analysed in relation to H. pylori infection.
The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 72.38%. Attending school in a socially deprived area and residing in an overcrowded home were the major risk factors for infection. Differences between infected and non-infected children were significant with regard to body weight and height (weight: 39.5 ± 1.0 vs. 44.6 ± 1.8 kg, P = 0.05; height: 139.9 ± 1.3 vs. 144.2 ± 2.1 cm; P = 0.009). The number of children (both boys and girls) falling below the 5th percentile of height-for-age was significantly higher in infected than non-infected children (P = 001), similarly for Z-scores for height-for-age below –2.0 (P = 0.003).
The results demonstrate not only that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is extremely high among Egyptian schoolchildren, but also that the adverse effects of the infection reach far beyond the stomach. Evidence of the burden of infection on growth failure is presented.
In this work, the material properties of AuNi5 films prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) to be used as contact materials in RF MEMS switches are investigated. PLD is used because it provides good wide range thickness control (few nanometers to tens of microns) while preserving ablation target stoichiometry. Films with thickness in the range 50 - 450 nm were deposited at Laser energy density (fluence) in the range 0.55 - 1.38 J.cm-2 on silicon substrates at room temperature. An aperture was placed between the plume and the substrate to filter out large particulates. The presence of the aperture reduced surface roughness from 8.5 nm to 4.3 nm as determined by optical profilometry. In addition, the presence of the aperture during deposition has been found to affect film stoichiometry. The latter was evaluated using X-ray Fluorescence and the Nickel content has been found to vary in the range 1.1 - 9.5%. Only films deposited with the aperture removed maintain target stoichiometry (5.2% Ni). Hence, it is believed that the presence of the aperture causes non-congruent transfer. The Nickel content within the range under investigation has practically no effect on film morphology or hardness. Laser fluence, however, has been found to be the dominant factor determining film properties. Finally, 100 µm wide AuNi5 strips 290 nm and 130 nm thick deposited at room temperature have been successfully formed on silicon wafers by lift-off photolithography.
Actinomycetes isolated from carrot rhizosphere were screened for
their in vitro and in vivo antagonism to Pythium
coloratum Vaartaja, a causal agent of cavity-spot disease of carrots
(Daucus carota L.). Forty-five streptomycete and
non-streptomycete actinomycete isolates were screened for in vitro
antagonism in a carrot bioassay. Of these, seven
which reduced or prevented lesion formation were identified using
cultural, morphological, physiological,
biochemical and cell wall characteristics as Streptomyces janthinus,
S. cinerochromogenes, Streptoverticillium
netropsis, Actinomadura rubra, Actinoplanes
philippinensis, Micromonospora carbonaceae, and Streptosporangium
albidum. All seven isolates tested produced non-volatile antifungal
metabolites, but failed to produce inhibitory
volatile compounds. Actinoplanes philippinensis and M.
carbonacea grew epiphytically on the hyphae and oospores
of P. coloratum. The external surface of the oospores of the pathogen
was heavily colonized by both hyperparasites,
their hyphae were found to coil tightly around the oospore wall, and frequently
caused cytoplasmic collapse of
oospores. Sporangia of A. philippinensis were often seen to
emerge from the colonized hyphae and oospores of P.
coloratum. None of the other actinomycete isolates showed hyperparasitism.
All seven isolates significantly reduced the incidence of cavity spot
artificially infested with the pathogen
in the glasshouse. Streptomyces janthinus and Strepto.
albidum were the most effective in reducing the disease in
inoculated plants. In addition, all the actinomycetes species except Ac.
rubra and M. carbonacea, in the presence
or absence of the pathogen, significantly (P<0·05)
increased mean fresh root weight compared to the treatment
which included P. coloratum only. This study shows that these
actinomycetes have considerable potential for
future use as biocontrol agents of cavity spot under natural field conditions.
This is the first report of cavity-spot
disease of carrots being controlled by microbial antagonists, and is the
report of non-streptomycete
actinomycetes to control a Pythium disease.
An electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code is used to
density effects on the nonlinear amplification of inverse-bremsstrahlung
acceleration, according to the schemes proposed by Kawata et al.
and by Hussein
and Pato. It is shown that although the space-charge self-consistent field
modify the basic results obtained with the one-particle model, the electromagnetic
fields produced by the transverse particle current play a substantial role
In neonates with duct-dependent congenital heart defects, a reliable non-pharmacological, non-surgical method of maintaining flow through the arterial duct may simplify the management. Stent implantation into the arterial duct has been proposed as such a method. In order to evaluate the technical difficulties which may accompany clinical application, stent implantation into the arterial duct was attempted in 32 newborn lambs aged two to nine days (mean 4.2±1.4) weighing 2.4–7.3 kg (mean 4.6±1.0). Four different types of stent were implanted and the ease of implantation and outcomes were assessed. Stent implantation was technically successful in 28 of the 32 lambs (88%). Of these, 11 lambs died shortly after stent implantation with patent ducts, five lambs had early occlusion of the duct and 12 lambs were entered into a long-term study. The Gianturco-Roubin stent was too rigid and too long to enable successful implantation. The Palmaz-Schatz stent was poorly radio-opaque and was difficult to place accurately. When the aortic orifice was not completely covered, the duct occluded within a few days of implantation. The articulation gap also allowed duct tissue to prolapse into the middle of the stent. The Medinvent and Tower stents were simpler to position due to their superior radio-opacity. The Tower stent had an additional advantage in being a single strand stent which could be easily retrieved if misplaced.
The turbulent flow resulting from a top-hat jet exhausting into a large room was investigated. The Reynolds number based on exit conditions was approximately 105. Velocity moments to third order were obtained using flying and stationary hot-wire and burst-mode laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) techniques. The entire room was fully seeded for the LDA measurements. The measurements are shown to satisfy the differential and integral momentum equations for a round jet in an infinite environment.
The results differ substantially from those reported by some earlier investigators, both in the level and shape of the profiles. These differences are attributed to the smaller enclosures used in the earlier works and the recirculation within them. Also, the flying hot-wire and burst-mode LDA measurements made here differ from the stationary wire measurements, especially the higher moments and away from the flow centreline. These differences are attributed to the cross-flow and rectification errors on the latter at the high turbulence intensities present in this flow (30% minimum at centreline). The measurements are used, together with recent dissipation measurements, to compute the energy balance for the jet, and an attempt is made to estimate the pressure-velocity and pressure-strain rate correlations.
The failure of local isotropy to describe the experimentally obtained derivative moments in turbulent shear flows has previously been well-documented, but is briefly reviewed. The same data are then used to evaluate the hypothesis that the turbulence is locally axisymmetric. Locally axisymmetric turbulence is defined herein as turbulence which is locally invariant to rotations about a preferred axis.
The derivative moment relations are derived from the general form of the two-point velocity correlation tensor near the origin for axisymmetric turbulence. These are used to derive relations for the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy, the mean-square vorticity, and the components of each. Almost all of the experimental derivative moment data are shown to be consistent with these equations, and thus with local axisymmetry.
This paper describes further characteristics of the immunization of sheep against schistosomes using live, irradiated schistosomula. Sheep immunized with a non-virulent strain of Schistosoma mattheei were protected against a more virulent strain of the same species for over a year. As there was no evidence that the irradiated parasites were able to persist this long, it was concluded that the vaccine had induced a sterile resistance. Heterologous vaccination, using irradiated S. mattheei schistosomula to immunize against S. bovis or irradiated S. mansoni schistosomula to immunize against S. mattheei, failed to induce any protection.