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To examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial and antithrombogenic materials incorporated into peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) to prevent bloodstream infection, thrombosis, and catheter occlusion.
Prospective cohort study involving 52 hospitals participating in the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium. Sample included adult hospitalized medical patients who received a PICC between January 2013 and October 2019. Coated and impregnated catheters were identified by name, brand, and device marketing or regulatory materials. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with robust sandwich standard error estimates accounting for the clustered nature of data were used to identify factors associated with PICC complications in coated versus noncoated devices across general care, intensive care unit (ICU), and oncology patients. Results were expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Of 42,562 patients with a PICC, 39,806 (93.5%) were plain polyurethane, 2,263 (5.3%) incorporated antimicrobial materials, and 921 (2.2%) incorporated antithrombogenic materials. Most were inserted in general ward settings (n = 28,111, 66.0%), with 12, 078 (28.4%) and 1,407 (3.3%) placed in ICU and oncological settings, respectively. Within the entire cohort, 540 (1.3%) developed thrombosis, 745 (1.8%) developed bloodstream infection, and 4,090 (9.6%) developed catheter occlusion. Adjusting for known risk factors, antimicrobial PICCs were not associated with infection reduction (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.82–1.64), and antithrombogenic PICCs were not associated with reduction in thrombosis and occlusion (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.92–1.44). Results were consistent across populations and care settings.
Antimicrobial and antithrombogenic PICCs were not associated with a reduction in major catheter complications. Guidance aimed at informing use of these devices, balancing benefits against cost, appear necessary.
Implementation of genome-scale sequencing in clinical care has significant challenges: the technology is highly dimensional with many kinds of potential results, results interpretation and delivery require expertise and coordination across multiple medical specialties, clinical utility may be uncertain, and there may be broader familial or societal implications beyond the individual participant. Transdisciplinary consortia and collaborative team science are well poised to address these challenges. However, understanding the complex web of organizational, institutional, physical, environmental, technologic, and other political and societal factors that influence the effectiveness of consortia is understudied. We describe our experience working in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, a multi-institutional translational genomics consortium.
A key aspect of the CSER consortium was the juxtaposition of site-specific measures with the need to identify consensus measures related to clinical utility and to create a core set of harmonized measures. During this harmonization process, we sought to minimize participant burden, accommodate project-specific choices, and use validated measures that allow data sharing.
Identifying platforms to ensure swift communication between teams and management of materials and data were essential to our harmonization efforts. Funding agencies can help consortia by clarifying key study design elements across projects during the proposal preparation phase and by providing a framework for data sharing data across participating projects.
In summary, time and resources must be devoted to developing and implementing collaborative practices as preparatory work at the beginning of project timelines to improve the effectiveness of research consortia.
Core-collapse supernova explosions are driven by a central engine that converts a small fraction of the gravitational binding energy released during core collapse to outgoing kinetic energy. The suspected mode for this energy conversion is the neutrino mechanism, where a fraction of the neutrinos emitted from the newly formed protoneutron star are absorbed by and heat the matter behind the supernova shock. Accurate neutrino-matter interaction terms are crucial for simulating these explosions. In this proceedings for IAUS 331, SN 1987A, 30 years later, we explore several corrections to the neutrino-nucleon scattering opacity and demonstrate the effect on the dynamics of the core-collapse supernova central engine via two dimensional neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. Our results reveal that the explosion properties are sensitive to corrections to the neutral-current scattering cross section at the 10-20% level, but only for densities at or above ~1012 g cm−3.
This book will expand your therapeutic repertoire. Once crises have been resolved, the clinician and patient explore what can change in order to increase the patient's capacities for balance, harmony and satisfaction. Adult personality growth increases self-awareness, amplifies capacities for realistic social cognition and reduces avoidances. The outcome is the achievement of a wider range of safe emotional expression and mastery of previous traumas and losses. The three parts of this book are on identity, relationships and control of emotion. The chapters illustrate how observation, formulation and technique are linked in a continuing process of deepening understanding. Vignettes give examples of what the therapist can say to help a patient, especially at difficult times in treatment. This is a cutting-edge work integrating elements from various schools of psychotherapy and studies of adult development. It links theories to pragmatic techniques and will appeal to both trainees and experienced clinicians.