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To present a rare case of lingual thyroid detected using a hybrid of single photon emission computed tomography and standard computed tomography in a young woman with hypothyroidism.
Materials and methods:
A 29-year-old woman was screened for autoimmune thyroid disorders in early pregnancy, and found to have subclinical hypothyroidism. No thyroid tissue was found in the anterior neck upon ultrasonography, raising suspicions of an ectopic thyroid. The patient was treated with levothyroxine throughout the remainder of her pregnancy, and developed postpartum thyroiditis requiring an increase in levothyroxine dosage. Whole-body scintigraphy and zoomed static head and neck scintigraphy were performed. Abnormal 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake was observed in the oral region, whereas no uptake was found in the usual thyroid location. Hybrid imaging using single photon emission computed tomography and standard computed tomography was performed to improve three-dimensional representation of the area of increased activity.
The latter imaging modality detected ectopic thyroid tissue in the tongue.
Whole body 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy and a hybrid of single photon emission computed tomography and standard computed tomography are effective imaging modalities for the investigation of ectopic thyroid tissue. The latter modality is particularly recommended, as it allows more precise spatial visualisation of increased isotope uptake activity in the head and neck.
In this paper the numerical method for solution of an aeroelastic model describing the interactions of air flow with vocal folds is described. The flow is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations spatially discretized with the aid of the stabilized finite element method. The motion of the computational domain is treated with the aid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method. The structure dynamics is replaced by a mechanically equivalent system with the two degrees of freedom governed by a system of ordinary differential equations and discretized in time with the aid of an implicit multistep method and strongly coupled with the flow model. The influence of inlet/outlet boundary conditions is studied and the numerical analysis is performed and compared to the related results from literature.
Theta cordance is a novel quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) measure that correlates with cerebral perfusion. A series of clinical studies has demonstrated that the prefrontal theta cordance value decreases after 1 week of treatment in responders to antidepressants and that this effect precedes clinical improvement. Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has a unique rapid antidepressant effect but its influence on theta cordance is unknown.
In a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled experiment we studied the acute effect of ketamine (0.54 mg/kg within 30 min) on theta cordance in a group of 20 healthy volunteers.
Ketamine infusion induced a decrease in prefrontal theta cordance and an increase in the central region theta cordance after 10 and 30 min. The change in prefrontal theta cordance correlated with ketamine and norketamine blood levels after 10 min of ketamine infusion.
Our data indicate that ketamine infusion immediately induces changes similar to those that monoamineric-based antidepressants induce gradually. The reduction in theta cordance could be a marker and a predictor of the fast-acting antidepressant effect of ketamine, a hypothesis that could be tested in depressive patients treated with ketamine.