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To analyse GxE interactions assess non-shared environmental (E) risk factors for the development of AN specific for sisters discordant for an ED, polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (G),.
We interviewed 128 sister pairs discordant for an eating disorder using the Oxford-RFI as part of the European "Healthy Eating" multicenter study at 3 university centres (Vienna, London, Barcelona) (AN-R: 58; AN-BP: 70; 128 sisters without ED). To examine association between AN, G and E, and G x E-interaction, conditional logistic regression was used with a Cox proportional hazards regression model using the exact method.
Genotype (GT) distributions did not differ between the sister groups. Significant main effects were found for disruptive events, interpersonal problems and family dieting behaviour. The risk for AN increased with higher levels in these variables independently of the genotype. Significant interactions were found for G x parental problems and G x burden by parental psychiatric disorder. The increase of risk for AN with increasing number of problems with parents is larger for the S/S genotype than for L/L. However, a higher burden by parental psychiatric illness (subjective E according to Turkheimer 2000) increased the risk for AN-this was larger for the L/L than for the S/S GT.
This study suggests that there is an interaction between stress (problems with parents) and the ss GT which increases the risk of developing AN.
The invasive alien Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was detected in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada, in 2007. Because S. schevyrewi is a potential vector of the Dutch elm disease pathogen (Ophiostomanovo-ulmi Brasier; Fungi: Ophiostomataceae), the natural history of the beetle was studied from 2009 to 2012 in the two provinces, where the disease is managed to protect Ulmus americana Linnaeus (Ulmaceae). Typically, healthy trees become infected when their xylem is contacted during feeding by spore-bearing scolytine adults that have flown from a diseased tree; adults emerging from brood galleries in diseased trees frequently carry spores. We caught flying S. schevyrewi adults from May to October; adults were weakly attracted to healthy Ulmus Linnaeus but were strongly attracted to Ulmus pumila Linnaeus stressed by girdling. Scolytus schevrewi colonised and completed development in girdled trees and trap logs of U. pumila. In contrast to other studies, U. americana – the major source of pathogen spores in the area – was never colonised as a brood host. Our results suggest that S. schevyrewi will primarily use U. pumila, which, in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, seldom exhibits symptoms of Dutch elm disease. Thus, arrival of S. schevyrewi does not appear to require changes to Dutch elm disease management programmes.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Tebufenozide (Mimic) kills Lepidoptera larvae that ingest it. Aerial applications of tebufenozide were made against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in boreal forest in Manitoba, Canada, in 1999 and 2000. In 2000 and 2001, moths in sprayed and unsprayed plots were sampled with light traps; trapping was supplemented by foliage sampling. Relative to unsprayed plots, catches of spruce budworm moths in plots sprayed in 1999 and 2000 were depressed in 2000, but not in 2001. Host tree defoliation was reduced in 2000 by 1999 and 2000 applications; the 2000 application reduced numbers of spruce budworm larvae in 2000 and 2001. Multivariate analysis revealed negative effects of tebufenozide application on two species of non-target moths in 2000 and no negative effects in 2001. Negatively affected species have larvae feeding in the tree canopy at the time of spray application. Higher catches of non-target species in sprayed treatments were observed for three species in 2000 and two species in 2001. We conclude that tebufenozide can depress the numbers of spruce budworm larvae and provide foliage protection during the year of application and the following year, and that negative effects on non-target species are detectable for about 15 months after application.
Discrete episodes of overconsumption may induce a positive energy balance and impair metabolic control. However, the effects of an ecologically relevant, single day of balanced macronutrient overfeeding are unknown. Twelve healthy men (of age 22 (sd 2) years, BMI 26·1 (sd 4·2) kg/m2) completed two 28 h, single-blind experimental trials. In a counterbalanced repeated measures design, participants either consumed their calculated daily energy requirements (energy balance trial (EB): 10 755 (sd 593) kJ) or were overfed by 50 % (overfeed trial (OF): 16 132 (sd 889) kJ) under laboratory supervision. Participants returned to the laboratory the next day, after an overnight fast, to complete a mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT). Appetite was not different between trials during day 1 (P>0·211) or during the MTT in the fasted or postprandial state (P>0·507). Accordingly, plasma acylated ghrelin, total glucagon-like peptide-1 and total peptide YY concentrations did not differ between trials during the MTT (all P>0·335). Ad libitum energy intake, assessed upon completion of the MTT, did not differ between trials (EB 6081 (sd 2260) kJ; OF 6182 (sd 1960) kJ; P=0·781). Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not different between trials (P>0·715). Fasted NEFA concentrations were lower in OF compared with EB (P=0·005), and TAG concentrations increased to a greater extent on OF than on EB during the MTT (P=0·009). The absence of compensatory changes in appetite-related variables after 1 d of mixed macronutrient overfeeding highlights the limited physiological response to defend against excess energy intake. This supports the concept that repeated discrete episodes of overconsumption may promote weight gain, while elevations in postprandial lipaemia may increase CVD risk.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
In Manitoba, Canada, commercial soybeans and two types of field beans, navy and pinto, were sampled for plant bugs. At the centre and margins of 36 fields, sweep net and tap tray samples were taken weekly. In all three crops, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae) comprised >78% and Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) <10% of adult mirids. Species composition varied among years but not among crops. For Lygus Hahn, nymphs were 46% of the catch in trays and 23% in sweeps, but total Lygus catch in trays was >2% of that in sweeps. Catch/sample effort was similar at field centres and margins for both Lygus adults and nymphs. Lygus lineolaris reproduced and developed in all three crops. In field beans, Lygus adults were first collected in late vegetative and early pod set stages and late instar nymphs and adults were present from pod elongation until maturity – results consistent with immigration of first summer generation reproductive adults and development of the second generation in the crops. There was evidence of late season immigration of Lygus into all crops. There was no loss of seed quantity attributable to mirids in any of the crops; in field beans there was no evidence that mirids reduced seed quality.
Clovis sites occur throughout the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, but are poorly documented in the central Rio Grande rift region. Here, we present data from two relatively unknown Clovis projectile point assemblages from this region: the first is from the Mockingbird Gap Clovis site and the second is from a survey of the surrounding region. Our goals are to reconstruct general features of the paleoecological adaptation of Clovis populations in the region using raw material sourcing and then to compare the point technology in the region to other Clovis assemblages in the Southwest and across the continent. Our results show that both assemblages were manufactured from similar suites of raw materials that come almost exclusively from the central Rio Grande rift region and the adjacent mountains of New Mexico. Additionally, we show that Clovis projectile points in the study region are significantly smaller than the continental average. Our results suggest that Clovis populations in this region operated within a large, well-known, and relatively high-elevation territory encompassing much of northern and western New Mexico.
The Great Plains of North America have a rich archaeological record that spans the period from Late Glacial to Historic times, a period that also witnessed significant changes in climate and ecology. Chronometric dating of archaeological sites in many areas of the Great Plains, however, is often problematic, largely because charcoal and wood—the preferred materials for radiocarbon dating—are scarce in this grassland environment with few trees. Two reference archaeological sites are studied here: Mustang Spring and Lubbock Lake, Texas, USA. We carry out a geochronological approach based on a cross-study of carbon-derived data: combustion yield, δ13C, 14C age differences between high temperature and low temperature released carbon, and the 14C age itself. A study that incorporates multiple approaches is required to solve issues induced by the sedimentological context, which is rich in both freshwater diatoms and phytoliths from quite different origins. Analysis of carbon-derived data allows us to draw a succession model of dry and wet episodes and to associate it with a chronological framework. In this way, we can assert that, for the Mustang Spring site, several human occupations existed from ∼11 kyr BP to ∼8.7 kyr BP along the 110-cm-long series with an interruption of ∼150 yr that is associated with a palustrine environment between the Plainview and Firstview occupations.
To evaluate the clinical presentation and outcomes of treatment for patients with chondrosarcomas involving the skull base and temporal bone.
Tertiary medical centre.
Cases of histologically confirmed chondrosarcoma involving the skull base and temporal bones.
Main outcome measures:
Demographic features of presenting patients; presenting symptoms and signs; surgical approach employed; use of post-operative radiation therapy; histological grade of tumour; and interval of post-operative follow up.
Results: Twelve patients were identified with chondrosarcomas involving the skull base, with post-operative follow up ranging from three to 33 years. The average age at presentation was 42 years. The most common presenting symptoms were diplopia, decreased visual acuity and headaches. Five of the 12 patients required multiple surgical procedures.
Patients with chondrosarcoma involving the skull base and temporal bone may present in a variety of ways. Surgical resection, even subtotal, in combination with radiation therapy, can often provide good tumour control over many years for these rare tumours.
Numerous studies have reported association between variants in the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (dysbindin) gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia. However, the pattern of results is complex and to date, no specific risk marker or haplotype has been consistently identified. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in these studies has ranged from 5 to 20. We attempted to replicate previous findings by testing 16 SNPs in samples of 41 Australian pedigrees, 194 Australian cases and 180 controls, and 197 Indian pedigrees. No globally significant evidence for association was observed in any sample, despite power calculations indicating sufficient power to replicate several previous findings. Possible explanations for our results include sample differences in background linkage dis-equilibrium and/or risk allele effect size, the presence of multiple risk alleles upon different haplotypes, or the presence of a single risk allele upon multiple haplotypes. Some previous associations may also represent false positives. Examination of Caucasian HapMap phase II genotype data spanning the DTNBP1 region indicates upwards of 40 SNPs are required to satisfactorily assess all nonredundant variation within DTNBP1 and its potential regulatory regions for association with schizophrenia. More comprehensive studies in multiple samples will be required to determine whether specific DTNBP1 variants function as risk factors for schizophrenia.
Aleochara bipustulata (L., 1761) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a Palearctic species and a natural enemy of the cabbage root maggot, Delia radicum (L., 1758) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). It has been identified as a candidate for introduction to Canada for classical biological control of D. radicum. Recent taxonomic studies assert that A. bipustulata is absent from the Nearctic; however, there are numerous publications reporting the presence of the species in North America. We examined voucher material relating to these publications and additional museum specimens labeled as A. bipustulata. In addition, we reared Aleochara spp. from D. radicum puparia collected in the Canadian prairie provinces. Specimens that, based on external anatomy, could be A. bipustulata were definitively identified using characters of the genitalia. All of the 141 museum specimens labeled A. bipustulata were found to be Aleochara verna Say, 1836. A total of 811 individuals of Aleochara spp. were reared from D. radicum puparia; of these, 690 were Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal, 1810, 121 were A. verna, and none were A. bipustulata. We have found no evidence that A. bipustulata occurs in North America.
The effects of specialization on subsequent morphological evolution are poorly understood. Specialization has been implicated in both adaptive radiations that result from key innovations and evolutionary “dead ends,” where specialized characteristics appear to limit subsequent evolutionary options. Despite much theoretical debate, however, empirical studies remain infrequent. In this paper, we use sister-group comparisons to evaluate the effect of morphological specialization to a particular ecological niche, hypercarnivory, on subsequent taxonomic and morphological diversity. Six sets of sister groups are identified in which one clade exhibits hypercarnivorous characteristics and the sister clade does not. Comparison results are summed across the categories “hypercarnivore” and “sister group.” We also evaluate whether increasing degrees of specialization are correlated with decreasing phenotypic variation. Results presented here indicate that specialization to hypercarnivory has no effect on taxonomic diversity, but a strong effect on subsequent morphological diversity related to the jaws and dentition, and that increasing specialization does not correlate with morphological diversity except in the most specialized sabertoothed taxa, which exhibit higher variance than less specialized morphs, possibly due to selection on other characteristics.
Research on the Folsom Paleoindian type site, involving renewed field investigations and an analysis of extant collections from the 1920s excavations, was undertaken between 1997 and 2000. The preliminary results of that research show that all excavations to date have been in the kill area, which took place in a small and relatively shallow tributary to the Pleistocene paleovalley of Wild Horse Arroyo as well as in the paleovalley itself. Preliminary butchering of ∼32 Bison antiquus took place near where the animals were dropped. The kill area is dominated by low-utility bone elements and broken projectile points; high-utility bones and tools for processing meat and hides are rare or absent, and either occur in another, as-yet undiscovered area of the site, or altogether off-site. Faunal remains are generally in excellent condition. Those in the tributary are mostly in primary context, and underwent rapid burial beneath fine-grained (dominantly aeolian) sediments, which in turn were subsequently armored by a shingle shale; those in the paleovalley experienced postdepositional transport and redeposition. The small lithic assemblage is dominated by projectile points and comprised of material mostly from two sources in the Texas panhandle, several hundred kilometers southeast of the site. It also includes stone obtained from sources at comparable distances north and northwest of the site. A series of radiocarbon ages is available for the stratigraphic units, nearly all from charcoal of non-cultural origins; radiocarbon dates on bison bone put the age of the kill at 10,500 B.P.