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Electrodynamic fluidization is a technique to generate suspensions of electrically conducting particles using electric forces to overcome their weight. An analysis of electrodynamic fluidization is presented for a monodisperse aerosol of non-coalescing particles of infinite electrical conductivity and negligible inertia suspended in a gas in the gap between two horizontal plate electrodes. A DC voltage is applied between the electrodes that charges the particles initially deposited on the lower electrode and leads to a vertical electric force that lifts the particles and pushes them upwards across the gap. The direction of this force reverses when the particles reach the upper electrode, pushing them downwards until they fall onto the lower electrode and repeat the cycle. Stationary distributions of particles are computed for given values of the applied voltage and the number of suspended particles per unit electrode area. Interparticle collisions play a role when the second of these parameters is of the order of the inverse of the particle cross-section or larger. The electric field induced by the charge of the particles opposes the field due to the applied voltage at the lower electrode and thus sets an upper bound to the number of particles that can be suspended for a given voltage. This bound is attained in the normal operation of a fluidization device, in which there is an excess of particles deposited at the lower electrode, and is computed as a function of the applied voltage. The predictions are compared to experimental results in the literature. A linear stability analysis for dilute aerosols with negligible collision effects shows that the stationary solution becomes unstable when the deposition threshold is approached with a number of suspended particles per unit electrode area larger than a certain critical value. A hydrodynamic instability appears near the lower electrode, where the electric force on a localized accumulation of charged particles leads to an upward gas flow that helps carrying the particles away from the electrode and increases the amplitude of the initial particle accumulation. The instability gives rise to electrohydrodynamic plumes whose dynamics involves collisions, mergers and generation of new plumes.
The main goal of this paper is to provide insights into swash flow dynamics, generated by a non-breaking solitary wave on a steep slope. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the details of runup and rundown processes. Special attention is given to the evolution of the bottom boundary layer over the slope in terms of flow separation, vortex formation and the development of a hydraulic jump during the rundown phase. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the flow velocity fields by means of high-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV). Detailed pathline patterns of the swash flows and free-surface profiles were also visualized. Highly resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out. Numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements with a focus on the velocities inside the boundary layer. The overall agreement is excellent during the initial stage of the runup process. However, discrepancies in the model/data comparison grow as time advances because the numerical model does not simulate the shoreline dynamics accurately. Introducing small temporal and spatial shifts in the comparison yields adequate agreement during the entire rundown process. Highly resolved numerical solutions are used to study physical variables that are not measured in laboratory experiments (e.g. pressure field and bottom shear stress). It is shown that the main mechanism for vortex shedding is correlated with the large pressure gradient along the slope as the rundown flow transitions from supercritical to subcritical, under the developing hydraulic jump. Furthermore, the bottom shear stress analysis indicates that the largest values occur at the shoreline and that the relatively large bottom shear stress also takes place within the supercritical flow region, being associated with the backwash vortex system rather than the plunging wave. It is clearly demonstrated that the combination of laboratory observations and numerical simulations have indeed provided significant insights into the swash flow processes.
Electrostatic atomization of a liquid of finite electrical conductivity in the so-called cone-jet regime relies on the electric shear stresses that appear in a region of the liquid surface when a meniscus of the liquid is subjected to an intense electric field. An order of magnitude analysis is used to describe the flow induced by these stresses, which drive the liquid of the meniscus into a jet that issues from the tip of the meniscus and breaks into droplets at some distance from it. When the dielectric constant of the liquid is large, the electric shear stresses extend into the jet and cause a depression that sucks liquid from the meniscus. The induced flow rate is estimated and shown to represent approximately the minimum flow rate at which a cone-jet can be established. It is argued that the meniscus can be stabilized by the electric field that the charge of the jet induces on it. This stabilizing mechanism weakens when the flow rate supplied to the meniscus decreases, and its failure may determine an alternative minimum flow rate for the cone-jet regime. The instability of the jet and existing scaling laws for the size of the spray droplets are discussed.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
The neutralization of a dilute spray of electrically charged droplets by ions of the opposite polarity generated by a corona discharge at a wire ring is analysed numerically. A Lagrangian description of the spray and Eulerian descriptions of the gas and the ions are used to deal with this two-way coupled problem. A model of the corona consisting of a line of charge and a distribution of ion sources is proposed. In the configuration that is analysed, neutralization usually begins at the shroud of the spray and extends to inner regions when the corona current increases. The number density of droplets is large at the shroud due to neutralized droplets that are no longer pushed by the electric field. These droplets can be dragged towards a collector surface by a weak forced flow that overcomes the ionic wind due to the force of the ions on the gas. The fraction of the spray charge that is neutralized increases with the corona current, but the value of this current required for full neutralization is several times larger than the inlet electric current of the spray owing to loss of ions to the boundaries of the system. The electric field induced by the charge of the droplets opposes the field due to the voltage applied between the wire ring and the extractor through which the droplets are injected, and thus reduces the threshold voltage of the corona and significantly affects its current–voltage characteristic, which may become multivalued. In turn, the electric field due to the applied voltage and the space charge of the ions affects the shape of the spray and the velocity of the droplets.
A quasi-cylindrical approximation is used to analyse the axisymmetric swirling flow of a liquid with a hollow air core in the chamber of a pressure swirl atomizer. The liquid is injected into the chamber with an azimuthal velocity component through a number of slots at the periphery of one end of the chamber, and flows out as an annular sheet through a central orifice at the other end, following a conical convergence of the chamber wall. An effective inlet condition is used to model the effects of the slots and the boundary layer that develops at the nearby endwall of the chamber. An analysis is presented of the structure of the liquid sheet at the end of the exit orifice, where the flow becomes critical in the sense that upstream propagation of long-wave perturbations ceases to be possible. This analysis leads to a boundary condition at the end of the orifice that is an extension of the condition of maximum flux used with irrotational models of the flow. As is well known, the radial pressure gradient induced by the swirling flow in the bulk of the chamber causes the overpressure that drives the liquid towards the exit orifice, and also leads to Ekman pumping in the boundary layers of reduced azimuthal velocity at the convergent wall of the chamber and at the wall opposite to the exit orifice. The numerical results confirm the important role played by the boundary layers. They make the thickness of the liquid sheet at the end of the orifice larger than predicted by irrotational models, and at the same time tend to decrease the overpressure required to pass a given flow rate through the chamber, because the large axial velocity in the boundary layers takes care of part of the flow rate. The thickness of the boundary layers increases when the atomizer constant (the inverse of a swirl number, proportional to the flow rate scaled with the radius of the exit orifice and the circulation around the air core) decreases. A minimum value of this parameter is found below which the layer of reduced azimuthal velocity around the air core prevents the pressure from increasing and steadily driving the flow through the exit orifice. The effects of other parameters not accounted for by irrotational models are also analysed in terms of their influence on the boundary layers.
An Eulerian multifluid model is used to describe the evolution of an electrospray plume and the flow induced in the surrounding gas by the drag of the electrically charged spray droplets in the space between an injection electrode containing the electrospray source and a collector electrode. The spray is driven by the voltage applied between the two electrodes. Numerical computations and order-of-magnitude estimates for a quiescent gas show that the droplets begin to fly back toward the injection electrode at a certain critical value of the flux of droplets in the spray, which depends very much on the electrical conditions at the injection electrode. As the flux is increased toward its critical value, the electric field induced by the charge of the droplets partially balances the field due to the applied voltage in the vicinity of the injection electrode, leading to a spray that rapidly broadens at a distance from its origin of the order of the stopping distance at which the droplets lose their initial momentum and the effect of their inertia becomes negligible. The axial component of the electric field first changes sign in this region, causing the fly back. The flow induced in the gas significantly changes this picture in the conditions of typical experiments. A gas plume is induced by the drag of the droplets whose entrainment makes the radius of the spray away from the injection electrode smaller than in a quiescent gas, and convects the droplets across the region of negative axial electric field that appears around the origin of the spray when the flux of droplets is increased. This suppresses fly back and allows much higher fluxes to be reached than are possible in a quiescent gas. The limit of large droplet-to-gas mass ratio is discussed. Migration of satellite droplets to the shroud of the spray is reproduced by the Eulerian model, but this process is also affected by the motion of the gas. The gas flow preferentially pushes satellite droplets from the shroud to the core of the spray when the effect of the inertia of the droplets becomes negligible, and thus opposes the well-established electrostatic/inertial mechanism of segregation and may end up concentrating satellite droplets in an intermediate radial region of the spray.
Villermaux & Pomeau (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 642, 2010, p. 147) analysed the motion of the interface of an inviscid liquid column released from rest in a vertical tube whose area expands gradually downwards, with application to an inverted conical container for which experimental measurements were carried out. An error in the analysis is found and corrected in the present investigation, which provides the new governing equation for the super-accelerated interface motion down gradually varying tubes in general, and integrated results for interface trajectories, velocities and accelerations down a conical tube in particular. Interestingly, the error does not affect any of the conclusions given in the 2010 paper. Further new results are reported here such as the equation governing the centre of mass and proof that the end point acceleration is exactly that of gravity.
Long duration Gamma Ray Bursts (LGRB) are thought to originate from massive rotating
stars and the interaction of their expanding jet will be affected by the structure of
their circumburst medium. In this work we use rotating stellar models of massive stars to
determine the state of circumbust material in various types of progenitor scenarios and we
describe how this external matter can appear in GRB observations.
This paper presents an analysis of the transport of electric current in a jet of an electrically conducting liquid discharging from a metallic tube into a gas or a vacuum, and subject to an electric field due to a high voltage applied between the tube and a far electrode. The flow, the surface charge and the electric field are computed in the current transfer region of the jet, where conduction current in the liquid becomes surface current due to the convection of electric charge accumulated at its surface. The electric current computed as a function of the flow rate of the liquid injected through the tube increases first as the square root of this flow rate, levels to a nearly constant value when the flow rate is increased and finally sets to a linear increase when the flow rate is further increased. The current increases linearly with the applied voltage at small and moderate values of this variable, and faster than linearly at high voltages. The characteristic length and structure of the current transfer region are determined. Order-of-magnitude estimates for jets which are only weakly stretched by the electric stresses are worked out that qualitatively account for some of the numerical results.
Ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs) are a worldwide problem that significantly increases patient morbidity, mortality, and length of stay (LoS), and their effects should be estimated to account for the timing of infection. The purpose of the study was to estimate extra LoS and mortality in an intensive-care unit (ICU) due to a VAP in a cohort of 69 248 admissions followed for 283 069 days in ICUs from 10 countries. Data were arranged according to the multi-state format. Extra LoS and increased risk of death were estimated independently in each country, and their results were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. VAP prolonged LoS by an average of 2·03 days (95% CI 1·52–2·54 days), and increased the risk of death by 14% (95% CI 2–27). The increased risk of death due to VAP was explained by confounding with patient morbidity.
A numerical study is carried out of the injection of a very viscous liquid of small electrical conductivity at a constant flow rate through an orifice in a metallic plate under the action of an electric field. The conditions under which the injected liquid can form an elongated meniscus with a thin jet emanating from its tip are investigated by computing the flow, the electric field and the transport of electric charge in the meniscus and a leading region of the jet. A stationary solution is found only for values of the flow rate above a certain minimum. At moderate values of the applied field, this minimum flow rate decreases when the applied field or the conductivity of the liquid increase. The electric shear stress acting on the surface of the liquid is not able to drive the liquid into the jet at flow rates smaller than the minimum while, for any flow rate higher than the minimum, the transfer of electric current to the surface may occur in a slender region of the jet where charge relaxation effects are small and the field induced by the electric charge of the jet is important. At high values of the applied field, the flow rate must be higher than another minimum, which increases with the applied field, in order for the viscous stress to balance the strong electric stress acting on the meniscus. The two conditions taken together determine lower and upper bounds for the applied field at a given flow rate, but the value of the applied field at which a stationary jet is first established when this parameter is gradually increased is higher than the lower bound, leading to hysteresis. When the liquid is electrosprayed in a surrounding dielectric fluid, the viscous shear stress that this fluid exerts on the surface of the jet eventually balances the electric shear stress and stops the continuous stretching of the jet. A fraction of the conduction current is left in the jet when the effect of the outer liquid comes into play in the region where this current is transferred to the surface, and no stationary solution is found above a maximum flow rate that decreases when the viscosity of the outer liquid increases or the applied field decreases. Order of magnitude estimates of the electric current and the conditions in the current transfer region are worked out.
Numerical computations and order-of-magnitude estimates are used to analyze a jet of a very viscous liquid of finite electrical conductivity that is injected at a constant flow rate in an immiscible dielectric liquid under the action of an electric field. The conditions under which the injected liquid can form an elongated meniscus with a thin jet issuing from its apex (a cone-jet) are investigated by computing the flow, the electric field, and the transport of electric charge in the meniscus and a leading region of the jet. The boundaries of the domain of operation of the cone-jet mode are discussed. The current transfer region determining the electric current carried by the jet is analyzed taking into account the viscous drag of the dielectric liquid surrounding the jet. Conditions under which the electric current/flow rate characteristic follows a square root law or departs from it are discussed.
A combined experimental and numerical approach is used to extract information on the kinetics of ion evaporation from the region of high electric field around the tip of a Taylor cone of the neutral solvent propylene carbonate (PC) mixed with two ionic liquids. On the numerical side, the electric field on the surface of the liquid is computed in the absence of evaporation by solving the electrohydrodynamic problem in this region within the framework of the leaky dielectric model. These computations justify the approximate (2% max error) scaling Emax = β Ek for the maximum electric field on the surface, with Ek = γ1/2 ϵ0−2/3 (K/Q)1/6 for 0.111 < K < 0.888 S m−1 and a numerical value of β ≈ 0.76. Here γ is the surface tension of PC, ϵ0 is the electrical permittivity of vacuum, and K and Q are the liquid electrical conductivity and flow rate. On the experimental side, 16 different propylene carbonate solutions with either of the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) or EMI-bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide (EMI-Im) are electrosprayed in a vacuum from a single Taylor cone, and their emissions of charged drops and ions are analysed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry at varying liquid flow rates Q. The sprays contain exclusively drops at large Q, both for small and for large electrical conductivities K, but enter a mixed ion–drop regime at sufficiently large K and small Q. Interestingly, the mixtures containing 10% and 15% (vol) EMI-Im exhibit no measurable ion currents at high Q, but approach a purely ionic regime (almost no drops) at small Q. The charge/mass ratio for the drops produced in these two mixtures increases continuously with decreasing Q, and gets very close to ionic values. Measured ion currents are represented versus computed maximum electric fields Emax on the liquid surface to infer ion evaporation kinetics. Comparison of measured ion currents with predictions from ion evaporation theory yields an anomalously low activation energy (~1.1 eV). This paradox appears to be due to alteration of the pure conj–eet electric field in the scaling laws used for the pure cone–jet regime, due to the substantial ion current density arising even when the ion current is relatively small. Elimination of this interference would require future ion current measurements in the 10–100 pA level. The electrical propulsion characteristics of the emissions from these liquids are determined and found to be excellent, particularly for 10% and 15% (vol) EMI-Im.
In this paper we obtain central limit theorems for generalized Pólya urn models with L ≥ 2 colors where one out of K different replacements (actions) is applied randomly at each step. Each possible action constitutes a row of the replacement matrix, which can be nonsquare and random. The actions are chosen following a probability distribution given by an arbitrary function of the proportions of the balls of different colors present in the urn. Moreover, under the same hypotheses it is proved that the covariance matrix of the asymptotic distribution is the solution of a Lyapunov equation, and a procedure is given to obtain the covariance matrix in an explicit form. Some applications of these results to random trees and adaptive designs in clinical trials are also presented.
Numerical computations and order of magnitude estimates are presented for the periodic generation and coalescence of bubbles due to the injection of a constant flow rate of a gas through a circular orifice at the bottom wall of an inviscid dielectric or very polar liquid that is at rest and subject to a uniform vertical electric field far from the orifice. The problem depends on five dimensionless parameters: a Bond number based on the radius of the orifice; Weber and electric Bond numbers whose square roots are dimensionless measures of the flow rate of gas and the applied electric field; the dielectric constant of the liquid; and the contact angle of the liquid with the bottom wall. The bubbles that grow quasi-statically at the orifice for small values of the Weber number are always elongated vertically by the electric stress that acts on their surface when an electric field is applied. The volume of these bubbles at detachment may reach a maximum at a certain value of the electric Bond number, if the Bond number is sufficiently small, or decrease monotonically with the electric Bond number if the Bond number is larger. In both cases the bubbling ceases to be periodic beyond a certain value of the electric Bond number, apparently giving way to more complex bubbling regimes, which are not investigated here. Bubble interaction and eventually coalescence occur when the Weber number is increased keeping the electric Bond number in the range of periodic bubbling. Different periodic regimes are described. It is shown that a moderate electric field may increase the value of the Weber number above which coalescence occurs without changing the shape of the bubbles much. A large electric field may suppress coalescence but it also favours the development of upward and downward jets that cross the bubbles and may cause their breakdown.
Numerical computations and order-of-magnitude estimates are used to describe the stationary creeping flow of a jet of a Newtonian liquid with finite electrical conductivity that is injected into a dielectric medium subject to a uniform electric field. The electric current carried by the jet is computed as a function of the parameters of the problem, showing that it increases with the conductivity and flow rate of the liquid and with the intensity of the electric field. The current also depends on the wetting conditions of the liquid at the injection orifice. Analysis of the transfer of current to the surface of the liquid and of the evolution of the jet under the electric stresses that act at its surface leads to scaling laws for the electric current and other properties of the solution. These laws fit the numerical results and are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.
The periodic generation of bubbles by injection of a gas at constant flow rate through an orifice at the bottom of a quiescent liquid of high viscosity is investigated numerically. The volume of the bubbles is determined as a function of a capillary number and a Bond number in the absence of inertial effects. Pairs of bubbles coalesce in the vicinity of the orifice when the capillary number is higher than a critical value that depends on the Bond number, but the final volume of the bubbles still follows a well-known scaling law at large capillary numbers. Qualitative experimental visualizations are presented that display the sequences of detachment and coalescence computed numerically.