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Sardinella aurita has become an important source of fish protein-intake in NW African countries, where one stock is considered from Morocco to south Senegal, performing seasonal reproductive migrations along the coast. Although data are limited for the fisheries involved and for life-history knowledge of the species in the area, a precautionary approach is recommended to avoid overexploitation. Commercial landings of round sardinella produced by the European freezer-pelagic trawlers operating in Mauritanian waters were analysed between May 2004 and February 2012. The length-weight relationships (LWRs) (N = 40,725) did not show significant differences between sexes. Ripening round sardinellas were present throughout the year, but spawning effort rose between June and December. The length at first maturity for males and females was estimated at 27.7 cm TL (2.1 years) and 28.1 cm TL (2.2 years), respectively. Ages were interpreted from otoliths, varying from 0 to 8 years. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters resulted in non-statistically significant differences between sexes (P = 0.28). Natural mortality was estimated at ~0.63 year–1. The results provide important biological information for fisheries assessment of a species that plays an important key role in the current climate change scenario and for the economies of the riparian countries.
Clinicians are consistently presented with the arduous task of characterizing, identifying, classifying, and evaluating response-to-intervention when treating or examining a broad array of patient populations. The primary aim of this chapter is to outline and define wellness among patients living with chronic medical conditions (PLW-CMC). An operational definition of a chronic medical condition is one requiring ongoing management and treatment over extended periods of time, often comprised of a broad constellation of conditions including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, metabolic/endocrine disorders, genetic disorders, and disorders resulting in disability/impairment . The number of persons living with one or more chronic medical conditions continues to increase, both nationally and internationally. Thus, the need for literature pertaining to interventions that optimize a patient's quality of life (QOL) is pertinent, as health status is known to be associated with an individual's perception or appraisal of wellness, life satisfaction, happiness, and overall well-being.
The uptake of smartphones as external compensatory memory aids following an acquired brain injury (ABI) in rehabilitation settings is low. Potential reasons for this include professionals not having evidence-based guidelines regarding the best methods to train smartphone use and prospective users not being familiar with technology and/or having memory and learning difficulties. This paper describes the protocol of a study that aims to compare the efficacy of three training methods (Systematic Instruction, Error-based Learning and Trial-and-Error) for training the use of a smartphone reminder app, in people with ABI presenting with memory complaints.
This is a three-armed, assessor-blinded, Phase II randomised controlled trial. The estimated sample size is 51 participants aged >18 years, who are equally randomised to one of the three training groups. They are seen across four sessions: one to conduct baseline measures; one for training the use of an app and two for follow-up assessments (1- and 6-weeks post-training). The main outcome measure is proficiency of performance in tasks with the trained app. Secondary outcomes include generalisation of skills to other apps, number of errors committed while attempting the tasks, frequency of smartphone usage in general and as a memory aid and confidence in smartphone use and memory self-efficacy. Outcome measures are collected by an independent blinded assessor. Proficiency of performance, generalisation of skills and error commission are measured immediately post-training and at the two follow-up sessions. The other secondary measures are taken pre-intervention and at the two follow-up sessions.
This study will provide initial evidence regarding the efficacy of three different methods to train ABI survivors with memory difficulties in how to use smartphone apps as compensatory memory aids. The results could inform a larger Phase III trial and advance knowledge concerning the advantages or disadvantages of using error-reducing and trial-and-error techniques. Further, the findings could determine the potential of error-based learning as an emerging training method for people with memory impairment within rehabilitation.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
In semiarid conditions, feed is often scarce and variable with underfeeding being common; these factors can potentially induce fertility reductions in both sexes. Sexually active bucks are able to very efficiently fertilize out-of-season goats, but we do not know whether underfeeding would reduce the ability of bucks to fertilize goats during these periods. Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) testicular size and change of odor intensity of undernourished bucks exposed to long days and (ii) the ability of these bucks to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks (n = 7) were fed 1.5 times the normal maintenance requirements from September to May and formed the well-fed group. Another group of bucks (n = 7) were fed 0.5 times the maintenance requirements and formed the undernourished group. All bucks were subjected to artificially long days from 1 November to 15 January; this period was followed by a natural photoperiod until 30 May. Body weight, scrotal circumference and male odor intensity changes were determined every 2 weeks. In experiment 2, two groups of female goats (n = 26 each) were exposed to well-fed (n = 2) or undernourished bucks (n = 2) on 31 March. Ovulations and pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 1, a treatment by time interaction was detected for BW, scrotal circumference and odor intensity changes (P < 0.001). The BWs of well-fed bucks were greater than those of the undernourished bucks from October to May (P < 0.01), as were the scrotal circumferences from December to March (P < 0.05) and odor intensities from February to May (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the proportions of females that ovulated at least once (100% v. 96%) or those that were diagnosed as pregnant (85% v. 77%; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the goats exposed to well-fed or undernourished bucks. The interval between the introduction of bucks and the onset of estrous behavior was shorter in goats exposed to well-fed bucks compared to the interval for those goats exposed to undernourished bucks (2.5 ± 0.2 v. 9.5 ± 0.6 days; P < 0.05). We conclude that undernourishment reduces the testicular size and odor intensity responses in bucks exposed to long days, but that undernourished bucks are still able to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats, as is also the case for well-fed bucks.
Genetic factors Genetic factors contribute to psychotropic drug response. Some CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes polymorphisms have been described to have an important influence on the required therapeutic doses of antidepressants and antipsychotics. The knowledge on this can help to avoid and manage drug-drug interactions.
To describe the prevalence of the different phenotypes for genes CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a population of first episode psychotic patients and its relation to clinical outcome, dose and race during a 2 years follow-up period.
Patients with a first psychotic episode were recruited form January 2006 to January 2009. Clinical and treatment related variables were registered at baseline and during a 2 years follow up period. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotype were determined.
From the 48 initially recruited patients, 21 (44%) were genetically determined. Amongst them, 13 subjects (62%) presented an efficient phenotype for the CYP2D6, 3(14%) presented an increased phenotype (ultra rapid metabolizers), 3 (14%) were intermediate metabolizers and 2 (9%) were poor metabolizers. All the patients presented an efficient phenotype for CYP2C19. The patients were Caucasian (71%) and other ethnic groups (29%). Patients were treated with risperidone (42,85%), olanzapine (47,61%), clozapine (4,76%) and aripiprazol (4,76%).
Most of the patients presented an efficient phenotype. However a considerable proportion were ultrarapid or poor metabolizers. Due to the small sample size, differences between ethnic groups, relapse or drug intolerance could not be found, however first glance differences were not apparent. Further studies using larger samples and considering other confounding factors would be needed.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
Personality dimensions have been associated with symptoms dimensions in schizophrenic patients (SP). In this paper we study the relationships between symptoms of functional psychoses and personality dimensions in SP and their first-degree relatives (SR), in other psychotic patients (PP) and their first-degree relatives (PR), and in healthy controls in order to evaluate the possible clinical dimensionality of these disorders. Twenty-nine SP, 29 SR, 18 PP, 18 PR and 188 controls were assessed using the temperament and character inventory (TCI-R). Current symptoms were evaluated with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) using the five-factor model described previously (positive [PF], negative [NF], disorganized [DF], excitement [EF] and anxiety/depression [ADF]). Our TCI-R results showed that patients had different personality dimensions from the control group, but in relatives, these scores were not different from controls. With regard to symptomatology, we highlight the relations observed between harm avoidance (HA) and PANSS NF, and between self-transcendence (ST) and PANSS PF. From a personality traits-genetic factors point of view, schizophrenia and other psychosis may be initially differentiated by temperamental traits such as HA. The so-called characterial traits like ST would be associated with the appearance of psychotic symptoms.
Antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction (ADr-SD) is the most frequent and long-lasting adverse event, often underestimated and rarely spontaneously communicated. Strategies to manage it haven’t been explored to date.
To explore ADr-SD clinical management in regular practice.
1. To stablish the prevalence of SD in patients following antidepressant treatment.
2. To describe the therapeutic interventions used when SD is detected.
Cross-sectional, multicentric and naturalistic study. Patients taking antidepressant for at least two months without previous SD were included. SD was evaluated with the specific questionnaire PR-Sex-DQ (SALSEX, Montejo et al 2001).
1988 out of 2000 patients recruited resulted eligible for the analysis. According to PRSexDQ scores SD was present in 87.5% ot the sample. Only 44.2% communicated it spontaneusly. 66.2% reported regular to poor tolerance of SD and 19.6% had thought about discontinuing treatment due to it. Regarding the therapeutic interventions used for managing ADr-SD, waiting for its spontaneus remission was the most frequent strategy reported (36.8%), followed by changing the antidepressant (32.5%) and reducing the dosage (18.5%); 5% chosed “weekend holidays”, 4% discontinued the antidepressant, 2.5% associated another antidepressant and 1.3% added a 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Bupropion and mirtazapine were the antidepressants most frequently selected for the switching and association strategies.
These results study highlight the high rates of SD related to antidepressants and its potential association with non-adherence to treatment. Despite this unfortunatelly clinicians do prefer to wait rather than performing any active strategy to manage this adverse event.
In the case of a first episode of psychosis among members of different associations of families of mentally ill people, little is known about their priorities and how satisfied they are with the help provided to them. A survey was conducted in five European family associations. Respondents emphasized the need for early (ambulant) intervention through outreach with very practical goals directed at creating stability and social functioning. About one-third of the respondents are unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. The highest percentage of unsatisfied respondents was in the following five areas of care: advice on how to handle specific problems; help with preserving or regaining social functioning; help with regaining structure and routine; information; prompt assistance preferably in patientˈs own environment. The agreement of these findings with findings from earlier studies underlines the importance of suggesting specific changes in the delivery of care.
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are low molecular weight highly protonated aliphatic molecules that physiologically modulate NMDA, AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors and limbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies had demonstrated that polyamine metabolism might be disrupted in schizophrenia, what could potentially be linked to glutamatergic dysfunction. In particular, polyamine levels in blood and fibroblast cultures from patients with schizophrenia had previously been found to be higher than in healthy controls. Indeed, a significant positive correlation between blood polyamine levels and severity of illness may exist.
In order to test potential differences in blood polyamine levels between drug-free schizophrenia in-patients (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 26, blood donors), spermidine (spd), spermine (spm), and spermidine/spermine index (spd/spm) were determined using HPLC after dansylation.
No significant differences were found between groups (t = 0,974; df = 36; P = 0,337 for spd, t = l0, 52; df = 36; P = 0,959 for Spm, and, t = 0, 662; df = 36; P = 0,512 for spd/spm).
Though we couldn’t replicate previous findings suggesting disturbances in blood polyamine levels in schizophrenia, this issue may be a promising target. Future research should take into account possible factors such as sex, nutritional state, and stress.
A growing interest in the potential role of polyamines in stress, mood disorders and suicidal behavior has recently emerged. In particular, the expression of polyamine's rate-limiting catabolic enzyme (SAT-1, Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase-1) may be reduced in ventral prefrontal cortex and posterior cyngulate gyrus of patients who committed suicide. However, there is some controversy regarding the involvement of potential cis-acting loci controlling SAT-1 gene expression (rs6526342 or rs17286006) in suicidal behavior. Moreover, a significant association between SAT-1 rs1960264 SNP and anxiety disorders has been found in a male caucasian spanish sample.
In order to test the potential association of SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP (rs1960264) with suicidal behavior, genotype frequencies for that SNP were compared between 193 suicidal attempters (126 female and 67 male) and 650 non-suicidal patients (314 female and 336 male) from an in-patient sample.
We could not find a significant difference in the distribution of the genotypes for rs1960264 SNP between suicide attempters versus non-suicidal individuals (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,203; df = 1; P = 0,652, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,000; df = 1; P = 0,990, males). Neither could we demonstrate a relationship between rs1960264 genotype and past history of suicidal attempts (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 2,966 ; df = 1; P = 0,085, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 1,171; df = 1; P = 0,279, males).
Although we did not find a link between rs1960264 genotype and suicidal behavior, SAT-1 may be an interesting target to investigate the biology of this phenotype. Future studies should take into account other genetic polymorphisms at SAT-1, and definitively evaluate whether or not rs6526342 and rs1960264 have any functional implications.
From a dimensional point of view, the schizotypal features would be continuously distributed in normal population and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. in the latter, differences have been found in personality traits between the diagnostic categories of the dimension, and also different schizotypy scores between them. in this study our main objective was to specify the domains and traits of pathological personality that can be considered risk factors for schizotypy.
SPQ and DAPP-BQ were administered to a sample of 91 subjects that were divided in four groups: psychotic patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, siblings of patients from this spectrum, patients with personality disorders, and healthy controls.
Patients with personality disorders presented the highest scores of schizotypy measured with SPQ, followed by psychotic patients, siblings, and finally the healthy controls. both groups of patients obtained higher pathological personality scores compared to siblings and controls. in the psychotic patients and their siblings emotional dysregulation, dissocial behavior and inhibition domains correlated with the SPQ factors, while in the personality disorder patients SPQ correlated only with inhibition. the trait social avoidance appears to be a predictive variable of psychometric schizotypy.
Pathological personality underlying the schizotypy of psychotic patients of schizophrenia spectrum and their siblings is different from that of the personality disorder group. Social avoidance is a risk factor for schizotypy measured with SPQ.
Compliance is essential to achieve the best results in serious mental illness like schizophrenia.
It was expected that the use of second-generation oral antipsychotics with less extrapyramidal side effect profile would improve the compliance, but the results do not support these expectations except in the case of risperidone long-acting injection.
The aim of this study is to assess the degree of compliance in outpatients who were started treatment with RLAI while they were hospitalized for an acute psychotic episode in psychiatric unit.
A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hospitalized patients for psychotic episodes over the past 5 years in three hospitals in Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) -Hospital de Manacor, Hospital son Llatzer and Hospital de Inca). Due to computerization of medical records, we knew the degree of compliance with treatment and outcome in outpatient clinics. We designed a case report data (CRD) to assess specific variables in our study that was completed for each patient.
The mean duration of treatment in patients who continue with RLAI was 38.8 months. Overall. 69.5% continued with the treatment after 5 years. The patients who continued treatment were rehospitalazed 20% less than the ones who discontinued.
The compliance with RLAI in outpatients was high even in patients with substances abuse. The patients who remain on treatment from hospital discharge have less readmissions. The most common dosis of RLAI is 50 mg. Lack of insight was the most frequent cause of discontinuation.